SocialControlTheory proposes that people's relationships, commitments, values, norms, and beliefs encourage them not to break the law. Thus, if moral codes are internalized and individuals are tied into, and have a stake in their wider community, they will voluntarily limit their propensity to commit deviant acts. The theory seeks to understand the ways in which it is possible to reduce the likelihood of criminality developing in individuals. It does not consider motivational issues, simply stating that human beings may choose to engage in a wide range of activities, unless the range is limited by the processes of socialization and social learning. This derives from a Hobbesian view of human nature as represented in Leviathan, that is, that all choices are constrained by implicit social contracts, agreements and arrangements among people. Thus, morality is created in the construction of social order, assigning costs and consequences to certain choices and defining some as evil, immoral and/or illegal.
The developmental models on positive relations between youth and educational settings have increasingly been areas of interest for researchers, educators and developmental psychologists indicating that to have each and every individual ready to learn and instructors motivated to teach; academic achievement and psychological well-being of youth require an approach of bonding model in education for today`s diverse learner needs. In this regard, vigorous research together with a robust theoretical base provided by Attachment Theory was investigated as basis of the present study in obtaining an in depth analysis of healthy process of School Psychology for practitioners, psychologists and counselors through a focus on theoretical framework of SocialControlTheory. Such an approach would not only help to develop a profound look into the betterment of educational and psychological services but also provide an essential insight into predictors for strong, healthy, academic development of adolescents. Present study, primarily aims at providing Theoretical Framework of Bonding Models through analysis of SocialControlTheory as to conceptualize adolescents` experiences and their attachment levels in order to prevent the risks of delinquent behavior with four major variables; attachment, commitment, involvement and belief. The study also focused on how these variables helped building bonding models of attachment in regard of its relation with fundamentals of attachment theory and its development into new directions.
7 Overall, very few studies have sought to model in a comprehensive and theoretically informed manner the factors that predict the risks of expulsion and subsequent contact with the criminal justice system. There is, however, a rich literature using existing criminological theories to operationalize the pathways to delinquency independent from the effects of school discipline policies. In particular, past studies have utilized strain theory (Agnew, et al., 2002; Agnew & White, 1992; Hoffman & Su, 1997; Piquero & Sealock, 2000), socialcontroltheory (Glueck & Glueck, 1950; Hirschi, 1969; Kirk, 2009; Stewart, 2003; Welsh, Greene, & Jenkins, 1999), self- control (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990; Pratt & Cullen, 2000) and differential association/social learning theory (Akers, 1990; Burgess & Akers, 1966; Sutherland & Cressey, 1978) to explain youth involvement in delinquency.
conservative lens to interpreting findings. Second, this study may not be generalizable to the larger Caribbean black sub-population. Significant diversity exists between Caribbean countries and immigrant communities. This diversity poses a challenge in that adolescents may experience varying degrees of acculturation that may operate to maintain or diminish native culture and norms, and subsequently have an effect on the measured constructs. Third, SocialControlTheory suggests that problematic behavior is not isolated to one particular act. Exclusively measuring sexual initiation fails to take into account the clustering of adolescent risk behaviors, and how these may differ for religiously minded youth. Lastly, there are other factors associated with adolescent sexual initiation which we did not account for in this study, including sexual orientation and romantic relationship status. The inclusion of these factors to the discussion of black adolescent sexual initiation is warranted.
Last, but perhaps most importantly, it is crucial to compare the magnitudes of the effects of British identity with those of the other independent variables. Aside from the results showing – perhaps unsurprisingly given how similar the concepts are – that British identity has a relatively large effect on belonging to Britain, compared to the control variables British identity consistently has a relatively small effect on the social cohesion measures. It is necessary, therefore, not to overemphasise the relevance of British identity for social cohesion. For the models looking at attitudes to public services and respect, one (tentatively, given the R squared values) finds perceived discrimination to be very important, and certainly more so than British identity. For many of the other elements, area deprivation and qualifications are far more important than British identity. This, to a certain extent, supports the contention of Hickman et al. (2008) that “[we] need to consider how people relate to each other as well as addressing fundamental issues of deprivation, disadvantage and discrimination. Discussing how people get on together without dealing with inequalities will not work.” Similarly, it may support, to an extent, McGhee’s (2003, 392) criticism of the lack of emphasis in the social cohesion agenda on “factors such as poverty, exclusion from the workforce, exclusion from consumption”. It is worth reflecting, therefore, on the implications of this tentative finding for arguments over the relative importance of national identity and objective conditions for solidarity and cohesion.
