Social Exclusion and Transport

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Rethinking the links between social exclusion and transport disadvantage through the lens of social capital

Rethinking the links between social exclusion and transport disadvantage through the lens of social capital

17 The current paper summarises the outcomes of the workshop discussions and also utilises the database of recent articles on social capital that was created for the purpose of identifying which causal pathways have been studied empirically in recent years. This database consists of articles published between January 2007 and May 2012 in journals with a Thomson Reuters Impact Factor for the year 2010 and belonging to the disciplines of transport studies, human geography, sociology, urban studies and public health research. The search for literature was limited to the five years preceding the workshop to keep the inquiry manageable. We do not claim that the list of causal pathways linking social exclusion, transport disadvantage and social capital presented below is exhaustive and we have created three sub-lists for heuristic purposes. In this way our discussion provides useful guidance to further research and extends Currie and Stanley’s (2008) analysis of the links between social capital and public transport.
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Transport, social exclusion and health

Transport, social exclusion and health

E-mail: r.mackett@ucl.ac.uk and r.thoreau@ucl.ac.uk Telephone: +44 20 7679 1554. Abstract This paper explores the nature of social exclusion and how transport contributes to it by providing barriers to access. Transport influences health in several ways: by providing physical activity through walking and cycling, and by providing access to healthy food, recreation facilities and healthcare. Transport produces externalities including traffic casualties and vehicle emissions. These effects impinge on society unequally with socially excluded people able to access fewer facilities than others but suffering more from the externalities. The paper is concluded by discussion about various interventions that have been used to address social exclusion by reducing the barriers to access.
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Transport, social exclusion and the internet: Could virtual mobility help to alleviate social exclusion?

Transport, social exclusion and the internet: Could virtual mobility help to alleviate social exclusion?

Problems with virtual mobility. However, there are a number of issues with virtual mobility: differential access to virtual mobility; the acceptability of virtual mobility, related to the social effects of the online world; and the hypothesised transport effects. It is to these concerns that this paper now turns. Firstly, there is a strong possibility that a ‘virtual mobility-related dimension’ to exclusion could occur. There is a digital divide in the UK – a gap in access to ICTs that is determined by an individual’s characteristics. As illustrated above, those who experience social exclusion and mobility-related exclusion are likely also to be excluded from access to the Internet and that without access to the Internet, disadvantage and exclusion will be further reinforced (Graham, 1999, PAT 15, 2000). The financial barrier to in-home connection is clear and was restated in the focus groups, not only in terms of initial purchase of hardware and software but in paying for and sustaining telephone line connection and the credit approval, or bank account, necessary to sustain connection. Access to the Internet also requires skills, knowledge and, importantly, exposure, most often in the workplace or via family and friends, without which both the ability and the inclination to go online will be lacking. The lack of exposure to the benefits of the Internet and, even amongst those online, an awareness of the possibilities of the Internet, are key barriers to its effective use and to its use as a supplement to physical travel. In light of this, the importance of online community centres and of appropriate marketing of the Internet and the concept of virtual mobility, to increase exposure and inclination to go online, cannot be overstated.
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Transport and social exclusion. Where are we now?

Transport and social exclusion. Where are we now?

As yet, there are no formal evaluations of the delivery of the performance of the accessibility planning process or its outcomes in terms of reducing transport-related social exclusion. However, several commentators have offered criticisms of the approach in that it is ‘black-box’ exercise and has had little impact on the ground (e.g. Preston, 2009). The UK Department for Transport has itself recently commissioned a three-year evaluation study to identify both the progress and impact of accessibility planning within local transport authorities (Centre for the Research of Social Policy, 2009). An interim report to the Department in part confirmed some of these criticisms. Research of nine sample case study local transport authorities demonstrated significant differences in their approaches, with some directly targeting improved public transport services towards socially excluded groups and deprived areas and others adopting more universal approaches. Some Accessibility Plans were more transport-sector focused whilst other shared the responsibility for improvements with other key stakeholders such as health providers or social services. However, a number of authorities did not see the agenda to be of any relevance at all in the context of their wider corporate planning.
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Assessing the extent of transport social exclusion among the elderly

Assessing the extent of transport social exclusion among the elderly

Abstract: “Social exclusion” is a concept that has become increasingly prominent in the UK and else- where in the last ten years. Social exclusion occurs as a result of a series of problems that prevent people from being able to participate in activities that are considered normal in their society. Some of these problems are related to issues of accessibility. is paper outlines work carried out in the context of the AUNT-SUE (Accessibility and User Needs in Transport in Sustainable Urban Environments) project to develop and model an appropriate set of accessibility benchmarks for older people. Results con rmed that the travel patterns of older people are very different from those of the average person in the UK and that it was necessary to tailor accessibility benchmarks to the characteristics of this group. A set of benchmarks was developed based on ability to undertake different types of activity. ese benchmarks are currently being incorporated into AMELIA, a GIS-based tool for assessing the effect of different policy actions on accessibility. Issues that have arisen include how to model the myriad micro-level cir- cumstances that affect the mobility of older people. Some initial analysis has shown that these details can make a substantial difference to the assessment of the accessibility of a destination. Examples are drawn from St Albans in Hertfordshire, UK.
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Transport related social exclusion amongst older people in rural Southwest England and Wales

