A child must have emotionalsocial skills so that children can achieve basic skills such as collaboration, showing self-control and attention. Conversely, incapacity in social and emotional skills in children can cause problems in relationships with families, schools and communities (Darling-Churchill & Lippman, 2016). In Turkey, there are 9.3% of children found to have social-emotional problems (Karabekiroglu et al., 2013). Approximately 8 to 9% of preschoolers in the Netherlands experience psychosocial problems, especially emotionalsocial problems such as anxiety or aggressive behavior (Klein Velderman, Crone, Wiefferink, & Reijneveld, 2009). The impact of emotionalsocialdevelopment problems in early childhood may pose a psychosocial problem such as depression, loneliness, drug use and crime when become adults (Bor, McGee, Hayatbakhsh, Dean, & Najman, 2010; Mordre, Groholt, Kjelsberg, Sandstad, & Myhre, 2011; Segrin & Flora, 2000; Stevenson & Goodman, 2001).
Moreover, there is a great percentage of children with disorders that have not managed to develop operational frameworks which meet the requirements of social relations that developed in the school environment, which is observed in the responses of the teachers. The integration of these pupils in the group and in the learning process is necessary (McMahon & Forehand, 2003). It seems that teachers try to facilitate various informal ways, which they base on their experience to support their students and resolve the problems that may be are create. Their alternatives are associated with the offer of opportunities to children by creating debates and the development of positive reward behavior patterns. Moreover, teachers recognize that if children are motivated they decrease negative behaviors within the school environment. At this point, it appears a contrast. The literature review suggests that children with anti-social behavior rarely obtain encouragement from teachers, while students who exhibit disruptive behavioural disorders more often receive negative behavior from them (training punishment, lack of support, etc.) (Mcevoy & Welker, 2000). On the whole, teachers demonstrate their need for further training and their concern about the adequacy of the knowledge they have so far and are in agreement with surveys, where teachers indicate uncertainty and anxiety when they have to deal with students in their classroom with behavioral and emotional problems (Thanos, Kourkoutas & Vitalaki, 2006; Kourkoutas et al., 2011).
CONCLUSION: Hence it is the responsibility of schools to provide enriching environments for young people assimilate into and contribute to society. Convincing empirical evidence indicates that schools can be highly effective in promoting positive youth development even the presences of the other contextual variables such as low family socio economic status and segregated, economically depressed neighborhoods (Mc Evoy andwalker, 2000).when the students do not feel connected to schools, their grades slip; they become disruptive in class and they are unlikely to aspire to higher educational goals. Struggling students are more vulnerable to anxiety and frustrations accompanying are more likely to give only taken efforts in schools(Paris, 1993).Such environment pose real threats to the availability of school resources like caring relationship and empowerment building opportunities (Ravitch, 2010).Specifically, SEL programs are designed to create learning environments that meet the developmental needs of students, including feelings of belonging, safety, and community, and thus provide ideal conditions for success across the domains of their lives – academics, relationships, personal, and ultimately in the workforce (Catalano, Berglund, Ryan, Lonczek, & Hawkins, 2004). So inclusion helps to develop of children to their maximum potential in aspects academically socially and emotionally
The results of the research carried out among 243 nursery school teachers revealed that the respondents consider the benefits of a HeG to be the better social and emotionaldevelopment of the children. Those respondents favouring either a HeG or a HoG in nursery schools both agreed with this opinion. Similarly, in the research study on age homogeneity in groups of nursery school classes (Huľová, Rochovská, & Klein, 2018), the group of respondents teaching a HeG found the best benefit to be the better social and emotionaldevelopment of the children. These opinions were in line with the opinions of the experts quoted in the theoretical starting point of the issue, who emphasised the development of the personality of the child in the nursery school (not just the preference of the cognitive side) and the promotion of prosocial and collaborative behaviour. The age difference between the children allows them to experience more diverse contacts, more social roles, acquire more strategies, and gain more opportunities for natural imitation and the development of speech and communication.
