versus listening time, number of speaking turns, or number of words per sentence. Using the centrality-based analysis approach of Gotts et al. (2012) discussed earlier, we identified a number of social brain regions involved in group differences that did not interact with task condition (conversation versus repetition), including the bilateral somatomotor cortex, STS/STG, temporal pole, posterior cingulate, right inferior frontal gyrus, as well as thalamus, ventral striatum, parahippocampal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus. However, in marked contrast to our resting state data, these differences corresponded to increased rather than decreased functional connectivity in ASD, a subset of which also simultaneously showed a correlation with social symptoms measured by SRS score (greater functional connectivity corresponded to a higher level of socialimpairment). We also identified regions involved in functional
The results of the current study showed that individ- uals suffering from migraine had more frequent socialimpairment as compared to TMD patients, who also present disability in accordance to a previous study . This result is likely related to the characteristics of pain that has been reported to be severe in headache and migraine individuals [33,34] as compared to TMD pa- tients that commonly suffer from moderate to severe pain [24,34].
While psychotic experiences (PEs) are assumed to represent psychosis liability, general population studies have not been able to establish signiﬁcant associations between polygenic risk scores (PRS) and PEs. Previous work suggests that PEs may only represent signiﬁcant risk when accompanied by socialimpairment. Leveraging data from the large longitudinal IMAGEN cohort, including 2096 14-year old adolescents that were followed-up to age 18, we tested whether the association between polygenic risk and PEs is mediated by (increasing) impairments in social functioning and social cognitive processes. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) for the subset of participants (n = 643) with complete baseline and follow-up data, we examined pathways to PEs. We found that high polygenic risk for schizophrenia (p = 0.014), reduced brain activity to emotional stimuli (p = 0.009) and social impairments in late adolescence (p < 0.001; controlling for functioning in early adolescence) each independently contributed to the severity of PEs at age 18. The pathway between polygenic risk for autism spectrum disorder and PEs was mediated by social impairments in late adolescence (indirect pathway; p = 0.025). These ﬁ ndings point to multiple direct and indirect pathways to PEs, suggesting that different processes are in play, depending on genetic loading, and environment. Our results suggest that treatments targeting prevention of socialimpairment may be particularly promising for individuals at genetic risk for autism in order to minimize risk for psychosis.
In conclusion, this study demonstrated the behavioral and neurochemical changes of Arhgef10 knockout mice. These mice exhibited social inability in the three- chamber test, reflecting the socialimpairment observed in humans with ASD. On the other hand, ARHGEF10 knockout mice displayed hyperactivity in the locomotor test, reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, and reduced depression-like behavior in the FST and TST. These behavioral changes further confirmed that the social deficits in Arhgef10 knockout mice were not confounded by mood disorders. Moreover, neurochem- ical changes such as elevated serotonin and norepineph- rine levels were also found in the frontal cortex and amygdala in Arhgef10 knockout mice. Further analysis of MAO-A and MAO-B, the key enzymes that degrade norepinephrine and serotonin, revealed that the loss of function of ARHGEF10 decreased the expression of MAO-A in the frontal cortex and amygdala. These results suggest that ARHGEF10 is a risk gene for ASD, especially correlated with the symptom of social activ- ity impairment.
Analytic plan. A series of item-level, confirmatory factor analyses were fit to the data to examine whether the proposed factor structures displayed appropriate fit across informants. Con- firmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were fit using weighted least squares means and variance adjusted (WLSMV) in MPlus 7.31 (Muthen and Muthen 1998–2011). Models were considered to demonstrate excellent fit if root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) £0.06 and comparative fit index (CFI) ‡0.90 (Hu and Bentler 1999 ). A series of generalized multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) compared youth with CycD with youth with bipolar I, bipolar II, bipolar NOS, unipolar depression with ADHD, unipolar depression, ADHD, DBDs, and other diagnoses. Post-hoc ANOVAs with Games–Howell post-hoc comparisons assessed differences between groups on the irritability, IA, and social functioning scales. Correlational analyses tested for associations between irritability and IA scores, and the outcome measures of current C-GAS score, KINDL friendship quality, SDS social life, CBCL and YSR social problems, and the K-SADS social impair- ment scale. Variance decomposition quantified the degree of overlap in the predictor variables. A multivariate linear regression model tested the relation between the independent variables of interest (irritability, IA, CycD diagnosis) and the social functioning variables as dependent variables (KINDL-R friend scale scores, C- GAS, SDS social life, CBCL and YSR social problems, and K- SADS socialimpairment), while controlling for age, gender, and social phobia diagnosis. Post-hoc linear regressions were fit to the outcomes that the multivariate regressions indicated as significant, with age, gender, and social phobia diagnosis as control variables.