Transport related social exclusion amongst older people in rural Southwest England and Wales

Abstract Rural dwelling and older age are both associated with a higher risk of social exclusion, with accessibility identified as having an important facilitating role. The interactions between transport-related exclusion and older age, particularly in a rural context, are considered though analysis of quantitative and qualitative data collected from 900 older persons living in rural areas of Southwest England and Wales. Although few respondents reported feeling excluded within their communities, more reported difficulties in accessing specific necessary and discretionary activities, including specialist hospitals and cinemas. Analysis revealed that car availability is not a strong indicator of overall inclusion, although non-availability was important in limiting access to particular types of location. It is concluded that the relatively short travel distances required to access community activities was a key factor in the high levels of community inclusion. However, the car dependent nature of travel overall means that there is a rising risk of mobility-related exclusion in rural areas, particularly amongst the oldest old. Greater consideration needs to be given to more formalised lift-giving as a
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Mobilities at the edge: splintering urbanism and transport-related social exclusion in Soacha, Colombia, 2000-2013

Mobilities at the edge: splintering urbanism and transport-related social exclusion in Soacha, Colombia, 2000-2013

Interviewees were divided into categories based on their role in transport and social dynamics in the area, with attention to residents. Each interview lasted between 45 minutes and 1.5 hours. In most cases, interviews involved audio recordings and written notes during the conversation, which were supplemented by either extension on preliminary notes immediately following the end of the interview or transcripts in the days after. Information obtained from the interviews was analysed under a framework based on the dimensions of transport-related social exclusion identified from the literature, mostly building on the work of Church, Frost, & Sullivan (2000), as outlined in Chapter 2 and further developed in Chapter 8, seeking elements that might enrich this type of analysis. A categorisation of different profiles of users, conditions for travelling and identified local facilities and constraints for access are central in the structure of the research. This involved a content analysis of the interviews, clustering respondents by characteristics and locations. In addition, direct observation and participation in local practices for commuting and returning to the settlement
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Transport Disadvantage, Social Exclusion and Subjective Wellbeing: The Role of Built Environment – Evidence from Sydney, Australia

Transport Disadvantage, Social Exclusion and Subjective Wellbeing: The Role of Built Environment – Evidence from Sydney, Australia

Wellbeing: The Role of Built Environment - Evidence from Sydney, Australia ABSTRACT: This study explores the effects of the built environment on transport disadvantage, social exclusion, personal health and subjective wellbeing (SWB) using survey data collected in four socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Sydney, Australia. The data is analysed at both neighbourhood and individual levels using both descriptive analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM). Overall, our model supports the hypothesis that a walkable neighbourhood environment, measured by density, diversity, access, and infrastructure for walking and cycling, helps to reduce transport disadvantage and increase social inclusion. However, the impact of the physical environment does not carry forward to impact personal health and SWB. The exception to this finding is where the environment is perceived to be aesthetically pleasing – a variable which significantly positively affects SWB. In addition to the physical environment, crime is a significant factor that directly influences transport disadvantage and SWB.
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Social exclusion and the role of transport intervention in accessing economic opportunity

Social exclusion and the role of transport intervention in accessing economic opportunity

The physical and psychological conditions one experiences whilst using public transport has an obvious bearing on one’s state of mind. Comfort is not just related to physical sensations, it also relates to feelings of self-worth. Having to use a service which is perceived to be dirty and uncared for, being forced to stand in cramped conditions, on top of which the driver may have been unpleasant, would not naturally lead to feelings of self-worth. Travelling on a clean, well-maintained and spacious bus makes passenger feel more valued and less like “a cow getting on’t cattle truck”. Any service aiming to increase participation in the social world would need to be maintained to an acceptable level. A culture change should also be attempted to shift perceptions away from viewing the bus as only for the poor and disaffected - this would involve marketing strategies, vehicle standards and staff attitudes. In this case, the need for “Comfortable, clean, well heated and ventilated vehicles” as set out in Table 2.5 is again met. In Burngreave, many respondents commented on the superior condition of the vehicles (especially in comparison with other services) and found them to be comfortable, clean and spacious.
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Transport and social exclusion: Investigating the possibility of promoting inclusion through virtual mobility

Transport and social exclusion: Investigating the possibility of promoting inclusion through virtual mobility