From preschool to high school, research makes clear that “schools not only influence children’s acquisition of knowledge and skills, but also provide an important context for their social and emotional growth” (Meece & Schafer, 2010). Over the last decade, understanding child development and learning has gained a new significance in the education profession (Bowman, Donovan, & Burns, 2000). So, too, has the role of educational research. Research as a form of “scientific evidence” has contributed to contemporary federal and local policies and “best” practices (Fuerer, Towne, & Shavelson, 2002), interpretations of educator competence and teacher quality, and “shareable language” promoting a professional discourse (Hiebert, Gallimore, & Stigler, 2002).
This brief study serves as an introduction into exploring the existence of resilience and self-esteem in urban high school learning environments. Data collection stems from interviews and surveys of graduates of urban high schools, who transitioned into college or careers. Findings from this qualitative phenomenological research contains participant recommendations to the specific actions of educators, as well as ideas,\or appropriate learning environments, to foster the resilience and self-esteem which contributes to student academic and social success, leading to adult personal and profession success. Implications of this research include the significance of consideration of the impact of teacher behaviors on student academic and socialemotional success within the classrooms of urban schools.
The good news is that these skills can be taught, and many excellent evidence-based [SEL] programs that help children develop such skills are available. (Devaney et al., 2005). Although we support the greater inclusion of social- emotional literacy efforts in schools, the SEL discussions under consideration include problematic assumptions. For one, advocates like Cohen, Devaney, Elias, and even Goleman imply that social and emotional education which is intended to lead to the development of socially and emotionally literate individuals is also sufficient to produce ethically literate individuals. But consider again the key features of the socially and emotionally literate individual: this is an individual that can ‘decode’ herself understand her own motivations, emotions, abilities, and desires and ‘read’ others such that she can form successful relationships and work cooperatively with others (Cohen 2006, 202; 2001, 3, 6, 14, 15, 195, 196). With these and related abilities in tow SEL advocates argue (or assume) that the socially and emotionally literate individual will likewise be motivated to be caring, cooperative, and helpful in respect to others (Cohen 2001, 9; 2006, 203, 204; Devaney et al. 2005, 109; Elias et al. 1997, 6; Zins et al. 2004, 4). In making these claims SEL advocates are conflating distinct forms of social, emotional, and ethical literacy. While it may be true that educating students to ‘decode’ themselves and others could lead them to take on ethical motivations, be helpful, or demonstrate greater respect and care for others, this is not a foregone conclusion. It is just as likely that the socially and emotionally literate individual could ‘read’ others in order to better manipulate them for his own selfish ends.
The results showed that social-emotional and structural- instrumental solidarity is optimal in primary schools. To elaborate, it can be said that in order to fulfil solidarity, principals of primary schools have tried to create an attitude and mental notion among their teachers; they have also shared the common ideas, values, insights, and interests and have set schools' insights in line with teachers' needs. They have made an attempt to create a general belief with regard to importance of solidarity in schools and this has created people's perceptions and is the background of a shared sense of responsibility among primary school teachers. Attention to this issue has provided the required necessities to fulfil the social – emotional aspects in schools. In this way, school principals try to create a sense of cooperation and belonging among teachers which is a very optimal factor in development of this aspect and their behavior. Moreover, by creating a clear and appropriate strategic orientation, an appropriate organizational plan and suitable cultural background, these schools form integrity and a sense of common responsibility (Torkzadeh, Razi & Najafi, 2017). This is the root of structural – instrumental solidarity in schools. In fact, manipulating people's perceptions creates the opportunity to change structural aspect and in structural aspect, providing the background, analyzing, planning, and designing the appropriate strategies to perform and implement in organizations (including schools) are provided (Torkzadeh et al., 2008).
