There are little doubts that the importance of Travel 2.0 features and tools, and specifically of socialmedia environments, is growing fast. Many tourism businesses are, in one way or another, changing their approach to the manners of presenting themselves online (Au, 2010; Jones & Yu, 2010; Schegg et al., 2008). However, most of the studies have assesses so far mainly the social and psychologicaleffects, and have well confirmed the role played as sources of information and areas in which discussing various issues related to travels or stays (Chung & Buhalis, 2008; Inversini & Buhalis, 2009; Kasavana et al., 2010; Parra-Lopez et al., 2010; Schmallegger & Carson, 2008; Xiang & Gretzel, 2010). Some works have also discussed the effects of these tools on the image and the popularity of destinations or other tourism operators, mainly in the hospitality sector, in which the direct contact, real or virtual, with the customer and their crucial role for the good health of the companies (Burgess et al., 2009; Inversini et al., 2009; Matloka & Buhalis, 2010; Sigala, 2010).
It was found that psychological resilience predicted socialmedia addiction significantly and negatively. No research examining psychological resilience’s effect on socialmedia addiction was observed in the literature. The positive relationship between psychological resilience and negative concepts and situations such as social connected ness and recognition about belonging, forgiveness of self, others, and situations, satisfaction with life, optimism and psychological well-being, happiness, positive self-schema, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem (Arslan, ; Karaırmak and Güloğlu ; Eraslan Çapan & Arıcıoğlu ; Ülker Tümlü & Recepoğlu ; Souri & Hasanirad ; Doğan ; Basım & Çetin ; Özer & Deniz ; Karaırmak & Siviş-Çetinkaya ) and the positive relationship between socialmedia addiction and negative concepts and situations such as emotional problems, anxiety, Facebook gaming addiction, and narcissism (Doğan & Karakuş ; Tutgun-Ünal ; Correa, Hinsley and Zuniga ; Al Kord ; Koşan ) make the negative relationship between these two concepts more understandable. It can be inferred from this finding of the research that individuals behave more healthily when they are psychologically resilient, that is, can cope with negative experiences and use their adaptation skills in the face of problematic experience and socialmedia addiction, which is an unhealthy coping strategy, does not emerge.
identity, or companionship (Dimmick, Sikand, and Patterson, 1994; Lin, 1998; Rubin, 1983). Maslow (1970) described these psychological needs as cognitive and emotional in nature. Referring to the study of ‗public self‘ and ‗private self‘ as part of ‗impression management‘ (Goffman, 2002), teens exhibit the same on socialmedia. In addition to the above contemplation, there are certain risks involved while using a socialmedia network such as there is no legal protection or loss investment to the companies due to change in the social network site policies, most of the time it may not be possible to identify the content profile creator(s), disguised advertising, consent of the unsolicited messages (without recipient‘s permission) cannot be assumed out of the fact that the recipient is the follower on the network site, and the use of personal data for advertising purposes may offend privacy (Harting Attorneys at Law – Berlin and Buhlmann Attorneys at Law – Zurich, 2013). The study on cyber bullying by Heidi Vandebosch and Katrien Van Cleemput, 2008 reveals that cyber bullying involves both the perpetrator and the hurtful – the one who is victimized on the basis of repetitive negative online actions. The Cyberbullying Research Center defines cyberbullying as ―willful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices‖(Unicef Report 2017). Another study by Gustavo S. Mesch, 2009 indicates the high participation of parents, especially of adolescents, is inevitable to reduce the risk of being bullied online interpersonal communication. Social isolation, depression and cyber bullying is being reported as harmful effects as a result of high usage of socialmedia sites and calls for a mental healthcare of young people, Paul Best,
The world seems to revolve around the lingo of Twitter these days. Tweeting is a sensation that has hit every industry. Television shows are now promoting handles and hashtags during shows. Twitter Chats, hundreds of chats taking place via Twitter using a specific hashtag, have allowed users of the website acquire more knowledge in minutes than ever before. Twitter Chats are real-time, spontaneous, and allow for all to participate by merely tweeting (Khazan). The Google document containing the number of Twitter Chats is constantly updated, allowing millions to tap into a chance to partake in a chat that would increase their reach, their Klout score, and their number of followers. 140 characters is everyday language to many now. Even the idea of a hashtag being used in offline media is not out of the norm anymore. Some of the differences between Facebook and Twitter are disappearing. Twitter allows for the chance to share photos and videos, and recently, the company started offering their own link shortener in order to allow easier sharing of articles. The wealth of information that can be processed in a short two minutes of strolling through one's Twitter feed has become more than most people used to receive in one day.
