We seek to make a fresh intervention to the socialmodel debates. Where our approach differs from previous interventions is that we do not seek to determine whether the model is right or wrong i e in relation to its explanation of for disability but rather to understand what it is and how it operates To achieve this, we begin by adopting (awes 975, 111) distinction between theory and model, understanding the former as providing explanation and the latter as a representation (description) of salient structural and/or functional features, properties, or characteristics of another object or proces s Debates about the socialmodel s explanatory capacity are therefore problematic, since the socialmodel is a model not a theory and does not, therefore, provide explanation for the disablement process it describes this process. Seeking to understand how the model operates is, however, more feasible according to this understanding of a model To do this one must first understand the model s origins. As most readers of this journal will know, the socialmodel did not emerge from the academy. It was born of resistance on the part of disability activists resistance instigated by Paul Hunt in 1972 (letter in the Guardian 20 th September) and progressed
The European socialmodel remains a controversial issue. The analysts agreed this concept remains a desideratum quite difficult to attain, so they identified a series of social models. The social systems, the European social policies are characterized by diversity. The differences are a result of the paths followed by the 27 states of the Union along the last 50 years of European integration. The last 12 states which adhered to the EU in 2004 and 2007, especially the former communist countries, because of the economic transition to the capitalist system, they have come up with social policies different from the ones in the EU15, thus a new European socialmodel being questioned by the expansion of the EU. Nevertheless, socially, Europe is different from USA or other countries in the world. We can assert that, from this point of view, the differences between the EU countries seem minor and the similitude more visible.
The European socialmodel is only possible because Europeans accept the importance of the state. In the USA the state is often seen as bad in itself, as a necessary evil. Hence political extremists in the USA, such as the Minutemen, attack the state as such. By contrast in Europe the necessity of the state has much firmer acceptance, so that political extremists like the IRA are quite likely to cheerfully murder people, but consider that the state is the wrong state. Interwoven with the acceptance of the state is the acceptance of a public sphere - of an area of society which belongs to all citizens as of right. Here in the public sphere things are done not for profit, but for the general good. A public transport system may not actually be provided by the state, but it is provided for the public. 'Public service broadcasting' - a concept almost
The socialmodel is about the barriers that disabled people face. For example, if a wheelchair-user cannot climb stairs, then a ramp or a stair lift should be fitted. If a blind person cannot read written information then the solution is to provide it in an alternative format such as audio or braille.
Chapter 4 considers ‘the lived experiences of 11 young people with autism5 and presents an analysis of 1350 photographs taken by them. The use of photography in social sciences research has been termed ‘autophotography5 (Emmison and Smith, 2000:36). Autophotography is a term, which describes the process of the research subject taking the photograph, with the analytical task of interpreting the photograph remaining with the researcher. In this research, the task of analysis was a combined process with the young people, as the interview was used as a basis to discuss the image and to clarify what meaning the photograph had to the person. The literature on the use of autophotography reveals that photographs can reveal personality types, gender/sex role differences and concepts of self. For example, women are more likely than men to provide photographs of themselves, men are likely to include photographs on leisure activities as well as pictures of prized possessions such as cars or motorcycles (Clancy and Dollinger, 1993). Shy people are less likely to include other people in their depictions of self (Ziller and Rorer, 1985).
One way of increasing or sustaining informed knowledge of practice is to develop a means of evaluating nursing within its social context. Current reflective mechanisms, by their very nature, are a means of justifying and questioning what one does from a personal perspective, and if reflection as a technique is still left to chance and nurses are unsure about how reflection works (Shih et al., 2009) then very little corroboration will come about. Moreover, theoretical understandings of reflection do not offer much in way of assistance, instead they provide ideas that offer what seems like ambiguous theories with little applicatory relevance. In contrast, what the socialmodel does is acknowledge the power of the caring collective in influencing care delivery from the perspective of the professional in practice. Theories in nursing are mostly felt to be relevant when they can be practised; therefore, where theories make a prediction, a model implies how to get a prediction. This being so, the following social purpose model is devised:
Starbucks is a big brand around the world. The statistics about S tarbucks tell that company is effectively using social media channels for making and emotional connect with the customers. Starbucks has 37.32 million Facebook likes, 6.56 million Twitter followers, 2.89 million Instagram fans and 2.86 million Google + followers(Huff, 2014). The company use eye-catchy pictures, images and ultra-clever videos to make an emotional connect with the customers. The company also create several quizzes and questions about the new products and beverages to be introduced at Starbucks. The comments and answers of the customers clarify their opinions and accordingly company can make a change in the products. The company is strategically using Twitter to attract the customers and making a bond with them. There are not posting daily on Twitter. Starbucks team post unique content on Twitter and they also use Twitter as a service to reach out to customers and talking about their in-store and product experiences.
