Thus, both in the peak year of the economic crisis (2010) and in the recovery period (2012 is the last year for which there are statistical data available by counties), the turnover of active enterprises in agriculture, hunting and related services was obviously higher than that in the year 2008, in all counties, except for Gorj. The average annual growth rate of turnover in the primary sector reached 20.5% in the period 2008-2012, only one county having a negative rate (Gorj), while in only six other counties turnover in agriculture increased by less than 10% on the average. For the remaining 35 counties of Romania, the average value of transactions with agricultural goods and services increased by 10 up to 50%. Thus, the analysis across counties reconfirms that agriculture had a positive contribution to national economy, counteracting the negative effects of the economic crisis.
In this paper I propose an Agricultural Sustainability Index (ASI) starting from a „political‟ perspective: European legislation in the rural sector. I try to answer these questions. How can we measure sustainability in agriculture? How do we measure the enhancement (if any) of the European policy for sustainability in agriculture? Why do some geographical areas perform better than others? Considering these questions, the paper suggests a model for measuring sustainability in agriculture and an approach to compare performances among different geographical contexts. The model puts together different dimensions of sustainability in agriculture, combining Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis and Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA). Using eighteen agricultural indicators divided into three dimensions, social, economic and environmental, the model incorporates the following stages: (i) indicator specification and definition of the decisional framework; (ii) indicators' normalisation by means of transformation functions based on the fuzzy logic approach; (iii) indicators weighted by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques; (iv) indicators aggregated to obtain the ASI. The model is tested on a specific area: Alta Val d‟Agri, a rural area in the southern Basilicata Region. Final results show that ASI consistently synthesises the evolution of thirty years of rural development policy.
The traditional jobs that women undertake in the N.E in agriculture are sowing, transplanting, weeding, harvesting, threshing, and post harvest operations like shelling, cleaning, grading and processing. Social, economic and political empowerment shall help them to take part more in decision making process involving crop production, seed production and management, post harvest management of agricultural and horticulture produce, biomass utilization, livestock management, marketing and financial management. However, farming mostly, has been subsistence farming for the women in the N.E. In the light of above ‘contexts’, particularly because of new institutes coming up and diffusing technology, a number of gender neutral and simple devices/equipments for crop production and processing are being developed. Their adoption by women will not only help in improving agricultural production but also elevate the status of women through better jobs. Some of these drudgery-reducing technologies shall minimize women’s workload, so that they can have time to devote to other new productive agricultural and agro-based allied activities (a good number of which have been listed below). Below, we list a number of probable developments in the concepts (work categories) which can be conceived as the offshoots of the ‘contexts’ discussed in section IV above.
The content of the paper are a summary of the results that have been reached so far in the Czech Science Foundation Project No. P403/11/2085 Construction of Methods for Multifactor Assessment of Company Complex Performance in Selected Sectors – in the area of research of corporate performance. The situation of companies is assessed at the level of establishing key performance indicators (KPIS), in accordance with environmental, social and governance performance, in the agricultural and food processing sectors, and this in the case of companies which have registered the ISO 9000, ISO 14000 and ISO 18000 certiﬁ cates. The economical performance has been measured on the basis of reaching the ESG indicators of environmentally sustainable development and the sustainable development in social, economical and corporate governance. The analysis which has been carried out and the possibilities of measuring a company’s eﬃ ciency are directly tied with the previous work of the author’s. New approaches in company reporting connected with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and in union with the sustainable development in organizations have also been discussed. The analysis was in accord with the valid legislation, norms and standards in the given area. The subsequent development has also been discussed with the newly prepared documents (standards) in view. The new form of company reporting shows the close links between organizations and even their own structure, while it inﬂ uences the company’s strategy, its administration, its ﬁ nancial eﬃ ciency, and this in the social and ecological contexts. The new GRI introduces an XBRL taxonomy for supporting the accessibility of the contents using a suitable labelling of the distributed data for concrete subjects (individuals, companies). This, as well as the creation of so ware applications oriented towards company performance assessment together with using XRBL, will be the next subject matter of the project that is currently being worked on.
