The social provisioning process is one of them that provides a social and processual-historical account as to how the economy is organized and reproduced. The social provisioning process is thus situated in the long intellectual tradition, which views the economy as an embedded part of society (as discussed earlier), and which concerns the material basis of the society as an outcome of the open-ended interaction or struggle between human beings and nature, between social classes, and between agency and social structures (as discussed later). Provisioning is a vast range of activities, including both market and non-market, paid and unpaid activities, undertaken by human agents and going-concern organizations for the sake of their survival and reproduction. Consider the provisioning of goods under capitalism. It is a course of action encompassing the use of resources, production, sales, and consumption. Its starting point is the business enterprise’s decision to produce consumption (or surplus) goods given production technology that determines the use of particular resources produced by other sectors of the economy (recall the earlier discussion of circular-surplus production economy). Household consumption is thus dependent upon the production decision to the extent that household wage incomes are earned as a reward for selling labor power to the business enterprise (or the capitalist class in general). That is, the business enterprise creates the demand for labor by creating jobs with speciﬁc labor skills. Moreover, the welfare of the working class is controlled by the business enterprise via controlling the wage rates and producing wage goods that are necessary for the working class (Veblen 1919, 160-163). The provisioning of goods, therefore, is closely linked to the provisioning of technology, employ- ment, and welfare, that are further rooted in the division of classes legitimizing the uneven distribution of socio-economic power qua agency and of distribution
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To illustrate this point, the production of surplus goods are determined by the capitalist agency given technical conditions (that determine the use of various inputs), its capital- ist value (the business principle—efficiency and profitability rather than serviceability). In turn investment, employment, financing decisions follow. In the society where the absentee ownership and its vested interests are dominant, the provisioning of goods are coordinated in favor of the vested interests of the capitalist agency. In another soci- ety where social cohesion and environmental concern are emphasized over the business principle, the production and distribution of surplus goods are coordinated following a different causal mechanism. Consequently, the social surplus consists of the goods and services determined by the values and forces that create the social activities which the provisioning process underwrites (Adams 1991; Clark 1992). Therefore the social provisioning perspective, when it is dealt with carefully, enables us to understand the fundamentals of the socio-economic system and their consequences on human agency and the ecological system, while neoclassicism, as defined by Robbins (1932), does not allow one to go wider than market exchanges. 3
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The article discusses consumption as a social process that is a part of social provisioning and is in an evolutionary interplay with other social processes. The discussion is grounded in, but is not limited to the contributions of Thorstein Veblen. The first section delineates social provisioning as a framework for consumption inquiry. This section emphasizes that social provisioning is a part of collective life process embedded in culture and nature, and that it is comprised by two general sets of activities – those motivated by money and those that are not motivated by making money. The second section delineates features of capitalism as a system, so that it provides a social context for consumption inquiry. The third section formulates a categorization of social processes, one of which is the consumption process. Further, the section delineates the meaning and components of the concepts: social activities, institutions, and habits of life and thought. The fourth section applies these concepts to consumption social process in the specific context of capitalism. The section discusses consumption activities; institutions and systems of provision; and habits of life and thought – illustrating with examples obtained from various disciplines. The section introduces “gated consumption” as an example of a habit of life and thought. It is argued that the formulated analysis transcends the cultural-material dualism. Finally, the article draws implications of the offered analysis, concluding that the category of “consumers” is of little use to heterodox economics.
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Within the capitalist system the delineated social processes may take distinctive forms within the two components of social provisioning - activities motivated by making money and those that are not motivated by money, which is illustrated by Table 3. In bold are signified those topics that have been traditionally the focus of monetary theory of production. Here I locate those in a broader framework by delineating social processes all of which are part of the economy. The point of delineating monetary-non-monetary distinction of motivation in organizing activities is not an argument of actual separate monetary and non-monetary spheres. The analytical distinction between social activities which organization is driven by making money, and those that are not (but nonetheless are impacted by money and commodities) is dichotomous rather than dualistic. A dichotomy breaks analytically the social provisioning process in two to allow the study of diverse motives and methods of valuation. The pieces are put back together into one reality of social provisioning process. On the contrary, dualism treats those as separate spheres of reality, and establishes hierarchical oppositions (Sturgeon 1991, p. 138; Jennings 1999; Todorova 2009). Further, the analytical distinction between monetary and non-monetary motives is not identical to a distinction between a state and a market sphere – as pecuniary motives and valuation enter a state’s activities too, as evident under neoliberalism (Galbraith 2008). Consequently, the distinction depicted in the table is made not to create neatly defined impenetrable spheres of autonomous activities, but to provide the basis of analysis where social provisioning is not identical to monetary exchange, and humans have other dimensions than market participation and material provisioning.
