Abstract: The essentialist view that new technological innovations (especially SocialMedia) disrupt higher education delivery ride on educators’ risk averse attitudes toward full scale adoption of unproven technologies. However, this unsubstantiated logic forecloses possibilities for embracing the constructive dimensions of disruptions, and grasping the tremendous academic potential of emerging technologies. Community of inquiry and virtual ethnography were adopted as theoretical and methodological lenses for exploring the productive pedagogical impacts of appropriating SocialMedia in an Information Systems course at a South African University. Lecturer-student and peer-based postings on Facebook were examined to understand the influence of Facebook adoption on student meaningful learning and pedagogical delivery. The findings suggest that Facebook constituted a collective “Third space” for student enactment of counter scripts, augmented traditional academic networking, fostered “safe” havens for student democratic expression, and afforded learning communities for student co-construction of knowledge. Shortfalls identified include challenges of developing quality academic discussions and fostering student engagement at epistemological and conceptual levels to ensure deep learning. The study recommends a multi-pronged strategy that foregrounds contingent relaxation of academic authority, on-task student behavior, strategic alignment of powerful collaborativetechnologies with pedagogical designs, and learning needs and styles of students.
Web 2.0 technologies are not a panacea solving all higher education problems. For example, Nie (2001) argues that extensive use of the Internet or electronic media in teaching minimizes the critical role of face-to-face interactions with students in class sessions. Students’ interactions and participation provide rich content support which makes sub-optimal trade-offs. They forgo attending classes for other activities, believing that online material is sufficient for learning and success. Additional drawbacks include students’ low and inconsistent online participation, poor attendance, and inability to understand or comply with complex online instructions (Zhao & Kuh, 2004). Web 2.0 technologies require more resources than traditional classroom teaching. First, creating Web 2.0 content is taxing for faculty, both in terms of their ability to master these technologies and finding the time necessary. Faculty members’ ability to monitor or supervise social network activities is also time-consuming. Web 2.0 technologies also strain IT support, such as servers, bandwidth, and trained support personnel.
Contrarily, Van Rooyen (2015) argues that readily, available and affordable technologies have become crucial ingredient for student success as they are capable of increasing didactic conversations. Some of the positive use of socialmedia include: announcements i.e. easy to share information on changes in timetable or emergence meetings; discussions i.e. easy to make off class discussions comfortably online; resource sharing i.e. lecture videos, past exams and solution to questions can be easily shared among students (Vural, 2015). Moreover, Roblyer (2006) adds that, social network can be used to help students communicate with each other and learn together about their societies, group projects and presentations. All of the above mentioned positive uses of socialmedia can be collectively termed as “Collaborative learning”.
The researchers build on the perspective that socialmedia derive from an information technology innovation and thus investigate the determinants of adoption collaborative learning of such platforms from an adoption of collaborative learning between students. Although several theories have been proposed to explain the adoption of innovations and collaborative learning among peers /new products , the technology acceptance model (TAM) , successfully explains the adoption of different information technology instruments . According to Davis et al. (1989), this model predicts the likelihood of a new technology being adopted within a group of individuals or organizations. Since its origin, TAM and its revisions have been applied to a variety of technologies.[4&5] conducted meta-analysis studies in this area and confirmed that TAM explains the adoption of numerous technologies, ranging from software packages to various online services. Thus, the purpose of the research is twofold. First, we expect to confirm the level of usage of Facebook and analyses several characteristics of socialmedia users. Second, we aim to examine the relevance of TAM within the context of a new technological platform, as is the case of socialmedia. Given that most technologies studied so far consist of work-related tools, this will constitute a test of this model in a different context and contribute to the understanding of adoption determinants of socialmedia network.