Women Farmers In China’s Commercial Agrarian Economy: As opposed to Indian agricultural scene, one needs to look at a more progressive view of the developed region of China’s Commercial agrarian economy. On the basis of her field work, Ritu Agarwal shows how the process of market reforms has transformed the lives of a larger number of women in one of the China’s villages from being round the year labour providers to that of farmer entrepreneurs, as significant actors in the rural economy. However, in her analysis she later depicts the institutional constraints that restrict these women entrepreneurs from participating equally in the market and make them vulnerable in number of ways. A condition very different as in India and the reason for that matter can be discovered henceforth. The process of commercialisation of China’s agriculture began in the late 1970s, when CPC (Communist Party of China) made agriculture at its top priority of modernisation. It came up with several institutional changes, boasting of rural marketing, and increased intervention of state in deterring pricing and sale of farm products. It came up with two important policy reforms – a. HRS, household responsibility system, wherein state monopoly is significantly reduced over agricultural organisation and management. B. Introduction of commonality economy. It marked a departure from socialist model and in furtherance of market reforms. Abolition of state control in purchasing and marketing of farm produce + restoration of rural and urban free markets. In official parlance, it was known as promoting socialists market economy and it has been argued that the market mechanism was introduced to deal with inefficiencies of allocation and distribution that occur within the central planning system
Abstract: In 1966 Roy Geary, Director of the ESRI, noted “the absence of any kind of import and export statistics for regions is a grave lacuna” and further noted that if regional analyses were to be developed then regional Input-Output (IO) must be put on the “regular statistical assembly line”. Over 40 years later, the lacuna lamented by Geary still exists and remains the most significant challenge to the construction of regional IO tables in Ireland. The continued paucity of sufficient regional data sufficient to compile regional Supply and Use (SUT) and IO tables has retarded the capacity to construct sound regional economic models and provide a robust evidence base with which to formulate and assess regional policy. This paper makes a first step towards addressing this gap by presenting the first set of fully comprehensive symmetric Supply and Use and domestic Input-Output tables compiled for the NUTS 2 regions in Ireland: The Border, Midlands and Western (or BMW) region and the Southern & Eastern (or SE) region. These tables are general purpose in nature and are fully consistent with the official national SUT and IO tables and the regional accounts. The tables are constructed using a survey based or bottom- up approach rather than employing modelling techniques, yielding more robust and credible tables. In particular this approach should better take account of the magnitude and direction of inter-regional trade flows.
For each activity (`enterprise`) on a farm (for instance wheat, dairy cow or vineyard), a standard gross margin (SGM) is estimated, based on the area (or the number of heads) and a regional coefficient. The sum of such margins in a farm is its economic size, expressed in European Size Units (ESU). 1 ESU is equal to 1200 euros.