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While the problem of economic instability and depressed effective demand is central across regions subject to capitalist production, we need a consideration of the consequence of adopting any blanket macroeconomic policy that assumes a desire to preserve (or enhance) these very capitalist relations. To the extent that local communities may already engage in other ways of organizing their social provisioning (not necessarily based at all on wage work), it is legitimate to ask would ELR be in conflict with these values. The decentralized character of ELR’s administration distinguishes the program from other policies of the capitalist state, nonetheless, it is the institution of wage work – the main feature of capitalist relations - that is at the center of ELR. Consequently, in addition to the different macroeconomic realities such as market competitiveness of “developing” economies, the problem of what constitutes development cannot be ignored. Since the objective of an ELR is to reduce instability in capitalist production, there is of course an assumption that capitalist development is the end-in-view (albeit transformed), while in fact developing countries and local communities, at least theoretically, have other options for social provisioning, even under the conditions of capitalist globalization.
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Further discussion of these issues of creative work and the distribution of surplus under capitalism, that address in detail Sen and Nussbaum’s ambiguous views in this regard , can be found in Duzenli (2015), Spencer (2015), and Levine and Rizvi (2005). Other relevant discussion is contained in larger literatures regarding alienation, exploitation and ‘commodity fetishism’ (Brown et al. 2007). For the purposes of this paper, two points can be emphasised. Firstly, though there are fierce debates on the details, it is clear that in some way capitalistic provisioning threatens fundamental dimensions of objective well-being, whether in work or outside it. Therefore, assessment of the nature and level of well-being cannot ignore these abstract Contextual issues regarding the character of capitalism. Secondly, however, in order to comprehend the nature and level of well-being, it is necessary to introduce much more concrete aspects of Context in a way that retains, develops and augments the aforementioned insights. We argue below that the application of political economy to explanation of the contemporary period of capitalism does just this.
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visioning, which varies the provisioning of tasks that are part of complex work- flows according to the performance characteristics of the service providers [1; 2]. In our previous work, we showed that our strategy achieves an almost four-fold improvement over static strategies that do not provision services in a flexible manner. However, so far, we have assumed accurate information to be available to the service-consuming agent (more specifically, we assumed accurate failure probabilities and service duration distributions). In this report, we conduct a sensitivity analysis to examine how our strategy performs in the presence of in- accurate information (e.g., when the service consumer has to base its decisions on limited previous interactions or even incorrect trust sources).
Offspring provisioning rates were measured during 1 h nest observations conducted at least 15 m from the nest and using a portable hide if no natural hiding place was available. In a small number of cases, manual observations were not possible (e.g. if the nest was inside a culvert) and so recordings were made using a Panasonic HC-V160 video camera placed at least 5 m from the nest. For both manual observations and video recordings, the 1 h observation period did not begin until after the first time an adult visited the nest. This minimised the effect of observer or camera presence on provisioning rates, although very few birds ever seemed aware of the observer or camera and in the vast majority of cases offspring provisioning took place within a few minutes of the observer hiding or leaving the camera in place. Provisioning rates were measured by simply counting the total number of feeds made by the two parents during the hour. For each nest, observations were conducted between dawn and noon once in each of the three weeks of the nestling period: on day 2, day 10 or 11, and day 17 or 18.
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To address these shortcomings, we investigate the process of pro- visioning service workflows in environments where service success is not generally guaranteed. We show that the current approach of provisioning single providers is insufficient in such environments, and then advance the state of the art by developing several strate- gies that deal proactively with unreliable providers. This is achieved by provisioning several redundant service providers for a single task in order to reduce the associated failure probability, and by provi- sioning new providers to those tasks that appear to have failed. We also develop a novel heuristic that provisions workflows in a flexi- ble manner depending on the characteristics of the service providers. Specifically, our heuristic provisions more providers to tasks that are particularly likely to fail, while relying on fewer providers when suc- cess is more certain. In order to verify our approach, we report our empirical results that show the value of flexible service provisioning over the na¨ıve approach. In particular, we show that our heuristic suc- cessfully completes over 90% of its workflows in most environments where current approaches complete none. Furthermore, the results indicate that our heuristic achieves a 350% improvement in average utility over the na¨ıve strategy.