Nowadays, biologists are the ones mainly interested on evolutionary theories of knowledge and foster discussion, but still lack a more developed evolutionary explanation of knowledge, that corresponds to the cognitive-theoretical problems and the immanent historicity of the semantic traditions of knowledge. The theory of sciences itself should have explained what is really said when discussing the evolutionary-theoretical explanations. It is no coincidence that the start of epistemology, at the end of the last century, coincides with the generalized crisis in regards to irrationality and consensus. Thus, the change of the theory of knowledge towards the evolutionary paradigm has in sight at the same time, several differences: it deals with the renunciation to rationality and the renunciation to consensus as the explanation of the morphogenesis of science. It is about a theory that does not link with the immediate aims of the researchers and with their faith in the truth, but it considers this faith in the truth only as a vehicle of evolution. Aims and truth, if so desired are differences of a set that imposes the same evolution of knowledge. And it remains unclear what possibilities exist to be carried out jointly. The deep-rooted epistemology by Quine sought to access the theory of evolution through psychology or biology, and the most modern cognitive sciences conclude through an investigation of the brain. The above may have aroused the hope of reaching an evolutionary theory, homogeneous in the knowledge that gave the impression of being able to evolve from biological investigations. It is first necessary to create a general theory of evolution that may suppress what is specifically biological: for example the genetic inflexibility to open it to wider comprehension levels that may also include the social.
Political ecology focuses on exposing who the winners and losers are when it comes to environmental change and resource use. It also stresses the importance that dominant narratives have in reinforcing these relationships for those who benefit or profit from the system in place. Several researchers (De Lopez, 2002; Le Billion, 2000) have already explored the political ecology landscape in Cambodia. De Lopez and Le Billion examined the appropriation, use and exclusion involved in natural resource exploitation. They both found a concentration of the power in the hands of the military, elites and political leaders that allowed for those groups in particular to benefit while the majority of the population struggled to survive (De Lopez, 2002; Le Billion, 2000). De Lopez also discussed how the unsustainable natural resource exploitation will eventually lead (and had already in some places) to social instability, but with the military still possessing significant power, any uprising most likely would result in a few tanks quelling the rebellion (De Lopez, 2002). This exemplifies both the deep divide between the rich and poor that exists in Cambodia, as well as the underlying instability that comes from even a mildly suppressive government.
Subjective norms are a person’s own estimate of the social pressure to perform or not perform the target behaviour. Subjective norms are assumed to have two components which work in interaction: beliefs about how other people, who may be in some way important to the person, would like them to behave (normative beliefs), e.g. ‘I feel pressure from patients to refer them for an x-ray’) and the positive or negative judgements about each belief (outcome evaluations), e.g. ‘in regard to my decision to x-ray, doing what patients think I should do is important/ unimportant’).
The feminist movement has promoted the development of theoretical research on social work. The feminist movement has forced social workers and social ser- vice systems to respond to the construction of women’s social identity and gender issues, and inspired some social workers to think about feminism. At the same time, researchers have begun to pay attention to issues about the combina- tion of women’s social identity and social work. While women’s identity is va- lued, it has also brought about a feminist-oriented social work critique and a fe- minist-oriented social work model that are compatible with the feminist theory. This is a way of thinking that is different from traditional social work theory, emphasizing that when there are social problems, people can think about the is- sues and find ways to solve problems from the perspective of feminism. This transformation, which helps women to resist the domination of strong power over women’s identity in practice, is a sign indicating that the social work theory is maturing. In practice, we can find that although many social workers have not explicitly claimed that they are supporters of feminism, they can respond to many female issues such as sexual violence, sexual crimes, marital problems, and fertility issues from a feminist point of view that advocates equality between men and women in their work (Tate, 2013).