The Lean in Healthcare project was used as a case study to incorporate the application of socialmedia for two of the four phases of the research lifecycle; engagement and dissemination. The project team developed a strategy to implement these tools in order to increase SHRSOH¶V LQWHUHVW DQG GLVVHPLQDWH WKH UHVHDUFK RXWFRPHV 7KH research highlighted that socialmedia offers an easy and approachable way for targeting groups of people who might be interested in a particular research topic; keeping them informed of latest project event and disseminating the findings. For a better understanding of how socialmedia can be used, a research seminar that was held during the project was given as an example. This example demonstrated how socialmedia could be used throughout a whole research cycle. In this way, the explanation of the application of socialmedia for engagement and dissemination becomes more understandable and also a brief description of how these tools could be used for planning of a research and execution is given.
Facebook, LinkedIn or Google+ are commonly used, and are referred to as Multiple Online Social Networks (OSN), which they allow people to be connected across the world (Heidemann et al, 2012). Therefore socialmedia is a web browser or a mobile based application which will allow users to be able to customize, create, edit, access and link to content and/ or to other individuals. These will include blogs, wiki, RSS feeds, electronic social networks, content aggregator (TripAdvisor) and location based applications (e.g. foursquare) (Cabiddu, De Carlo, & Piccoli, 2014). Mangold and Faulds (2009) found that socialmedia also known as “user-generated communication” has changed how companies communicated with its customers and that it’s the customers who are now controlling the information thus proliferation of socialmedia has changed how the organization communicates with the consumer thus pursuing a variety of strategies to engage with the consumer (Dholakia & Durham, 2010) The use of OSN was intended to be used for private use (Bughin & Manyika, 2007). A study done by Cone (2008) found that 93% of socialmedia users believed that companies should use socialmedia and that 85% believed that companies should use socialmedia to communicate with its customers. Many companies have included direct links from their WebPages to their socialmedia sites, the use of these tools is to promote their brands as well as support the creation of brand communities (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010; Michaelidou, Siamagka & Christodoulides, 2011).
This finding is crucial to marketers as it explains the attributes that socialmedia users look when they deal, adopt and utilize their socialmedia usage so that in return marketers know what to offer to them. For instance, in showcasing products and services, advertisements may exhibit a sense of fantasy and imagination to attract consumers to buy products/services. Also, opens an opportunity for marketers to offer products or services that incorporate a sense of belongingness, companionship, playfulness, and escapism such as the augmented reality virtual game, Pokemon Go, pet business, dealing with matchmaking business and so forth. As mentioned by Zhu and Chen (2015), United States (US) companies spent $5.1 billion on media advertising but a Gallup survey revealed that advertisements had little influence on the majority of consumers buying decisions. Authors also noted that the loophole of this problem is caused by failure to identify market segments and potential psychological motives of users. Therefore, other than focusing on the products and services, marketers might also consider choosing socialmedia platforms that can offer tension release gratifications such as YouTube, Instagram, Snapchat, WeChat and so forth as medias to market their products and services. Nowadays, most marketers choose these platforms to target audiences and improve sales with investment in socialmedia advertising (Whiting & Williams, 2013; Rodriquez, Ajjan, & Peterson, 2016).