We found that the inter-speciﬁc variation in cooperative care provided by helpers in avian cooperative breeding systems is consistent with Hamilton’s Rule: helper contributions to brood care increases as the relatedness of helpers to recipients increases. This ﬁnding provides an explanation for at least some of the previously unexplained variation in helper investment across species. Furthermore, this conclusion supports the ﬁndings of previous meta-analyses of intraspeciﬁc variation in helper effort that revealed consistent discrimination in favour of kin by helpers 20,21 . Of course, this does not necessarily imply that kin-selected gains are the sole ﬁtness beneﬁts derived by helpers in avian cooperative breeding systems, where cooperation may also yield direct ﬁtness beneﬁts, for example, increased survivorship or inheritance of the breeding territory 14 . Overall, however, our ﬁndings reafﬁrm the central role of relatedness in the expression of cooperative behaviours in the light of recent debate 38–40 and demonstrate the continuing utility of inclusive ﬁtness theory in our understanding of social evolution.
We have presented a prediction-based, cost-efficient Virtual Machine (VM) provisioning and admission control approach for multi-tier web applications. It provides automatic deploy- ment and scaling of multiple simultaneous web applica- tions on a given Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) cloud in a shared hosting environment. The proposed approach comprises three sub-approaches: a reactive VM provision- ing approach called ARVUE, a hybrid reactive-proactive VM provisioning approach called Cost-efficient Resource Allo- cation for Multiple web applications with Proactive scaling (CRAMP), and a session-based adaptive admission control approach called adaptive Admission Control for Virtualized Application Servers (ACVAS). Both ARVUE and CRAMP pro- vide autonomous shared hosting of third-party Java Servlet applications on an IaaS cloud. However, CRAMP provides bet- ter responsiveness and results than the purely reactive scaling of ARVUE. ACVAS implements per-session admission, which reduces the risk of over-admission. Moreover, it implements
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Abstract—A major hurdle of formal adoption of OAuth protocol for enterprise applications is performance. Enterprise applications (e.g. SAP, SharePoint, Exchange Server, etc.) require a mechanism to predict and manage performance expectations. As these applications become more and more ubiquitous in the Cloud, the scale and performance expectations become an important factor impacting architectural decisions for security protocol adoption. This paper proposes an optimization to OAuth 2.0 for enterprise adoption. This optimization is achieved by introducing provisioning steps to pre-establish trust amongst enterprise applications’ Resource Servers, its associated Authorization Server and the clients interested in access to protected resources. In this model, trust is provisioned and synchronized as a pre-requisite step to authentication and authorization amongst all communicating entities in OAuth protocol, namely, the client requesting a protected resource, the resource server, and the authorization server. For a case study, we analyze SAP authenticating with SharePoint using our optimization versus existing OAuth protocol. We believe such optimization will further facilitate the adoption of OAuth in the enterprise where scale and performance are critical factors.
There is lot of research conducted in the domain of the automatic Service provisioning algorithms. In this kind of algorithm it is important to know the customer requirement. The Service providers check the networking issues put the bandwidth requirement for the user and adjust the quality of the service according to the users demand. For such systems inventory details are needed from the database. EMS i.e. Element Management Systems or Network elements are needed to access so that the network resources can be used easily. Working path information is gathered by the algorithm for the good use of the available paths and to provide the protection to the network. The parameters needed to provide service provisioning are working path, used path, free capacity, cost to the path etc.
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As discussed in the previous paragraphs, a number of design approaches have been at- tempted for the collective provisioning of context-awareness related functions. These de- sign approaches range from layered middle- ware designs to object-oriented and event- based middleware designs. Different commu- nication and coordination semantics between individual components of the logical design result in varied architectures of context-aware systems as well. The layered middleware de- sign is prominent, where each functional layer hides the details of the underlying layers. The primary benefit of this approach is the encap- sulation of varying complexities of different functions. Each layer builds on the information available from the layer below it, e.g. a context processing layer uses data collected at the data acquisition layer while the application platform layer interacts with the context processing layer to retrieve context and does not concern itself with the details of data acquisition or synthe- sis process. Within this design approach, the provision of functions is often separated into different architectural components, e.g. some functions are provided by a central server while applications that use these functions are deployed remotely. SOCAM  is a prominent example of a layered middleware design.