Any such programme of research which uses the commodity as its basis poses a number of serious difficulties. The study of the commodity can be problematic- not least for the fact that a commodity is only a commodity in relation to the wider world of commodities, and only has value in so far as this value is expressed in an equivalent commodity, inviting an endless inquisition into a seemingly infinite procession of ‘modes of existence’. It is by virtue of its lack of an explicit commodity-analysis that Cockburn and Ormrod’s study of the microwave oven leaves only pointers towards possible directions rather than a template. Whilst a research approach geared towards unfixity and internal relatedness can open up upon modes of existence as an object of research, these modes of existence are nowhere more profound, mysterious and real as with the world of the commodity and the production of value of which it is the agent. One of the chief problems of the more myopic treatment of the commodity circuit that may follow from a life-trajectory approach is that it may unduly reify the commodity and its social position. In the same way that a myopically labourist study of valorisation would simply reflect the fetishisation of labour in capitalist society, an approach inspired by the life-trajectory method might perform the same mirroring of capitalist social relations 2 . Cleaver (2000: 76-77) asserts how the strands of post-operaist thought and workers’ inquiry inspired by conceptualisations of the social factory sought to undermine such fetishisations by compromising the clean separation of productive work from non-productive leisure, of commodities from the underlying class struggle from which they are forged. The ‘social’ inquiry provides a basis for both the recognition of the importance of the whole circuit of capital in the process of valorisation- and the way that this can be traced through the travel of the commodity through society- whilst endowing any study of this movement with an understanding of class and social reproduction and the struggles that pertain to them.
The theoretical implication of this study is the theoretic extension of the TPB model with social support constructs derived from the social psychology theory, a satisfaction and perceived value construct to study the constructs of continuance participation intention and behaviour in online communities. Specifically, this study focuses on the post-adoptive intentions and behaviour of online communities hosted by the Web 2.0 platform. With the recent wave of social commerce, online communities such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn still lacks theory driven empirical investigation from the behavioural and social perspective and requires attention in the information systems domain. The results show that nine out of ten proposed hypotheses are met in improving the predictive power of the standard TPB through its extension hence this study develops a theoretical foundation for both academicians and practitioners in the post adoptive context particularly looking into the proliferation of social media.
Intention to be physical active and social support are the most important determinants to predict behavior (Haegele, Brian, et al., 2017). In contrast with the research of Heagele, Hodge and Kuzob (2017) most respondents of the current study did not have the intention to exercise more, despite the attitude towards being physical active was high. Respondents thought being physically active on a regular basis was important to maintain a good mental and physical health, which contributes to staying independent of others as long as possible. An explanation of this could be the fact that most of the respondents found housekeeping and daily chores moderately intensive due to their visual impairment. Also, the respondents who claimed they met the standards of the NNGB somewhat stated that it was mostly in the winter period that they did not meet the standards due to frost and slippery roads which made them anxious to get outside which is logical as people with visual impairment are twice as normal at risk of falling (Langelaan et al., 2007).
91. 1 H ABERMAS , T HEORY OF C OMMUNICATIVE A CTION , supra note 52, at 265 (empha- sis added). See also J ÜRGEN H ABERMAS , L EGITIMATION C RISIS 97-99 (Thomas McCarthy trans., 1975) [hereinafter H ABERMAS , L EGITIMATION C RISIS ]; David Ingram, The Subject of Justice in Postmodern Discourse: Aesthetic Judgement and Political Rationality, in H ABERMAS AND THE U NFINISHED P ROJECT OF M ODERNITY : C RITICAL E SSAYS ON THE P HILOSOPHICAL D ISCOURSE OF M ODERNITY 269, 275 (Maurizio Passerin d’Entrèves & Seyla Benhabib eds., 1997) (arguing that “Habermas’s critical philosophy seeks to justify moder- nity in the face of Weber’s paradoxes: the relativism of rational value spheres that ostensi- bly gives rise to social pathology and the identification of social rationalization with capi- talism”); John P. McCormick, Max Weber and Jürgen Habermas: The Sociology and Phi- losophy of Law During Crises of the State, 9 Y ALE J.L. & H UMAN . 297, 311 (1997) (arguing that “the riddle of whether mere legality could entail legitimacy” left unresolved by We- ber’s “thin notion of legal validity” is central to Habermas’s analysis of law).