How ADHD and SocialImpairment Relate to Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Previous studies have established that there are links between ADHD and socialimpairment, socialimpairment and internalizing symptoms, and ADHD and internalizing symptoms. Some studies have also found associations among ADHD, socialimpairment, and internalizing issues combined. For example, in a study of 7- to 12-year-old children whom were all diagnosed with ADHD, social functioning was significantly correlated with anxiety and depression symptoms (Karustis, Power, Rescorla, Eiraldi, & Gallagher, 2000). Specifically, Karustis and colleagues (2000) found that both parent-reported and child-reported anxiety was positively correlated with parent-reported social problems; they also found that parent-reported depression, but not child-reported depression, was significantly associated with parent-reported social problems. Unfortunately, there was no control (i.e., non-ADHD) group in this study. In another study that examined only ADHD-diagnosed youth (aged 10 to 14 years) with no comparison group, Becker, Langberg, Evans, Girio-Herrera, and Vaughn (2014) found that a comorbid depression diagnosis, but not comorbid anxiety diagnosis, was significantly associated with lower parent-reported social functioning; anhedonia and social anxiety symptoms were
appearance. As the diagnosis with a chronic disease can have unfavourable impact on self esteem and interper- sonal confidence , all HAART-treated HIV+ subjects regardless of BFR, experienced low quality of life on most domains of wellbeing. Although HIV+ patients with body changes had more favourable immunologic outcomes of higher CD4 counts, and were on treatment for a signifi- cantly longer duration, they experienced more psycho- socialimpairment of quality of life. Current CD4 counts or specific HAART regimen did not predict psychological and social wellbeing using multiple linear regression anal- ysis, but predicted HIV HAART-specific domains of well- being associated with stigma and marginalisation due to HIV forced disclosure, symptoms that may impair psycho- logical wellbeing. Other reports have shown that quality of life in HAART-treated HIV patients deteriorate due to the effects of body changes . Psychological symptoms due to body fat changes may influence other domains of quality of life such physical and independence wellbeing . However, we did not observe any difference in phys- ical and independence wellbeing between HIV+ patients with or without body fat changes. Essentially, we cannot assume causality of the impact of body changes on quality of life over time due to the cross-sectional design of our study. Secondly, time since HIV diagnosis and severity of body fat changes did not predict any of the domains of quality of life using multiple linear regression analysis. However, our findings are in agreement with a report from Western countries, that physical domain of quality of life remains stable over time, whereas emotional stress and psychological domain deteriorate in HAART-treated HIV+ patients .
At first glance, we might assume that it is differences in life expectancy that are the major factors explaining men’s advantage. Most major eye problems are associ- ated with ageing and women now live longer than men in most parts of the world. Hence, more of them are likely to survive to develop vision problems. However, this is certainly not the only explanation since women are more affected than men by most eye diseases at all ages. They also appear to receive less effective and appropriate eye care than men. We therefore need to look at the social as well as the biological factors that put females at greater risk of visual impairment and ultimately blindness.
Patients and methods: This was a 12-week, multicenter, prospective, observational study. Patients with MDD treated with an antidepressant medication for the previous 12 weeks (±3 weeks) who had achieved CR (defined as a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depres- sion [HAM-D17] score #7) or PR (HAM-D17 score $8 and #18) were enrolled. Depression severity, PPS, and impairment in social and occupational functioning were assessed using the HAM-D17, the Brief Pain Inventory (Short Form) (BPI-SF), and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), respectively, at enrollment (Week 12) and after 12 weeks (Week 24).
Moving with and beyond Foucault, we argue that the social model can be understood as an oppositional device - a concept we borrow from art activist and theorist Brian Holmes ( We are attracted to (olmes s work not least because of his dual status as academic and member of the activist association, Ne Pas Plier (Do Not Bend). His work on the intersections of artistic and political practice and the philosophy and politics of resistance is inspired by Foucault, but also by Guattari and Deleuze. He seeks critical and constructive paths towards emancipation a nd his work can be read as a call to action on the part of readers . We adopt and elaborate his concept of the oppositional device by drawing upon the work of Hardt and Negri, Revel and Proust, who in their various (and not dissimilar) ways offer a useful analytic of resistance Proust 2000). Their work, we suggest, provides a framework for describing practices of invention, collaboration and resistance deployed by people against disciplining practices of subjectivation, to make themselves anew. Positioning the social model as an oppositional device will allow us to consider how the model has made possible just such practices on the part of disabled people. In so doing we demonstrate the importance of the DPM as a case-study one largely overlooked within the field of Social Movement Studies (Beckett 2006) - the analysis of which proves valuable in furthering our understanding of the resistance-practices of the governed.