The technique used to implement two factor authentication in this model, is an email based approach. When a user initiates a login session and passes the first stage of authentication (traditional username/email and password), the system sends a randomly generated one time password token to the user‘s email address and redirects the user to another page within the site which requires the one- time password concurrently (Ikhalia & Imafidon, 2013). The user must navigate to the email address containing the randomly generated password token and supply it before access to the system is granted. This security model is now in huge demand by the industry and implementing an email based two factor authentication method is feasible and cost effective when compared with the SMS approach. Retrospectively, this new security enhancement will reduce security vulnerabilities faced by social media victims of spear phishing, session hijacking, identity and data theft (Yee, 2004).
These users are two or more hops away from one another. ( e.g., friends of friends (FOF) or friends of friends of friends (FOFOF) ). This category also includes two users that are in the online social network that have absolutely no relation between them. It means between two online users no relation present between them. One of the more subtle issues in protecting user data from other users is the spread of sensitive, partially private content. The key difference between this and the previous section is malicious users accessing other user content directly vs. indirectly. A malicious user accesses information indirectly when some third party user spreads that information. Social networks typically try to define some set of rules for the online user to define who can view their information and who cannot. Anybody, however, is allowed to publish information.The main problem with these online social networking sites is that users that have access to the sensitive, hidden data of another online user can simply use their ability to publish to spread that data to online users whom are not supposed to have access to it or not supposed to can see it.
In order to implement the practice of different participants, each available resource, whether material (structures) or intangible (human resources), is utilized; this became elemental and has through time been the topic of discussion on the modus operandi and the reform efforts concerning the social policy of the Federal Republic of Germany. Hence, today the form of the social policy model takes into consideration, not only the Christian principles of solidarity and collectivism, but also the principle of personal responsibility within the context of social pluralism (Koffas, 2009, p. 118). Additionally the significant social, economic and demographic changes such as population fluctuations, the increase of life expectancy, frequent changes in the employment relationship, pose imperatively the need for synergy among the market economy, collective responsibility, but also individual contribution/participation of each person in a specified manner (Frerich & Frey, 1996). As a result, the German state by adhering to social pluralism and the social market economy instituted, also by law, certain agencies as formal partners in the exercise of social policy by creating the dual social policy model of the social state (Falterbaum, 2009, p.112). It is a very distinct model whose effectiveness is beyond doubt; its operation is a topic of study which could inspire other countries in regard to the synergy of the agencies involved for the better utilization of resources. The excellent working relationship of the agencies involved and the coordination of the overall effort by the state is what makes this model remarkable.
It is interesting to compare Model 3 with other mod- els of social inﬂuence. Threshold models of collective be- haviour [19,20] form probably the simplest class of models showing similar phenomenology. In these models, an agent participates in an activity if some proportion of the popu- lation (the agent’s threshold) also does so. Bistability can appear when the population is homogeneous (the thresh- old distribution is sharply peaked around a given value). Our model is similar to this class in that diﬀerent agents require diﬀerent amounts of social input in order to show the same level of activity (due to diﬀerent intrinsic inter- ests, m). The random-ﬁeld Ising model , which can also be used to modelsocial phenomena [11,22,23], shows sim- ilar phenomenology, with multi-stability arising for small disorder and low noise. In this case, the local ﬁelds of the random-ﬁeld Ising model would correspond to intrinsic in- terest of our model. The key ingredients of all these models are a heterogeneous population and a nonlinear inﬂuence function.