Despite these early adoption trends, the discussion in many academic forums continues to be that of enabling business organizations to weave through the social network sites and online communities as well as make sense of the large data (Big Data) and tools in order to add value to their businesses or improve profit margins. One aspect that is discussed in the literature that shows increase usage among the business early adopters is the social marketing and it associated component of social customer relationship management (Case & Darwin, 2014; Chan, 2014). The work of Chan follows earlier works like that of Ang (2010) that argued that beyond placing online ads at popular sites like Google, Inc., organizations can be members and actively listen to online community conversations and help build their brands. Most importantly, there is a need to improve customer-to-customer communication and consumer content creation. The Web 2.0 tools such as Facebook or Skype have appeared as the technologies of choice, and as such there is a greater need to recognize the growing importance of social networking as a means to supporting communication and work collaboration. Indeed, as the service pervades the business world more and more, Facebook represents a communication channel that cannot be easily ignored.
Abstract: This paper shares the strategy we have developed at Sheffield Hallam University (SHU) to educate and guide staff and students in their use of socialmedia. Students need to understand their responsibilities to themselves and the institution, to develop sustainable strategies for using socialmedia to enhance their learning and to develop their employability skills as future graduates. They need to place value in the development of a professional online presence, appreciate the difference between their personal and professional uses of socialmedia tools, and understand the impact that one can have on the other. Staff want to feel confident in the application of authentic socialmedia learning activities. They need to see the value of socialmedia competence in graduates within their disciplines, and easily access shared practice and guidance. To facilitate such learning activities they also need to understand and consider aspects such as online safety, professional impact and configuration. We discuss how we developed and are now implementing our strategy; how this features a strong emphasis on collaborative relationships across different areas of the institution; and our recognition that socialmedia guidance is not the sole domain of any one team. It also considers the importance of digital literacy skills, and that care is needed in the management of sometimes conflicting priorities. We will show how our work is informed by the needs and priorities of our staff and students in order to be fit for purpose. Our initial findings showed that we must address the constantly evolving nature of socialmedia, and not consider guidance that we develop to be finite - there will always be more to do. In addition, we must acknowledge the significant overlap between personal and professional use of tools, since one might easily have implications for the other (positively or negatively), and people often draw on experiences for different contexts, or allow their future practice to be dictated by them. We will include how we have engaged staff and students to revisit their digital literacy skill set and develop new ways to connect, communicate, collaborate, create and curate. The enablers to achieve these outcomes include a rich collection of resources using different media, the development of a 'SocialMedia CoLab' and communities of practice exploring, using and evaluating their use of socialmedia; and the support of the university to embed the use of these and other technologies to enhance the learning experience.
The need for this paper was further motivated by the interest to establish an understanding of the role of electronic media and social networking in teaching communication skills, practices, and strategies in business organizations. These skills include interpersonal and team work, data collection and analysis, decision-making techniques, and computer and electronic media competencies. These basic skills are needed to work effectively in domestic and global business organizations and students are expected to acquire them in order to increase their competitive ability. Additionally, students should take a range of communication courses in business schools and should be able to demonstrate knowledge and ability in oral and writing communication, as well as intercultural competency. Other motivations for this paper were to determine whether or not social networking tools and electronic media have a significant impact on the quality of teaching as well as on faculty-student pedagogical relationships. Zhao & Kuh (2004) noted that electronic social networks are effective and sophisticated tools that allow faculty members to be more interactive and engaging in their classrooms. In many classrooms, students find the experience of electronic interactions exciting, a source of fun, and an avenue for collaborative work with peers or classmates.
for inter-disciplinary working – indeed opportunities for ‘rotation’ between different areas of work and teams had been curtailed for these employees, some of whom saw themselves as restricted to ‘distribution’ or ‘warehouse’ roles. Some of our interviewees based at the DC expressed frustration at fewer opportunities for inter-disciplinary working across professional boundaries, and feared that they would experience deskilling as a result. Thus, for some employees, intra-organizational engagement was arguably defined by NPM norms whereby day-to-day teamworking was framed by standard operating procedures and repetitive tasks. The findings above point to polarized experiences of this technology-driven redesign project – some employees were able to harness robotics to access new opportunities for autonomy, control and learning; others felt controlled by new technologies, identifying additional constraints on job roles and learning. An important lesson might be that managers and employees need to work together to build a shared and realistic conception of the potential outcomes and limitations of innovation programs “to avoid being disappointed with the results” (De Lancer Julnes, 2015, 27).