We sought to investigate the behavior and social profile of Brazilian children with SLI and explore whether be- havior problems and low social competence are associ- ated with language deficits among this clinical group. This sample included a group of children with substan- tial expressive language problems, mainly from low- to mid-SES Brazilian families. We found that, similar to international studies, Brazilian children with SLI had more behavior problems and showed less social compe- tence than the general population (Macharey and von Suchodoletz 2008; St Clair et al. 2011; Van Agt et al. 2011; van Daal et al. 2007). The percentage of children in this sample classified as “at risk of” total behavior problems (50 %) was higher than rates reported in previ- ous studies with younger children (van Daal et al. 2007; Willinger et al. 2003), but lower than those from German language-impaired children from the same age range (Noterdaeme and Amorosa 1999). Behavior prob- lems included both internalizing and externalizing difficul- ties, but were more evident for the former. This finding is in line with Gallagher’s review (1999) reporting higher
If there is objective evidence (such as significant adverse changes in the business environment where the issuer operates, probability of insolvency or significant financial difficulties of the issuer) that an impairment loss on financial assets carried at cost has been incurred, the amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the current market rate of return for a similar financial asset. Such impairment losses are not reversed in subsequent periods.
Bivariate analyses found that age and age at schizophrenia onset were demographic data significantly associated with the PSP total, socially useful activities, and personal and social relationships scores. Age at schizophrenia onset was the only demographic data that was significantly related to the PSP self-care score. Together with the CGI-S score, the PANSS total and five subscale scores, including positive symptoms, negative symptoms, dis- organized thought, hostility/excitement and anxiety/ depression, showed a significant positive correlation with the PSP total and all four domain scores. We did not find a significant association between duration of illness, number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, number of psychiatric hospitalization in the past 6 months and the PSP scores (Table 2).
Study characteristics are tabulated per individual study. Accumulated descriptive statistics of the selected studies are presented by calculating the proportion of studies reporting on measurements of functional or cognitive impairment, social environment or frailty, endpoints or treat- ment modalities. Combined sample size of the included studies is expressed as median and interquartile range (IQR). To get a complete overview we describe the total of signi ﬁ cant associations with outcomes. All calculations are made with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 23. In this review with an “ association ” is meant the relation between the geriatric determinant at baseline and the outcome after follow up. Main ﬁ ndings of the studies with respect to the association of measurement of functional or cognitive impairment, social environment or frailty with outcome are tabulated. If possible, a fully adjusted model controlling for possible confounders, including multiple known risk factors for poor outcome, such as comorbidity burden, was tabulated.
antipsychotic. Our results replicate the findings of numerous studies that have demonstrated neurocognitive impairment in people with schizophrenia, specifically deficits in interper- sonal perception, social cognition, and executive function. Furthermore, both types of treatment led to improvements in executive function. However, the degree of improvement in patients treated with risperidone was better than in those treated with typical antipsychotics. Importantly, social cogni- tive function in patients with schizophrenia was improved only by risperidone.
Whether and to what extent BD should be considered disabling is less clear. On the one hand, there is good evidence that BD is associated with - and predictive of - a range of adverse health outcomes, including low self-esteem, depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms [13-15]. There is also good evidence that BD mediates the association between obesity and emotional well-being, in young women at least [12,16]. On the other hand, attention has focused, almost without exception, on the status of BD as a risk factor for other, “more serious” mental health problems rather than as a public health problem in its own right [13,17,18]. As a consequence, little is known about the effects of BD on quality of life. Given the demonstrated links between BD and impairment in emotional well-being [13-15], adverse effects of BD on quality of life might be expected to be most pronounced for items tapping perceived impairment in mental health and psycho-social func- tioning, whereas impairment in physical health might be expected to be less pronounced and due, at least in part, to the positive association between BD and body weight . However, the available evidence does not permit any firm conclusions in this regard.
Human (2010) have shown that most sighted people attain and maintain multiple and complex skills needed to achieve social competence naturally through observation, imitation and experiential learning. The absence of vision or limited visual functioning, however, may make it more difficult for students with visual impairment to acquire accurate information about their social environment and the context in which social activities occur, in order to respond to the social demands of the situation. Also, the congenitally visual impaired are likely to depend more on others to obtain information about the social environment and how to maintain social relationship with family members and peers (Human, 2010). Consequently, Heward (2009) noted that students with visual impairment may grow up to be social isolates. Some authors have indicated that students with disabilities are still at risk of being rejected even when they make effort to fit in. If adequate care is not provided, the children may experience demoralization and loneliness especially when they compare themselves with the other children (e.g. Chamberlain, Kasari and Rotheran-Fuller, 2006). Celeste (2006) observed that students with visual impairment are neither accepted by their sighted peers nor trained in age-appropriate social skills that would foster their interaction with sighted children in the regular classroom. These students contend with the challenges of negative attitude of peers, teachers, parents and society at large which make them show signs of depression, aggression and anxiety, which invariably could result to difficulties in interpersonal relationships (Keff, 1999). Sacks and Silberman (2004) have acknowledged that students with visual impairment who are in an inclusive classroom as well as in special education setting can lack social competence needed for effective adaptation into the ordinary school system.