Furthermore, Arcobaleno is part of the Abele Lavoro Social Consortium together with 3 others Social Cooperatives, for a total of almost 600 workers and a turnover of more than 24 million euros. Arcobaleno provides quality services in the sectors of recycling and waste treatment; food and beverage production, design, training and software development, archiving optics and document management, research and development (alternative energy, recovery materials, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical). Additionally, the network in particular is part of the Abele Group network, No Profit founded by Don Ciotti in Turin and since 1965 has dealing with rights and justice, proximity to this in difficulty and commitment to removing all that creates marginalization, inequality, loss. Among the activities, but not least, also the membership of Libera, no profit founded by Don Ciotti that deals with the fight against organized mafias with the protection of vulnerable people, reintegration of young people from areas affected by the phenomenon and recovery and use of real estate confiscated from the mafia. The attention to the model and the networks of which it is part make it a case study of excellence to evaluate aspects of sustainability, social innovation and social impact. The CEO's statement clearly represents the corporate vision: "Creating income and work for those discarded by society", transforming a segment of the population with few tools and even fewer opportunities. The model contributes to the theories provided by Murdock (Nicholls & Murdock, 2012), Franceschelli et al. (2018) and based on the sustainable business model and assessment of the actual impact (Salzberg, Gough, & Suen, 2019).
social reinstatement relates to sociality in general is perti- nent. In the case of the social reinstatement assay, perhaps the largest body of works concerns two lines of Japanese quail selected for high and low social reinstatement. These selected bird lines have then been assessed for a wide variety of social assays to determine the extent to which selec- tion for social reinstatement can affect other aspects of sociality. Launay et al. (1991) found that high social reinstatement birds spent longer associating with conspeciﬁcs when given a paired goal box (one box empty, one box containing conspeciﬁcs). Two more studies found that when looking at pairs of high social reinstatement individuals in an open ﬁeld arena they had a signiﬁcantly shorter interindividual distance as compared to the low social reinstatement birds (Mills et al. 1992). High social reinstatement birds will even associate with conspeciﬁcs at the expense of food and water access and will also use social facil- itation to learn to eat a novel food source by copying a conspe- ciﬁc “teacher” (Mills et al. 1997). Furthermore, high social reinstatement birds show a nonspeciﬁc attraction for social con- speciﬁcs (Schweitzer et al. 2009) and have a consistently stable emotional reactivity, even in the face of high social instability (Schweitzer and Arnould 2010). The above studies therefore indicate that such social reinstatement tests do measure a com- ponent of sociality, but that anxiety-related behavior is also in- volved in the assay.
replications (for example, Axelrod, 1997a, p.191) statistical tests can be applied to the hypothesis that two programs have produced the same model. To assist such groups further, Axelrod made available online the code for his model written in Pascal as well as a simpler version in both Pascal and Visual Basic (Axelrod, 1996b). Again, since the program depends on a random number generator, we cannot hope to produce exactly the same output if we run it ourselves (unless we could reproduce the exact same stream of random numbers – supplying a file with the millions of numbers used in Axelrod’s experiments was probably not a reasonable request for mid-1990s research). However, the ACM and its extensions are abstract systems, about which we wish to make qualitative conclusions rather than quantitative ones - for example: that there is an S-curve with respect to some parameter (Castellano et al, 2000; Klemm et al, 2003b), rather than that the output at this parameter value had a mean of 0.48 from 100 replications. Supplying code helps ensure that we operate with the same definitions in a model – especially important in the case of output measures. In its absence mathematical expressions may be given to perform the same role – as found in the papers in physics journals (see the group above), but not found in the Journal of Conflict Resolution (e.g. Grieg, 2002). In the light of all this we concluded that Axelrod’s cultural model was a satisfactory starting point for further research, and the technical papers by Klemm et al reliable examples of extensions.