Despite this, faculty members who use socialmedia have reported issues pertaining to socialmedia such as difficult to use, ineffective measurement and assessment (Moran et al., 2012). Comparatively, empirical evidence suggested that students on campus needed more support in utilizing complementary socialmedia active collaborative learning options in comparison with face-to-face conferences. Lecturers may have significant roles in supporting students when moving to the utilization of socialmedia in assisting brief questions, solutions and coordination in showing such media for active collaborative learning and engagement (Hrastinski and Aghaee, 2011). Evaluative periods were articulated as a way of feedback process between lecturers and student (Forkosh and Hershkovitz, 2012).
Instead of calling, speculating or making inferences about the range of services availed by different tourist destinations, socialmedia and tourism websites are providing affordances for tourists to browse, search, compare and contrast prices of services and commodities, and have an online experience of the tourist attractions through graphic images, videos, and online advertisements and promotions. Vladimír (2014) asserts that SMTs have brought increased joy to travel and vacation, an unprecedented expansion of opportunities of communication between stakeholders and actors. This is because by means of photos and videos of destinations posted on SMTs by tourism SMMEs and existing customers, tourists get an idea of what they will experience beforehand. Vladimír (2014) further asserts that SMTs and tourism websites provide very important information on reservation by tourists, sales of products by tourist operators and marketing tool for promoting and extending cultural tourism. South African Tourism Department (2011) concurs that socialmediatechnologies have become an important source of information for travellers, providing them with an opportunity to obtain information both directly from destinations and tourism businesses as well as from fellow travellers through social networking, blogs and travel advisory websites. Bethapudi (2013) affirms that tourism enterprises can also reach the targeted customers across the globe in a single click on the keypad after the advent of mobile computers and web technologies. Technology has also become part of the core product, especially for business travellers who now expect certain facilities to be available during their trip (Bethapudi, 2013).
This paper aims to investigate the socialmedia use in enterprises and the complimentary organizational tasks. Furthermore, it has the goal of providing a research framework for IS researchers. A two-stage resource searching strategy was adopted. First, we searched the major academic and practitioner journals in socialmedia related areas (IS, Organization Behavior, and Marketing) in the Jstor and Inform databases using the keywords enterprise socialmedia, enterprise social network, socialmedia, social network, online community, social network site, Enterprise 2.0, and Web 2.0. Journals searched included MIS Quarterly, European Journal of Information Systems, Information and Organization, Information System Management, Journal of Information Technology, Harvard Business Review, Sloan Management Review, Organization Science, and Marketing science. Considering that enterprise socialmedia is a relatively new phenomenon, and OSN’s (Online Social Network) development into a global phenomenon started in about 2003 (Berger et al., 2014), we chose a timeframe from 2000 to date for our literature search. The journals’ tables of content are also scanned to pinpoint other articles not caught in databases. Furthermore, selected conference proceedings including HICSS (Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences) and ACIS (International Association for Computer and Information Science) are examined. In the next phase: 1) we checked the reference lists of the articles obtained through the initial search to uncover additional studies; 2) we searched Google Scholar using the same key words to find more articles as a supplement; 3) we use Google Scholar and aforementioned databases to identify articles citing the focal articles determined in the previous stages to further explore valuable papers. In total, this search yielded 59 papers, and after preliminary review, 15 papers were found to be written from the perspective of consumers or public organizations and were excluded. Thus, this research identified a total of 44 papers (34 empirical and 10 conceptual).
Grid infrastructures coupled with semantic web linkage and reasoning open up intriguing new possibilities for scientific collaboration. In this short paper, we outline the research agenda and collaboration technologies under development within the CoAKTinG project: Collaborative Advanced Knowledge Technologies in the Grid. CoAKTinG will provide tools to assist scientific collaboration by integrating intelligent meeting spaces, ontologically annotated media streams from online meetings, decision rationale and group memory capture, meeting facilitation, issue handling, planning and coordination support, constraint satisfaction, and instant messaging/presence. Their integration is illustrated through an extended use scenario.