Unlike feminist utopias which have engaged with such problems by imagining less privatised, non-hierarchical and more communal alternatives to the nuclear family structure (The Dispossessed, Woman on the Edge of Time, The Female Man in Moylan, Demand) Bravo naturalises the nuclear family. Policy “protections to value families” constitute the biggest change to the workplace, such as the introduction of paid leave in an attempt to resolve capitalism’s contradictory treatment of reproductive labour (Bravo, “Not a Favour 173). The entwinements of ‘family values’ with the naturalisation of hierarchy, racial supremacy, heterosexism, eugenics and the control of women’s reproduction (Collins 77) are left uncritiqued, where even the only lesbian character in the story conforms to a marital and nuclear family structure. Such emphasis on reproduction, and the absence in the story of anyone without children, reinforces what Lee Edelman calls ‘reproductive futurism’, a logic of progress where ‘the social good appears co-terminus with human futurity’ (Sheldon n.p) and the image of the child justifies a discourse of future growth for capitalist exploitation and profit accumulation which relies on ‘surplus populations’ (Sheldon). In a time in which Donna Haraway writes, ‘make kin, not babies’ (“Making Kin” 102), this does not appear as a radical alternative to present social and environmental dilemmas. In contrast, Haraway argues that “it is high time that feminists exercise leadership in imagination, theory, and action to unravel the ties of both genealogy and kin, and kin and species” to the ends of not increasing the human population, but the well-being of all people and life forms (102). A controversial statement, for sure, but equally problematic is a continued commitment to status-quo, patriarchal and capitalist linkages of futurity and reproduction.
According to Beckart (1999), Greenwood and Hinings’ (1996) neo- institutionalist framework for analysing organizational change leans in the direction of the ﬁrst, structure-driven approach. This assessment is, however, difﬁcult to reconcile with Greenwood and Hinings’ emphasis upon what they characterize as ‘four aspects of an organization’s internal dynamics – interests, values, power 14 dependencies, and capacity for action’ (ibid., p. 1032) – all of which connect to an agency-driven understanding of change and also resonate directly with insights developed in social movement theory (McAdam & Scott, 2005). That said, for Greenwood and Hinings, the formation of distinctive interests and values is associated with the differentiation of groups within organizations, such as the differentiation of CMS academics from Mainstream academics. In this respect, interests and processes of value formation are understood to be embedded within, and contingent upon, heterogeneity within the structural composition of organizations (e.g. business schools). It is this structural differentiation that is conceived to nurture ‘the seeds of alternative ways of viewing the purposes of that organization’ (ibid., p. 1033, emphasis added). Within organizations, groups are seen by Greenwood and Hinings to form coalitions that vie for dominance as they endeavour to translate their interests into favourable allocations of scarce and valued resources. In the ﬁeld of business, CMS has emerged by forming and organizing informal groups, and by recruiting research students and early career lecturers, Within or across business schools and the wider Academy, critically minded scholars have engaged in co-authorship, run specialist seminar series, workshops and conferences and established an Interest Group within the Academy of Management which has become a sizable Division. In such ways, CMS members have forged an identity, and have gained access to symbolic as well as material resources – in the guise of prestigious appointments, research grants, teaching awards, doctoral students, etc.