we used to see to other countries for self to meet our food requirements. With the help of HaritKranti which was the slogan of our beloved Prime Minister Late LalBahadurShastriJi, we are in the position of self-sufficiency and some of the surplus products of agriculture, horticulture, livestock, floriculture etc. are getting exported. With the outcome of Green Revolution, India not only became self- sufficient in meeting the requirement of food grains but also achieved the economic growth all round. As is in the case of developing markets, provision of agricultural credit and involvement of the respected governmental agencies needed, India is in the right earnest in this direction and use of Kisan Credit Cards, Rupya Cards are examples. Investment in marketing by public sectors, private sectors or any other form including the cooperatives in various forms like the marketing, transporting, distribution including import or export of produces, processing of products, supply chain method of marketing etc. ultimately improves the financial position of farmers, agriculturalists and the country and countrymen. Subsidies on fertilizers, irrigation, agricultural loans is a progressive approach and this leads to further research including increase in produces and growth
National Constitutions—National constitutions are important vehicles for formally recognizing the rights to food and health at the domestic level. Constitutions may either recognize these rights explicitly or may refer to food, food security, or nutrition as “ directive principles, ” or statements of principles that are intended to guide government action. There are 23 national constitutions worldwide that recognize the right to food  and close to half of the world’s constitutions enshrine the right to health [86, 87]. The Constitution of Ecuador, a country experiencing high level of food insecurity as a result of varying socialeconomic factors , explicitly recognizes the right to food under Article 13, which states: “[t]he Right to Food includes the free and permanent access to sufficient innocuous and nourishing food for a healthy and quality feeding, in accordance with the culture, traditions and customs of the peoples. The Ecuadorian State will recognize and guarantee the right to food sovereignty. ” In the case of Bangladesh, which faces high levels of undernutrition as a result of natural disasters , the national constitution refers to food within directive principles. Article 15 (Provision of Basic Necessities) recognizes both food and medical care as basic necessities of life. Article 18 (Public health and morality) establishes “ the raising of the level of nutrition and the improvement of public health as [the State ’ s] primary duties ” . Thus, constitutions are keys to not only raising food security to an individual entitlement but also expanding its definition as such. Such constitutional provisions create the necessary foundation for the development or reform of national policies and legislation for the promotion of food and nutrition security.
16 did not report the estimated coefficients of the constant term, three seasonal dummies, a dummy variable for the post-2005 period and of the trend term in order to save space. The estimated coefficient for the total employment is 0.3231 and statistically significant at 1% level. This suggests that as output increases by 1%, the employment increases by 0.3231%. However, the increase in output by 1% increases the non-agricultural employment by a larger amount, by 0.5895%. The remaining rows repeat the exercise for the disaggregated employment categories. These suggest that as output increases employment in agriculture and mining decrease. When the economy expands the traditional sectors get a lower share of employment from the total. Therefore in these traditional sectors, the employment creation ability weakens 9 . Lewis (1954) and Rostow (1960) among many others stress this economic transformation and transition process. Thus a larger response of the employment in the non- agricultures sector is parallel with the previous literature. More importantly, the estimated coefficient for non-agriculture sector is negative and statistically significant. This clearly suggests that higher output decreases agriculture employment and increases the other types of employments 10 .
A spectacular decrease in the contribution of the agricultural sector in total employment has been observed during the past years (Table 2). In 2000, more than 18% of labour force was employed in the primary sector. The share of employment in agriculture in the total employment in Poland has decreased almost by five percentage points to 13.4% of labour force by 2011. High level of employment is the only one problem connected with labour force in Poland's rural areas; the other one is hidden unemployment and low farms income, which is a characteristic attribute of these areas.
operational and financial performance (Frohlich and Westbrook, 2001; Koufteros et al., 2005; Flynn et al., 2010; Wong et al., 2011; Huo, 2012), as well as quality performance (Huo et al., 2014), but also has a positive influence on CSR, via customer satisfaction, social reputation, the development of new markets and opportunities, and the greening of the supply chain (Andersen and Skjoett-Larsen, 2009). In China, “a company + farmers” is a leading supply chain integration pattern. It allows farmers to increase their incomes in the process of China's agricultural industrialization, and is also a model to improve supply chain quality and safety (Fu et al., 2013). However, some scholars have suggested that supply chain integration can have a negative effect on enterprise performance. For example, Swink et al. (2007) found that integration with suppliers negatively affected product quality, whereas integration with customers did not significantly affect quality. Therefore, for the “a company + farmers” pattern, it is necessary to investigate whether integration of the supply chain – with individual 3
Abstract: The article discusses economic development of Slovak agriculture in the period after the accession of Slovakia to the EU and after adopting the cAP. it evaluates agriculture as a whole and its contribution to the national economy, as well as the economic performance of the individual legal forms of business and production sectors. The results achieved by agriculture in 2004–2007 suggest that the income within the sector (except of 2005) has improved also due to the inflow of the EU subsidies. on the other hand, despite the growing aid the production output is shrinking, wages stagnate and the employment is falling. This suggests that the cAP should be changed after 2013, especially as regards the ways of subsidy payments. Economics of the individual products are largely affected by input prices, realisation prices, as well as by the volume of direct subsidies, namely in the plant production – the subsidies for crops grown on arable land, and in animal production – the subsidies per 1 Big cattle Unit.