Network effects are identified by isolating the surprises caused solely by the presence of in-stream ads. YouTube bundles video content with in-stream ads, which are intrusive to many consumers. 9 The presence of in-stream ads is a negative shock that can reduce the viewer base. If network effects exist on YouTube, the negative shock lowers the growth rate of views at time 1, and then it further lowers the growth rate at time 2. As time goes on, we should see a significantly negative self-reinforcing feedback loop. However, such a negative shock does not contain any information of the video quality. If social learning is the sole form of social contagion, the Bayesian learning process remains unchanged. The negative shock can decrease the viewership at time 1, but the long run growth rate of video views should not be affected significantly (no self-reinforcing feedback loop). 10 If a consumer is shown an ad before the video, one may think this could impact social learning in that this would result in lower consumer satisfaction and more negative word of mouth. However, the additional information about ads from the peers is redundant. When consumers make decisions on whether to watch the video, they know whether the video contains an ad. 11 In summary, if there exists only social learning with network effects absent, the presence of ads is a transitory shock that does not have significant long run effect. If network effects exist, the presence of ads results in a negative self-reinforcing feedback loop.
About 1.5 billion people around the globe have an account on social networking sites, and almost one in five online hours is spent on social networks – increasingly via mobile devices (Chui et al., 2012). The study indicates that by 2011, 72% of companies surveyed reported using socialmedia technologies in their businesses and 90% of those users reported that they are seeing benefits. The findings in this study suggest another encouraging opportunity available on socialmedia for companies as far as increasing sales figure is concerned. Non-profit organisations are also embracing the opportunities and the use of socialmedia with 92% of their websites including at least one socialmedia link (Mashable SocialMedia, 2011). Just as many companies are currently adopting the use of various socialmedia platforms to develop a stronger consumer-brand relationships, non-profit organisations are also realising that socialmedia provides a great opportunity to engage and foster conversations and interactions. It is also relatively cheaper in terms of advertisements as compared to the traditional means such as radio or TV advertisements, billboards etc. (ibid).
It is interesting to note that this idea of social, conversational marketing media has been around for decades and did not just emerge with the Internet. One of the more successful socialmedia strategies before the emergence of the Internet was the launch of the Michelin Guide. While Michelin is more commonly known today for meeting travel needs, back in 1900 it was struggling to find its footing as a tire company. Brothers Edouard and Andre Michelin wanted to build their car and bicycle tire brand and realized that they could engage their potential customers by producing a travel guide that used independent inspectors to rate the quality of restaurants and hotels (Madden, 2010). The guide focused more on food than it did on tires, as that was more relevant to their customers’ interests. The travel guide, which also promoted Michelin tires, engaged Michelin’s potential customers in the process and became an overwhelming success. Its success is proof that conversation, participation, and customer relationship marketing are the building blocks for a successful marketing and business strategy.
In the last ten years, the online world has changed dramatically. Thanks to the invention of socialmedia, young men and women now exchange ideas, feelings, personal information, pictures and videos at a truly astonishing rate. Studies show that that the socialmedia sites encourage negative behaviors for teen students such as procrastination. However, every day many students are spending countless hours immersed in socialmedia, such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, Watsup…etc. It also helps students to develop important knowledge and social skills and be active citizens who create and share content. At present, whether the Socialmedia is favorable or unfavorable; many students utilize these sites on a daily basis. As socialmedia sites continue to grow in popularity it is our belief that technology is a vital part of today’s student success equation. Many researchers have been diving into a considerable amount of research on how socialmedia influences student retention at colleges. Many parents are worried that their children who are studying in colleges are spending too much time on Facebook and other socialmedia sites and not enough time for studying. Therefore, our research ascertains the relationship between the socialmedia and students’ study efficiency. This study is also an attempt to find out the impact of socialmedia on college going students in Bangalore city. Later 150 number of sampling was taken from all over city for the study to draw the conclusion.