Early childhood is a crucial stage of life in terms of a child’s physical, intellectual, emotional and socialdevelopment (Pence, 2004). Growth of mental and physical abilities progress at an astounding rate and a very high proportion of learning takes place from birth to age six (Maponga, 2014). It is a time when children particularly need high quality personal care and learning experience. As Morrison (2009) postulates, education begins from the moment the child is brought home from the hospital and continues on when the child starts to attend playgroups and kindergartens. The learning capabilities of humans continue for the rest of their lives but not at the intensity that is demonstrated in the preschool years (Morrison, 2009). With this in mind, babies and toddlers need positive early learning experiences to help their intellectual, social and emotionaldevelopment and this lays the foundation for later school success (Madziyire, 2010).
This authoritarian nature of schools in Africa has been associated with “the colonial legacy of school organization and curriculum institutionalized during colonialism in the first part of the twentieth century, which has come to be regarded as „normal‟ or the only available model” (Harber, 1997). Classrooms are characterized by silence on the part of students who act as recipients of knowledge and are not challenged to take responsibility of their own learning (Tabulawa, 1998; Mhlauli, 2010). The state of affairs in schools regarding the methods of teaching as observed in Mautle (2000) is unlikely to change very soon due to a number of reasons among them being that teacher educators at the colleges of education do not realize that there is a discrepancy between what they teach and what they preach to students as good methods of teaching and the methods that they themselves employ in their teaching. Secondly, at the University of Botswana, teacher educators appreciated the discrepancy between teacher practices and ideas. However, chairs and podiums fixed on the floors of classrooms were introduced as one way of improving the teaching and learning environment and this nature of classroom arrangement dictates that only lecturing should take place (Mautle, 2000).
The first stage of the empirical study was to study the characteristics of the emotions of the social genesis of senior preschoolers using the "Houses" methodology (O.A. Orekhova). This method allows you to analyze the emotional sphere of a child according to three parameters: to assess the degree of differentiation of emotions (positive feelings are painted in bright colors, and negative ones are painted in dark colors); to reveal the presence of ambivalence (inability to distinguish between positive and negative emotions); determine the presence of inversions (when a negative emotion causes pleasure in a child). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results of the study allowed us to identify four groups of preschoolers. The first group of respondents was children (34%), who correctly differentiated emotions, that is, those who preferred positive and rejected negative emotions. Such children have a high level of mental health resources, which provides good adaptation in life situations. The second group included children with a high level of mental health resources (5%), but not distinguishing some opposing emotions. It can be assumed that emotional issues can deepen in such children when under stress. The third group of respondents (48%) - with an inverted emotional sphere, with a predominance of negative and rejection of positive emotions - was the largest. That is, preschoolers differentiate emotions, but this differentiation is of the inverted character. The fourth group of subjects (13%) included preschoolers with both ambivalence and inversion of emotions. Such children have low emotional resources and for this reason may have physical and mental health problems. In general, we can talk about the low level of development of the emotional sphere of respondents and problems in the differentiation of social emotions by the end of preschool age.
Concerning multi-ethnic classrooms, the socialization within the family and the peers in the preschool/kinder- garten class may augment or counteract cultural influ- ences. However, results on the reciprocal influence of the ethnic background and the peers on child development are not yet available. Only one study evaluated the status quo and found ethnic differences in normative beliefs, expressed emotions and interpersonal conflicts in the multi-ethnic classroom . Latin-American children reported higher levels of normative beliefs about aggres- sion and expressed more aggressive fantasies but reported less fights than African-American children did . How- ever, we assume that these cultural differences concerning aggression are dependent of gender specificities as some of the most well-supported findings in the research litera- ture showed that boys were more aggressive than girls [34- 36]. Also, there are no data available on how the social- emotional competencies develop in respect to ethnic backgrounds over the course of a year.