The tobacco industry has claimed for decades that concerns about tobacco-attributable deforestation are based on misperception and myths, and it has been a minor cause of the problem. The industry has also been involved in mitigating activities in LMICs, not- ably tree planting (forestation), development of more efficient curing methods, and alternative fuels. By the late 1990s, these efforts formed a core part of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives of sev- eral transnational tobacco companies (TTCs). Today, TTCs claim that tobacco-attributable deforestation is being effectively addressed. In 2015, for instance, Brit- ish American Tobacco (BAT) reported the planting of over 170 million trees, and 94.8 % of wood used for curing by its contracted farmers not coming from natural forests . Philip Morris International (PMI) described its replenishing of forests and improving of wood use efficiency , while Imperial Tobacco  argues that its partnerships are “helping farmers to become self-sufficient in wood”.
Diffusion of innovation theories have offered a fertile ground for the study of “influentials” and the spread of novel information on social media, with a range of studies exploring potential metrics to assess users’ influence and passivity based on their information-forwarding activities (Bakshy et al., 2011; Romero et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011). These seminal theories also echoed the literature of social networks and the formal definition of small-world networks. Watts and Strogatz (1998) and Newman (2000) designed a mechanism to investigate interpersonal influences through high clustering coefficient and small path length. Such a network topology deviates from centralized networks that are mostly optimized for information diffusion from a clearly-defined core to a large periphery of nodes. Compared with decentralized, well-structured small-world networks, diffusion of innovations was found to be slow in regular networks and fast but sporadic in random networks (Delre et al., 2007).
The owner originally borrowed $300,000 through the Mekong Private Sector Development Facility (MPDF) of the International Financial Corporation (IFC) at terms of 8 percent for 10 years. Another $100,000 was borrowed from a commercial bank at much less favorable terms of 15 percent for 5 years. However, the Agricultural Promotion Unit of Ministry of Agriculture said it would subsidize half of the loan, but later denied the subsidy on the grounds that the numerous documents that were required to obtain the subsidy were not correct and therefore unacceptable. He has received technical assistance from an SME expert through the Australian Volunteer Program, but still lacks knowledge about how to market his products, as well as basic accounting, management, and business skills and how to export his products within the GMS and ASEAN and distant markets. He is aware of SPS export requirements but also lacks knowledge about how to meet those requirements in his operations. For the vast majority of other SMEs operating in Savannakhet, Mr. Bounthong says that they first need to understand how to compete within the Savannakhet market before embarking on cross-border sales along EWEC. Under the
dealing with structured mechanical problems where processes are well-defined and deterministic. In such a world scientific experimentation is seen to lead to objectively identifiable outcomes with associated statistically defined probabilities of occurrence. This approach has been extended to non-mechanistic environmental systems and taken from the laboratory to the global scale. However, some writers have claimed that such an approach is poorly adapted to dealing with problems that are complex, large-scale, and involve substantial commitment from economic and social systems (e.g. see Funtowicz and Ravetz, 1992; Wynne, 1992). Unlike technological artefacts, widespread systems cannot be designed, manipulated and reduced to fit within the boundaries of existing analytical knowledge. Pragmatic factors, such as finding artefacts that can be measured in the desired way, therefore dominate the resulting findings. Thus Carr and Levidow (2000: 31) argue that “…because of the uncertainties, risk assessment depends as much on professional judgements about the relevance, plausibility, and acceptability of effects as it does on scientific evidence”. Hence Spash (2002) argues for a division of lack of knowledge between weak uncertainty, covering standard risk assessment, and strong uncertainty, where outcomes are unknown or unknowable. In the latter case, socially created indeterminacy can be more important than a lack of scientific understanding.