The financial barrier to in-home connection is clear, not only in terms of initial purchase of hardware and software, but in paying for and sustaining telephone line connection. For some households, gaining credit approval for line rental, which often demands that the user has a bank account and available credit, is impossible. Access to the Internet also requires skills, knowledge and, importantly, exposure, most often in the workplace or via family and friends, without which both the ability and the inclination to go online will be lacking. The influence of other dimensions of exclusion, including temporal and financial constraints, plus personal factors, such as lack of confidence, or childcare, may represent barriers to gaining the skills needed to participate in virtual mobility. Finally, the digital divide is also evidenced in a lack for relevant content for all groups and the ineffective marketing of the Internet as a tool for all people, for more than just shopping and banking (Graham 2000, Hellawell, 2001). It is unlikely that people will seek to access the Internet without education in the potential benefits of these technologies.
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Where sustainable transport and social exclusion meet: households without cars and car dependence in Great Britain

Where sustainable transport and social exclusion meet: households without cars and car dependence in Great Britain

I argue by contrast that studying the composition of the group of carless households is a good way to reveal the structural constraints that sustain car ownership and use. In other words, looking at who non-car owning households are and how they travel sheds light on why many others are reluctant to make do without cars in that area. The results of the cluster analysis provide several interesting examples of this. The fact that the PTC cluster is only of a significant size in the largest urban areas, for example, could be taken to indicate that it is only in that type of area that accessing employment and education with public transport is possible without excessive inconvenience. Similarly, the size of the SL cluster might indicate the extent to which it is possible to access other essential services and opportunities with modal alternatives to the car. Finally, the results show that the CR and IM clusters are best conceived as the hard core of the carless and represent approximately the same share of the total population across types of area 12 : they are associated mainly with old age, mobility difficulties, low mobility levels and/or reliance on others for car lifts. When most of the carless group is composed of this kind of household, it suggests that powerful structural constraints stand in the way of more environmentally sustainable travel patterns in that area.
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Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

● People face barriers to engaging in the community. They can struggle to access the basic services they need, in particular decent housing and transport. Education, arts, sports and leisure providers often are not aware how their services could benefit people with mental health problems and how they could make their services more accessible for this group. Many people do not want to participate in activities alone, but feel there is no one they can ask to go with them. People can also face exclusion by law from some community roles such as jury service.

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Mental Health and Social Exclusion

Mental Health and Social Exclusion

● Building confidence and trust: making services more welcoming and promoting understanding of different needs to encourage people who may mistrust statutory services, such as some ethnic minorities or parents, to engage with services earlier. 6. This report sets out a new vision for partnership working across sectors and an action plan to achieve change (see Chapter 9). Health and social care services have a critical role to play in helping people recover what they value in life, by facilitating access to advice and support and addressing inequalities in access to health care. There needs to be stronger links between health, social care and employment opportunities, and improvements in employment support. More opportunities for social participation need to be developed, with better access to education, volunteering and leisure. Providing the basics of housing, financial stability and better transport will enable people with mental health problems to take full advantage of these opportunities. Stigma and discrimination must be addressed in every area of life.
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Schools, Education and Social Exclusion

Schools, Education and Social Exclusion

likely to attain qualifications and are more likely to report playing truant than those living in other forms of accommodation (Bosworth, 1994). However it is important to note that this does not necessasrily imply causality. On the basis of current research, it is unclear if social housing exerts an indpendent effect on educational attainment. Poor housing, in particular overcrowding, access to basic amenities, and temporary accommodation are also associated with lower educational attainment. Such conditions adversely effect upon a child’s health, development and access to friends and social networks, which are likely to affect school attendance and performance. Homelessness more specifically has been examined by Whitty et al. Exploring the processes which translate homelessness into poor educational outcomes Whitty et al. (1999) highlight “the nature and organisation of current services and professional responses…were often as much part of the problem as the solution”. The authors highlight a lack of formal policy mechanisms, to ensure the priority of the education of homeless children. Data derived from a survey of LEAs on the administrative arrangements relating to the education of homeless children, revealed high levels of confusion, inconsistency and a lack of clear lines of communication and responsibility. For example, homeless parents who elect to continue their child’s education at their existing school may incur additional financial costs for transport.
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Social Exclusion and the Future of Cities

Social Exclusion and the Future of Cities

Abstract In both Britain and the United States, people have been moving away from the inner cities to suburban developments, often leaving behind concentrations of poverty and decaying neighbourhoods. Anne Power’s paper focuses on the British situation. As Britain comes to terms with the implications of urban renaissance, a new way must be found of looking at regeneration based on rebuilding urban neighbourhoods. The key points for the future are: limiting suburban land supply and creating higher density in depleted urban neighbourhoods; equalising the incentives to recycle old buildings and used land rather than greenfield sites; improving public transport; managing neighbourhoods to encourage a social mix; and protecting green spaces. William Julius Wilson, looking at the American situation, addresses the rediscovery of
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SOCIAL EXCLUSION