Within recent years a few protocols for infant trials have been published [32–37], but none of these are aimed at universal or low risk populations. Given the relatively low numbers of infant program efficacy or ef- fectiveness trials conducted in this emerging field, it is useful for researchers to learn about some of the pos- sible measures that can be used. In addition, it has been common in the published research in the field to only report on measures where there are significant findings, so researchers designing studies do not know which measures to consider or leave out. In the present trial, a wide array of both parent and infant development mea- sures are used, hopefully aiding future researchers to identify appropriate primary and secondary outcomes for trials on infants.
The unique aspect of the Cristo Rey school model is its CWSP, which places students into entry-level jobs in local businesses and schools. All students work five full days per month, gaining work experience and generating income that is used to make the school financially sustainable. When Cristo Rey schools reach full enrollment, 90% of operating expenses are covered by the proceeds of the work program and small tuition revenue. The revenue from the students’ employment compensation covers 70% of a student’s tuition. The tuition assistance aspect, coupled with a longer school day and year, “allows the students to receive a college preparatory education they previously could not afford while also gaining valuable job experience” (CRN, n.d.). However, to gain this valuable job experience, continue to be employed by the corporate partners in the CWSP, and thus provide the revenue to keep the entire CRN model operational, CRN students are required to both possess and exhibit the skills of grit and emotional-social intelligence in their job placements.
While ‘’keeping pace with innovations’’ get the highest rate of answers given under the theme of ‘’Change’’ specified in Chart 3, ‘’enabling’’ is the expression with the second highest rate. While only %65, 85 of the respondents expressed a positive opinion in supporting change, the other %34, 15 stated that they do not need any change about themselves. The views of supporting or rejecting the change in the managers’ statements have been stated to be rationally more successful than the present situation. The main point to note here is that how the refusal or alteration of change should be related to social values? Participants seem to be success-oriented when their views on supporting change are examined. In this sense, there are no expressions such as raising individuals depending on their values, bringing sportsmen in accordance with the "fair play" spirit, and educating honest sportsmen. Should it be called as a positive event in real sense to support change with a utilitarian approach? Argan ve Katıcı (2008) stated that sports related companies, sporting goods companies, mass media, sports fields, stadiums; companies producing sports commercial products, athletes, professional and amateur leagues have grown into a sporting industry since the 1960s. The concept of amateurism in industrialized sports does not in fact reflect real amateurism. Imamoğlu et al. (2007) stated that amateur athletes are engaged in physical activities without making an interest in obtaining financial gain, and amateur sports clubs are institutions that are aiming to do amateur sports. In this sense, they specified that amateur sports cannot go beyond just sports made for health, and that amateur clubs continue their activities under the name of hidden professionalism. Atasoy and Kuter (2005) pointed of that professional sports have become a phenomenon in the direction of earning money, and that sports volunteers do not exist anymore. Considering that the amateur sports club presidents’ and vice-presidents’ aim is in the direction of obtaining financial gain in supporting change, it is obvious that having the existing social values alone is not meaningful.
Security handling aspects PT Freeport Indonesia has its own internal security department that serves to maintain company facilities, monitor shipments of company property through airports and terminals, help regulate traffic and assist rescue operations. In addition to the security provided by the National Police, it also involves the important role of the TNI to protect the area of corporate activity. In terms of environmental management, PT Freeport Indonesia has a commitment to the environment by always conducting environmental audits which lead to work plans based on proposals submitted by auditors. In addition, the reclamation or reforestation program on disturbed land which is no longer used for operations also continues. By making a scientific study and conducting a comprehensive program. Seeing the huge amount of funds that have been budgeted and disbursed by PT Freeport Indonesia through its CSR program, at a glance there has been a very perfect CSR program. This when referring to a theoretical study of matters which is seen as part of corporate concern based on Chambers' research on the practice of corporate social responsibility in 7 Asian countries includes 3 aspects, namely, a) involvement in the community, b) making products that can be accounted for social, and c) employee relations (Iriantara: 2004). Involvement in the community include community development, environmental conservation, education and training, religious activities and sports. Whereas what is included in the manufacture of products that can be accounted for socially is the environment, occupational health and safety, human resources and ethics. What is included in employee relations is the welfare of workers and involvement of workers As mentioned at the beginning of this paper, PT Freeport Indonesia entered Indonesia through the Contract of Work (KK) program as a follow-up to the government's program at that time was attractive for foreign investment to manage resources nature.