In this research-in-progress study, I propose a conceptual model to examine the factors affecting attidude , intention to use and continuance intention of social media services from companies perspectives. Organizations should consider putting in place general computer training programs that target increasing computer awareness, enhancing computer self- efficacy, and reducing computer anxiety among employees that interact with customers in online. One of the areas that has not been exploited in practice is the potential for intrinsic motivation to enhance companies acceptance and usage. Much prior research [11, Davis et al., 1992], [25, Malone, 1981], [48, Webster and Martocchio, 1992], [47, Venkatesh and Speier, 1999] has found intrinsic motivation to be an important factor influencing acceptance and learning from individuals user perspective .
streaming as well as 45% of the distributable profits of the co-operative. Fans also receive a patronage refund of 35% of distributable profits. Resonate’s SE trading model is operationalised through a ‘stream to own’ system; fans pay an increasing amount with each stream of a music track until the 9th stream. After this, they own the track and can play it as much as they like. Fans not only pay less than half the cost of a monthly subscription compared to Apple Music or Spotify (for about 2 hours streaming per day), they pay the equivalent of an iTunes download to the musician(s) after 9 streams of a single track; it would take 150 streams on Spotify for musicians to receive the same amount. The ‘stream to own’ system reinvents streaming to benefit artists and fans, rather than the private owners of music companies. Resonate describe this strategy on their website as ‘pay for every play’ 5 , with
There are also several international standardised outcome measures for social work practice evaluation (e.g. Fischer & Corcoran, 2007a, 2007b; Shlonsky, Saini, & Meng-Jia, 2007; Thomlison, 2010). Examples of measures for substance misuse include Addiction Severity Index (Treatment Research Institute) and Addiction Severity Assessment Tool (ASAT) (Butler et al., 2005), which were not sufficient for our purposes. A method should fit to the context of the specific evaluation and research (Julnes & Mark, 1998, p47). Although some context-specific evaluations have been developed in Finland (e.g. Kemppainen et al., 2010) and elsewhere (Hancock, 2006; Luoma, Drake, Kohlenberg, & Hayes, 2011; Halterman, Rodin, & Walters, 2012), none of these included models for effectiveness evaluation among substance users in this respect. Therefore, an evaluation model for practice development that can be utilised in the practical settings of social work was needed.
In the second phase (i.e instrument design), the study focuses on creating instrument to be used in data collection. The instrument is based on the outcome of phase 1. The instrument is designed to represent the factors of the four components of SECI; Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization. Once the instrument is ready, data collection is performed on 61 trainees who has been involved in multi-level marketing (MLM). The data collection (face to face) is divided into 2 stages where stage 1 includes the identification of socialization and externalization factors and stage 2 produces the factors for combination and internalization. Following the data collection phase is the Data Analysis which was performed using Smart PLS software and SPSS. Smart PLS is employed as it allows the analysis of all the factors simultaneously. Based on the analysis, the study then proposed a SECI model to be used in transferring knowledge in social commerce domain (Figure 3).
Over the past, diverse social networks have experiencing a speedy progress. It is estimated that there will be roughly 3.13 billion active social network users wide-reaching in 2017. well-liked social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, etc. have paying attention by hundreds of millions of people to exchange a few words with each other on their platforms. Facebook, for example, has involved about 1.42 billion lively users for every month, while that of Twitter is concerning 0.3 billion. As one can see, social network is fetching essential division of people daily lives. In the current moment, social network associated big business is also in a hurry growing. As reported by Facebook annual statement, its profits in 2016 is 14.47billion US dollars and more than 90% of its profit is from marketing transactions. The basis for such a huge advertising value is as there is a very big amount of users lively conversing on Social networks. Their dynamic communication directs to remarkable quantity of opening for advertising put on view. Therefore, growing Social network energy is always the main concern for the inflexible day by day operation.
Abstract. Several network models have been proposed to explain the link structure observed in online social networks. This paper addresses the problem of choosing the model that best fits a given real world network. We implement a model selection method based on un-supervised learning. An alternating de- cision tree is trained using synthetic graphs generated according to each of the models under consideration. We use a broad array of features, with the aim of representing different structural aspects of the network. Features include the frequency counts of small subgraphs (graphlets) as well as features capturing the degree distribution and small world property. Our method correctly classi- fies synthetic graphs, and is robust under perturbations of the graphs. We show that the graphlet counts alone are sufficient in separating the training data, indicating that graphlet counts are a good way of capturing network structure. We tested our approach on four Facebook graphs from various American Uni- versities. The models that best fit this data are those that are based on the principle of preferential attachment.