However, partly due to a lack of complete temporal data, there are several fundamental differences between the above mentioned studies and our work. First, we find a sharp thres- hold or phase transition that roughly approximates the limit on the amount of information socialmedia users can pro- cess (read and possibly forward) (Fig. 2(b)). This allows us to identify users that are overloaded. Instead, no sharp threshold exists on the number of ties a user can distribute attention across (Hodas and Lerman 2012, Fig. 3). Second, we uncover key properties of the users’ reading and forwar- ding policies and find dramatic qualitative and quantitative differences between non overloaded and overloaded users. These differences have important implications for the large and growing number of studies on information propagation and social contagion. In contrast, previous studies could not unveil most of these differences. Third, our work explores to which extent the probability of adoption of an idea, so- cial convention, or product, or more generally, a contagion, depends on the socialmedia user’s in-flow and finds stri- king differences on the susceptibility for social contagion of users with different in-flows. Instead, Backstrom et al. and Miritello et al. do not investigate social contagion; Hodas et al. only pays attention to one type of contagion, urls, and analyzes to which extent the probability of forwarding a url depends on the number of ties a user distribution attention across. Finally, our work naturally extends existing models of information and influence propagation to support back- ground traffic. The extended models are able to capture two important features for information cascades: cascade sizes are limited and a few cascades have prolonged lifetimes. In contrast, previous work does not provide any roadmap or ideas on how to incorporate their findings in terms of num- ber of ties to well-known information and influence propa- gation models.
Wallerstein (1992) already found that stronger social networks support community empowerment. These networks can be enhanced through websites and online communication. New technologies such as Web 2.0 have this potential. This is also underlined by Seale et al. (2005), who explain that web forums are a rich source of data about illnesses and gender differences, and are platforms for an intensification of people’s knowledge gathering activities. Seale et al. found that web forums, although they are actually publicly visible, appear to be subjectively experienced by both sexes as relatively private places for the exchange of intimate personal information. In addition to this, Van Uden-Kraan et al. (2009) found that participation in online support groups can make a valuable contribution to the empowerment of patients. Furthermore, a study by Demiris (2006) indicated that virtual communities may empower patients and enhance coordination of care services; however, there is not sufficient systematic evidence of the effectiveness of virtual communities on clinical outcomes or patient empowerment yet.
revolutionized three major components of fan engagement. First, it illustrates how socialmedia dramatically increases the immediacy by which fans receive sport news and information. Before the widespread use of socialmedia, fans who missed a game would have to wait for the nightly sports broadcast on television, or the headline in the “Sports” section of the paper the next day in order to see the score. Now, socialmedia platforms like Twitter have given fans to access to an unlimited wealth of information, scores, and in-game highlights – as the game unfolds. For example, many sport organizations and sport fans engage in the practice of “live-tweeting,” which can be defined as posting on Twitter for a continuous period of time with a sequence of focused Tweets documenting a live event. In a similar manner, Burmistrov was able to notify his fans of his status as he was being evaluated at the hospital. This strategy, among others, has redefined the way fans consume sport.
The first cluster formed consists of 36.9% of the total respondents who do not really engage in socialmedia activities, and have a negative reaction towards networking activities, expressing themselves or being a spectator online, perhaps due to their high level of privacy concern. Also, they have socialmedia profiles for more than 3 years, they seem to log in several times a day and just browse around socialmedia websites for 5 to 15 minutes. However, they have a positive outlook on online advertising and have frequently clicked on such advertisements with the intent to purchase or find out more information.