Diffusion is a macro process concerned with the spread of a new product from its source to the consuming public, in construct. In theory, adoption is a micro process that focuses on the stage through which an individual consumer passes, when deciding to accept or reject a new product (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2010). Dearing (2009) describes diffusion as the process that includes presentation of the new culture elements of cultural elements to the society, acceptance of these elements by society and the integration of the accepted element or elements into the existing culture. It has been indicated that norms and values play a critical part in determining the diffusion and adoption rates of an innovation (Dubois, 1972). The complexity of new technologies’ services was found to be the most influentially factor affecting the adoption of socialmedia networks (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni &, and Sandhu, 2010). According to Hutto, Trewhitt & Briscoe (2011) stipulates that the adoption of new technology dependents on many factors such as the type of technology, the context or culture in which the technology is introduced, and the individual decisions by people within that culture.
Students on the module “Planning & Property Development” Level 5 BSc (Hons) Building Surveying have been assessed on a group project for many years. Due to dissatisfaction with group work, it was decided to try the same approach to group work on the Level 5 Undergraduate module as on the Masters’ Distance Learning module; i.e. a collaborative project with each student creating, and being assessed on, one part of the project, again using a wiki. The students were given the following brief. The site is an actual site in the city. They are given site plans, and taken to examine the site, and the surrounding areas.
This article aimed to analyse the interrelation between design and use, by analyzing to the Care for Better qual- ity collaborative program. Instead of perceiving design and use as successive and linear phases, we wanted to understand what happens when design and use are approached in a more integrative sense. The research ques- tion this article aimed to answer was: How can we understand the attempts of healthcare organisations to inte- grate use perspectives into the design of healthcare technologies? We presented three cases that were all part of the Care for Better collaborative program. This program aimed to serve as an umbrella under which otherwise loose initiatives were bundled. This bundling had the advantage that healthcare technologies developed at one place could be easily implemented at other places. At least this was the intention of the Ministry of Health and ZonMw at the start of the program. The three projects we studied all showed different routes through which technologies were designed and implemented. The first, the incontinence case showed the struggles to include user representations in design and the complexity of integrating these user representations into the content of the guideline. With different organisations that were responsible for either design or implementation, collaboration did not commence. This was therefore a case that illustrated development of a technology without any prospects of a better implementation or a design that meets user needs.
• Manipulating and storing large datasets. Finding the degree distribution or average path length in a social network with hundreds of millions of individuals, or the relative frequency of positive and negative emotion words in a large text corpus (Golder and Macy 2011), could be impractical or impossible on a single computer. However, the problem of computational load can be addressed by parallelizing the task on a computer cluster. Among the most important innovations in computing in the past decade has been the development of the MapReduce programming paradigm (Dean and Ghemawat 2004) and the availability of commodity cloud storage. Developed at Google to process the petabytes of Web pages the search engine collects, MapReduce provides a convenient way to process data that is too large to process (or even fit) on a single computer. A series of transformations are performed in succession on subsets of a large dataset, each of which resides on a different computer or processing node. Following these transformations, aggregations are performed so that summary statistics may be generated. Storing large datasets has similarly been made easier, due to the availability of commodity cloud storage. For example, Amazon.com's Web Services and Microsoft's Azure 11 platform rent Internet-based computing resources, such as servers that
The analyses presented here are of course limited by the two data sets used, neither of which was designed specifically for this analysis. Future research, based on questionnaire tools tailored to an approach such as this, potentially supported by additional social network analysis, would provide a more robust basis result. But, the results of this analysis should not be surprising and they fit well with literature discussed in section 2. Digital technology use can be considered a social 'field' (Bourdieu 1993) therefore it is no surprise to see this field is marked by systems of distinction between different social groups and that some behaviours or access to certain technologies will carry greater cultural capital in that domain. This fits well with Helsper’s (2012) idea of corresponding fields. Having both access to such systems and knowing how best to use these appropriately within any field may be key markers of relevant economic, social and cultural capital.
“Social marketing differs from other areas of marketing only with respect to the objectives of the marketer and his or her organization. Social marketing seeks to influence social behaviors not to benefit the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.”