1. Background/rationale: Biological impairment criteria for flowing waters in New York State were recently introduced into the biological monitoring program (Bode et al., 1990). These criteria allow determination of significant water quality impairment based on upstream/downstream changes in one of five biological indices. The criteria are used for enforcement or compliance monitoring, as distinguished from trend monitoring. Figure 5 provides an overview of the procedures used. The Biological Impairment Criteria document (Bode et al., 1990) should be consulted for a detailed description. 2. Sampling: The most appropriate sampling method is determined by measuring habitat parameters at available upstream and downstream sites. Kick sampling is used for wadeable riffles with rock/gravel/sand substrates; multiplate sampling is used for all other habitats. Upstream and downstream sites are selected that meet the habitat criteria for site comparability. Sampling is conducted at the upstream and downstream site. For kick sampling, four replicates are collected at each site. For multiplate sampling, three 5- week exposures are conducted.
The amygdala is proposed to be part of a neural network comprising the “social brain” (Brothers, 1990), while autism is a neuropsychiatric condition that disrupts the development of social intelligence. It is thus plausible that autism may be caused, in part, by an amygdala abnormality (Baron-Cohen et al., 2000). This hypothesis is supported by the following evidence. The abnormal facial scanning patterns in people with autism (Adolphs et al., 2001, Klin et al., 2002, Pelphrey et al., 2002, Neumann et al., 2006, Spezio et al., 2007a, Spezio et al., 2007b, Kliemann et al., 2010) are rather similar as seen in patients with amygdala damage, who fail to fixate on the eyes in faces (Adolphs et al., 2005), while neuroimaging studies in healthy individuals have shown that amygdala activation is specifically enhanced for fearful faces when saccading from the mouth to the eye regions (Gamer and Büchel, 2009). Besides abnormal eye fixations onto faces, several studies have found reliable, but weak, deficits in the ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions in autism (Law Smith et al., 2010, Philip et al., 2010, Wallace et al., 2011, Kennedy and Adolphs, 2012) (for review, see (Harms et al., 2010)), while on the other hands, patients with amygdala lesions also show abnormal recognition of emotion from facial expressions (Adolphs et al., 1999), and abnormal recognition of mental states from the eye region of faces (Adolphs et al., 2002), providing further support for the amygdala’s involvement in autism.
The main question in focus here is whether the trajectory of cognitive impairment is determined or defined by resilience and if so then what are the factors between the two? We also try to examine whether there is a clinical implication of this phenomenon. As stated above there are both direct as well as indirect evidence for the com- plex interaction between resilience and cognition. Resilience is a factor which determined a number of factors which are closely related to outcome in schizophrenia. Resilience is no doubt an outcome determinant in schizophrenia. Resilience as described earlier in this paper is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to a stressful or traumatic event and return back to a positive state. Recovery from serious mental illness is now understood as involving personal growth, expanding abilities, and developing a meaningful life despite illness . The ability to achieve the goals of recovery implies the presence of individual resilience. If resilience is the ability to experience severely stressful events and not develop mental illness, then possibly, people who ex- perience stressful events and develop schizophrenia are demonstrating vulnerability . Resilient individuals have at their disposal, a number of supportive factors that are protective when risk or a significant threat is pre- sent . The relationship of resilience-cognition and schizophrenia is too complex, while cognition forms on- ly a part of the illness, resilience is involved in the entire process of development of the illness . Resilience is associated with genetic vulnerability and evidence for this is arising from low levels of resilience noted in mothers of schizophrenic patients . The increased vulnerability which gives rise to this is perceived as a threshold dispenses of the individual towards stimuli. Resilience requires more than a return to original func- tioning and expects that additional experiences will be gathered to underpin the ability to grow after recovering functioning . The subject of cognitive neuroscience and resilience being responsible for outcome in schizophrenia is complex. Resilience is one of the recent areas of research in adult mental health. Number of studies shows its significance in determining general well being in patients suffering from mental disorder . However, very little work is available in the field of cognitive dysfunction, resilience and schizophrenia. It is clear that neurocognitive impairment is one of the most important symptom, cluster or domain, which deter- mines major share of functional outcome. Many studies have repeatedly demonstrated that it is resistant to treatment .