This study was designed to evaluate the positive and negative effects of socialmedia on the academic performances of students. The results of descriptive analysis illustrated that most of the students believed that socialmedia are very useful tools in their studies. Accordingly, that can help them to boost university related activities. The respondents described socialmedia as educational tools in their studies. So, it is expected that socialmedia positively affect students’ academic performances. The results interestingly describe that undergraduates in Alberoni University mostly inclined to use socialmedia in a good manner; that is to improve their knowledge and information. Additionally, socialmedia may enable students to communicate effectively with their peers to solve their classes’ problems, as they described socialmedia as effective tools used for communication. Also students use socialmedia to get their respective lecturers and faculty members’ announcements. Then, socialmedia enable them to be in touch with classmates and friends in order to improve their communication skills (Benraghda and Radzuan, 2018) and receive lecturers, faculty and university announcements which are much more important for them. Raut and Patil (2016) also stated the use of socialmedia has been made a positive impact on the society. It enables users to communicate with each other, to create, revise and share new forms of textual, visual and audio content. It has a vital effect on our live as it helps us a lot in every field of life such as the political, economic and educational fields.
completed was an Instagram-style quick-write at the beginning of a class period to explain their views on the pros and cons of technology. This quick-write took place the day after the class had read several informational texts about the benefits and drawbacks of technology, and students were asked to use the quick-write as a way to review their own thoughts on the topic. Using the online web tool Padlet, which acts as a collaborative bulletin board, students posted Instagram- style quick-writes including both text and an image. While the format of the post itself mimicked Instagram (text plus an image), the collaborative format of Padlet allowed for the writing task to take on the “social” element of socialmedia and further explore how audience might impact students’ writing processes. As students began posting to Padlet, they quickly realized that they could view each other’s posts in real-time as edits were made and pictures were added. During this work time, students were mostly quiet as they navigated the Padlet screen, searched for images to represent their ideas, and clicked back to the articles to review their notes. One conversation that I noted in my observations emerged as especially important to the pattern of audience. These two students, Jake and Cierra, sit at the same table in the classroom, but they rarely work together, choosing instead to work independently.
Significant psychological impacts, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have been associated with a patients’ under sedation in Intensive Care Units (ICU). It however remains undefined if and how sedation is related to post-ICU psychological outcomes. This literature review explores the relationships between sedation, the depth of sedation and psychological disorders. A review of existing literature was undertaken systematically using key terms and included peer reviewed primary research and randomised controlled trials (RCT). To ensure subject relevance pre-2006, non-English and paediatric based research were excluded. Findings highlighted that reduced sedation levels did not significantly reduce the outcome of PTSD yet reduced ICU length of stay and length of mechanical ventilation (MV) were both associated with lighter sedation. Further research is recommended in terms of more specific factual and delusional memories post-ICU in comparison to the level of sedation administration and the relationship to psychological distress.
As a remedy, they argue for the need for a more interdisciplinary approach to history teaching that benefits from the social psychologi- cal literature of the study of intergroup relations (McCully and Reilly, Chap. 12 ). From this perspective, what is needed is a curriculum that attends more directly to the student’s active construction of histori- cal meaning and supports them in constructing critical perspectives on the contemporary relevance of the past through the cultivation of emo- tional empathy for the outgroupers. It is also important to understand through Social Identity Theory (Tajfel 1978 ) how simplistic binary oppo- sitions are created through categorizations and the consequences of that for the formation of homogenizing views of the ingroup and the out- group. Students must be helped to understand why some people feel the need to use and abuse history. Recent socialpsychological work offers one possible answer to this question. Smeekes et al. ( 2017 ) show that in both Northern Ireland and Cyprus when individuals experience a perceived sense of realistic or symbolic or identity threats (Branscombe et al. 1999 ) it becomes more likely that they attempt to regain a sense of ingroup pride through recourse to a sense of collective continuity (Sani 2008 ; Smeekes 2015 ; Smeekes and Verkuyten 2015 ). Recent stud- ies have pointed out that the continuity motive is an important part of various types of group identity (e.g. easterbrook and Vignoles 2013 ) and plays an important role in intergroup relations (e.g. Smeekes and Verkuyten 2015 ). It has, for example, been shown that collective self- continuity forms an important basis for national identification, but at the same time drives ingroup defensive reactions in the context of group threat (Smeekes and Verkuyten 2015 ) by creating more negative atti- tudes towards immigrants.