SOCIAL EXCLUSION

independently in the community. From 1990 there have been more studies using different research designs. These include outcome studies, surveys, cohort studies, policy research, as well as programme evaluations. These studies have complemented ongoing qualitative work through more quantitative and evaluative outcome research, including comparative work using normative data from primary or secondary samples of young people (Stein 2004).This paper will draw upon this empirical portfolio to review the research evidence in relation to the social exclusion of care leavers, their transition from care, the services they receive and the outcomes of leaving care interventions.
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Child social exclusion

Child social exclusion

CHILD SOCIAL EXCLUSION Gemma Crous and Jonathan Bradshaw Abstract Social exclusion has been defined as a lack of resources, an inability to participate and a low quality of life. There have been a number of attempts to study the social exclusion of adults and at a country level. This paper attempts to operationalise the concept for children and comparatively using data derived from the Children’s Worlds Survey of 12 year old children in 16 countries. It does this by adapting the Bristol Social Exclusion Matrix. Variables are selected to present sub-domains and combined using standardised scores. The results for the 16 countries are compared for each sub-domain. Analysis of the overlaps between the sub- domains is undertaken using the pooled sample and for four selected countries. The material and economic resources sub-domain explains more of the variation in the other elements of social exclusion but by no means all. Being excluded from social resources seems to be less associated with other types of exclusion in all countries. Experiences of social exclusion in childhood are linked more strongly in some countries than others and in some sub-domains than in others and these variations need further investigation. There may be limits to the extent that social exclusion can be compared across such a diverse set of countries but a multi-dimensional approach provides a more complete picture than an exclusive focus on material deprivation.
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SOCIAL EXCLUSION SPATIALITY

SOCIAL EXCLUSION SPATIALITY

SOCIAL EXCLUSION SPATIALITY Valentina VASILE 1 , Mihaela MIHAI 2 , Daniela-Ioana MANEA 1,2 , Ţiţan EMILIA 1,2 , Cristina BOBOC 1 , 2 Abstract. Social exclusion may manifest through spatial concentration of deprived population in communities located in certain areas. The globalization has reshaped the social and spatial geography of cities which led to major implications for research on social exclusion. Thus, in any practical formulation of social inclusion policies, it is necessary to consider the idea that social exclusion is inherently spatial. By addressing the territorial dimension of social exclusion, some important theoretical issues about the interaction of the two concepts ("social" and "space") are analyzed. Based on theoretical-conceptual contributions developed recently, this paper analyzes this dimension of social exclusion.
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Unemployment and social exclusion

Unemployment and social exclusion

In general, an employment relationship ends either because workers are laid off, their contract expires and is not prolonged or they quit voluntarily. In the empirical analysis I study how the effects depend on the type of job loss. The distinction be- tween voluntary and involuntary unemployment allows me to learn more about the self-selection of employees into unemployment. The PASS-ADIAB does not contain information on mass layoffs which could be used to estimate the effects of involuntary job loss as it is often done in the literature. However, the individual risk of being af- fected by a mass layoff might also be influenced by selection both on the part of the firm as well as on the employee side. 7 Firms of a different size, sector or workforce compo- sition face different business risks and vary with respect to their employment contract designs. Similarly, employees might self-select, for instance due to family reasons, to work in firms that are less likely to make layoffs. The German Employment Protection Act (Kündigungsschutzgesetz) prescribes the requirements for making workers redun- dant. 8 This law states that termination with notice is only valid if it is based on reasons relating to either the employees’ character, conduct, or urgent operational business re- quirements. The employer has to undertake a social selection of the relevant employees on the basis of length of employment, age, family support obligations and severe dis- ability. However, there might still be a certain scope for an employer to lay off workers with low productivity or bad health. The individual probability of becoming unem- ployed might be influenced by unobservable factors like ability or motivation but also by lower levels of the outcome variables before job loss. For instance, unhappy people or people with few social contacts or mental health problems could be more likely to become unemployed.
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Poverty and Social Exclusion

Poverty and Social Exclusion

There is an increasing recognition among leading politicians and policy - makers that poverty and social exclusion are global, and not just national, problems; and that concerted inter- national action will be needed to address these – although the extent of the commitment and resources required, and the time taken to achieve signifi cant results may not be fully appreciated by many. The scale of this international challenge has also now been explored by academic research- ers, notably by Townsend himself, who went on to write about the need to combat ‘ World Poverty ’ (Townsend and Gordon 2002 ). The future policy climate for poverty and social exclusion is there- fore likely increasingly to become an interna- tional one, within which national government can only play a limited role.
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