The government is acting as the guardian of stability during social governance affected by the mainstream political discourse of “stability overrides everything”. Social stability has been long regarded as the most important index of social management in China. In comparison, social fairness, social participation, and social harmony are all ignored. Citizens and other social forces are treated as the objects of governance instead of participants. The exiting communication chan- nels are blocked and citizens are incapable of expressing their reasonable ap- peals. For example, Chinese government issued the Regulations on Letters and Visits in 2005, but failed to gain expected effects in practical operation. Skip- level visits are very common since the visitors have doubts about the authority of the basic-level government and want to attract the attention of higher level de- partments. Skip-level visits have exerted great pressure on the work of capital and superior government departments. Therefore, skip-level visits are strictly prohibited in the Regulations on Letters and Visits. However, the performance evaluation of local government adopts the “one ticket veto” visit policy. In order to refrain from skip-level visits, local governments tend to intercept visits, which seem to achieve short-term and superficial stability, but actually leading to fur- ther fermentation of social contradictions.
theories in reducing conflict best, by emphasizing that recognizing the fundamental significance of a social identity, perceived group boundaries, and the nature of relations between groups is vital for truly understanding the conflict. This recognition and subsequent understanding will ultimately result in reconciliation between the previously conflicting groups. (p. 256). Moreover, when analyzing identity conflicts such as the highlighted clashes in Northern Ireland, the implementation of broad social psychological theories is of great importance so that the situation is not oversimplified. As Georgi M. Derlugian (2007) makes this point clear in that, “The usual ‘ancient hatreds’ or path- dependent explanation is about as correct as blaming the contemporary violence in Northern Ireland on the long-standing theological dispute between the two branches of Western Christianity” (p. 167).
Founded by Sigmund Freud, psychodynamic theory contends that a person’s actions are determined by his/her past experiences, and that nothing happens “accidentally.” According to Freud, one’s unconscious—which is made up of repressed memories of past trauma and experiences, thoughts, needs, impulses and feelings—influences behavior (Corey, 2016). These experiences are what shape the psyche, which Freud asserted is made up of the id, ego, and superego. The id is instinctual and creates demands; the ego is responsible for reality testing and employing reason; and the superego suppresses the urges of the id and ventures to make the ego behave morally. The id is the impulsive portion of the psyche that seeks instant gratification and causes an individual to weigh his/her moral values against the urge to fulfill his/her desires, wants, and needs. Based on its tenets, one could take the position that applying psychodynamic theory to the study of crime might be extremely relevant in that it would help break down how disruptions in the development of the psyche contribute to criminal behavior.
As well as laying claim to culturally important precursors to his and Gysin’s development of the cut-up, and supporting a ‘random element’ reading of the cut-up though now validated by reference to Dada, this also raises the important point, taken up in the next section, of the technique’s essential antagonism to psychoanalysis. This antagonism has similarities to the idea of working with materiality. Rather than stamping a hylomorphic triangle of daddy-mommy-me onto every experience so that the subject can be normalised into a fixed mould from which every deviation is deviance, the cut-up breaks the imposed lines of control and meaning (from a stable signifier that can anchor meaning) to follow the textures of a writer’s raw material. Whatever the final result of Burroughs’ cut-up experiments – they are often difficult to listen to/read, repetitive and dull – the underlying ideas are most important here. If the word is a virus, and the human is a ventriloquist’s puppet, spoken through more than speaking, then the only way to resist and escape control is to silence the tyrannical logic of narrative and put an end to compulsive subvocalisation. Just as the narratives of the realist novel and criticism are a bourgeois, humanist conception, reflecting innumerable assumptions about subjectivity, identity, morality, reality and the socio-political order, so Burroughs’ anti-narratives perform an anti-humanist subversion of those orders (Lydenberg, 1987). In this sense Burroughs’ work provides an important counterbalance to those organizational applications of literature that have focussed upon the realist novel (Czarniawska-Jorges and Guillet de Monthoux, 1994) as well as those methodologies that have sought the authentic representation of research subjects through the production of narratives. Burroughs takes his critical practice in a somewhat different direction, problematising rather than celebrating narrative identities and directly intervening in the production of his readers’ subjectivities. In this sense his work has direct relevance for critique in organization studies as Burroughs is grappling with the difficulty of writing with an anti-essentialist emancipatory intent. He is not seeking to represent the authentic, non-alienated subject but to recognise that the subject is alien in its very constitution and to release some of these alien – or inhuman – forces from the constraints of narrative subjectivity without simultaneously capturing them in other, perhaps equally repressive, representations.