Hoy and Hannum (1997) conducted a study that defined school health (climate) in terms of healthy interpersonal dynamics between students, teachers, and the principal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school health and academic achievement. Researchers expected to find a mutual dependence between school climate and academic achievement. The Organizational Health Inventory (OHI- RM) was completed by teachers from 86 middle schools in New Jersey, representing diverse geographic areas as well as a broad range of SES. Teachers attending faculty meetings at all participating schools responded. The total score on the OHI-RM was the general measure of school health (GHI). Components of school health measured by the OHI-RM were Academic Emphasis (the extent the school is driven by a quest for academic excellence), Teacher Affiliation (the extent to which teachers feel good about each other, students and the school and are committed to the job and students with enthusiasm), Collegial Leadership (the extent to which the principal balances supportive leadership with high expectations), Resource Support (availability of classroom supplies and instructional materials), Institutional Integrity (the extent to which the school balances teacher protection from parental and community demands and builds bridges to the community), and Socioeconomic Level (SES). Academic achievement was measured using New Jersey’s Eighth Grade Early Warning Test (EWT), given to all eighth-grade students in the state. The EWT measures achievement in reading, mathematics, and writing.
Adolescence is often described as a time of „Storm and Stress‟ because the teenagers are trying to negotiate an identity. Teenagers‟ own wishes and desires, however, are not only things they must consider. They are receiving pressure from parents, peers and society as a whole to be a certain kind of person and do certain kinds of things. Only when self-esteem development is fully understood will it be known how to alleviate some of the trials and tribulations of adolescence and ensure that teenagers develop a healthy and productive view of their life. Self-
According to the report of the World Economic Forum , the advancement of the Fourth Industrial Revolution predicts that the possession of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) skills will become more important and also the need for talented people with creativity such as new and unique ideas, different perspectives, seeing problems from a new perspective has increased. Creativity in early childhood begins with an experience of thinking about new concepts through play and making actual product. These young children's creative activities will play a positive role in raising self-awareness and self-esteem, and raising interpersonal and social competence. Also, the young children's affective development will affect their social activeness, cooperation, autonomy, leadership, etc. These social competences are essential for infants to achieve social relationship as a competent member of society.
Pay attention to the restrictions above, you would have drawn the conclusion that the deaf are those whose hearing loss either partially (hard of hearing) or completely (deaf) that caused his hearing has no functional value in everyday life. As for the Special characteristics of the deaf Although physically deaf children is almost the same with normal children in General, but deaf children have characteristics that often occur on them, in this case, Nur'aeni mention these traits among them, often seem confused and dreamy, often being nonchalance, sometimes combative nature, the development of social balance, less underdeveloped, his head often tilted, often asking that people want to repeat her sentence , if the talk often to make certain noises, if talk is also often use the hands, if the talk is often too hard or otherwise, often very monotonous, inaccurate and sometimes use sound nasal. (Nur'aeni, early intervention For Troubled Children: 1997:119). As for the distinctive traits of deaf children according to Somali and Talca. a). Physically, deaf children are marked by way of walking which is usually fast and somewhat bent due to the possibility of damage to the hearing part tool balance, movement of his eyes quickly, somewhat truculent indicated that he wanted to capture the State of the neighboring, motion quick and nimble limbs that look when they're communicating movement cues with the people around him talk time, breathing short and somewhat distracted, normal circumstances (playing, sleeping, not speaking) the breathing regular, b). The intelligentsia. Deaf children the intelligentsia is not much different from normal children in General, but they are difficult to capture the sense of the abstract conceptions, because in this case