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There is customarily movement by clients between service categories depending upon social and other metaphysical considerations, for which there is normally a cost and benefit accrued by changing categories. An organization, for example, may change consulting services or cloud service providers. Some categories within a service domain are more attractive for a variety of reasons, collectively identified as “fitness.” When clients select a category of service, they are exercising the right to choose, known as democratization. Thus, the process of independent choice, otherwise known as selection, contributes to the fitness of a category with the underlying assumption that clients select the most attractive service provider, based on their temporal needs.
obligate symbiotic bacteria or fungi are known to supply the defi- cient nutrients: blood-sucking tsetse flies (41, 42), lice (43, 44), and bedbugs (6, 23); plant sap-sucking aphids (45, 46); seed- sucking bugs (47); grain/flour-feeding anobiid beetles (48); and weevils (49). In other insects that live on such diets without obli- gate symbionts, like mosquitoes, flour beetles, etc., Wolbachia- derived riboflavin would confer substantial positive effects on host fitness. Even in other insects whose diets are not deficient in B vitamins, although this is speculative, the Wolbachia-derived nu- trients might provide beneficial fitness consequences under star- vation, hibernation, or other stressful conditions. Using insects other than bedbugs, the hypothesis of Wolbachia-mediated ribo- flavin provisioning should be verified experimentally. Note that the bedbug-associated wCle is an atypical Wolbachia strain that is localized to the host bacteriomes at high densities as an obligate nutritional mutualist (6, 23), whereas the majority of Wolbachia strains are facultative bacterial associates that exhibit systemic in- fection throughout the host insect body at relatively low densities (50).
As highlighted in the previous sections, there is a need to support the adaptive, cross cloud and level BPaaS provisioning. This must be achieved in accordance to BPaaS requirements and should require the least possible input and cloud-specific expertise from the BPaaS mod- eller. Model-driven engineering promises to automate the tasks involved in such provisioning. It embraces models as its core citizens which encapsulate all required infor- mation to support the respective BPaaS lifecycle tasks. Models can be specified via a language which supplies the right syntax and structure for them. As advocated in “IaaS service orchestration” section, most existing cloud modelling DSLs are insufficient to cover the whole BPaaS lifecycle in terms of the information that they convey. However, there is one language, called CAMEL [1, 52], which is almost rich enough and remains at an appro- priate, high abstraction level which is cloud (provider) independent. As such, this language has been selected to enable the modelling of the way BPaaSes can be adap- tively provisioned in our work. To this end, CAMEL was extended to cover the whole BPaaS hierarchy plus more advanced deployment and adaptation scenarios that con- sider all possible cloud service types.
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provisioning involves costs to the donor [11,17]. A preference to groom instead of to provision a partner might have two adaptive explanations. First, rats may prefer allogrooming over providing food because it is the cheaper or more natural behaviour. A previous study has shown that wild-type Norway rats take into account the costs of cooperation when reciprocating received help . Second, the perceived value of grooming and food donations may differ, with receiving food being experienced as a more valuable resource than being groomed. Different values of the exchanged commodities, thus, may lead to more grooming bouts being reciprocated for fewer, more valuable food donations. Previous work has shown that rats take the relative value of received help into account when returning a favour to social partners . Finally, the difference between cooperative and non-cooperative behaviour of the social partner during the experience phase was greater when the latter’s role was food provisioning than when it was allogrooming (Figure S2). This may have enhanced the propensity of focal rats to return the previously received service asymmetrically.
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QoS (Quality-of-Service) is an important topic in cloud computing. It enables selections of the cloud services depending on QoS requirements. These requirements have to be satisfied by both cloud service providers and cloud customers. QoS is defined as a set of properties including response time, throughput, availability, reputa- tion, failure probability, etc. Among these QoS properties some is based on applying quality criteria of web ser- vices which is divided into subset of attributes   as Figure 1, these attributes were selected according to its relationship with social networks criteria attributes, these attributes were organized into five main criteria attributes Flexibility, Reliability, Scope and Performance, Business model and Security and Privacy.
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Note that the success of the overall resource management mechanisms lies with the scalability, efficiency, manageability, reliability of the systems in providing and managing the resources (i.e., workers, computation time, memory, energy). It is vital for the social system to manage the resources efficiently and ensure the computing and communication demands are able to access the appropriate information; regardless of the place and time. It is because failing to manage the resources would not only impairing the system functionality but also affecting the overall cost and performance. The automated resource management system for Cloud computing environment that proposed in  addressed the issue of data centers operation where always underutilized due to over provisioning for the peak demand. The work achieves good balance between the overload avoidance and green computing. The authors in  propose a failure-aware resource allocation strategy by calculating resources' reliability states. They defined the capacity-reliability metric and used best-fit algorithm to find the best qualified resources on which to instantiate virtual machines (VMs) to compute users’ requests. The authors in  proposed dynamic resource provision that considered the user-specified level of accuracy in order to transmit the communication from one resource to another. Their work focuses on the traffic characterization for determining the right set of resources assigned to each communication at each switch. While considering the high accuracy for data communication, the provisioning approach also taking network-wide resource constraints as well as traffic and data dynamics into account. In the wide-networks such as social networking system, if there is multiple communication relays exist, the selection process, wherein scheduler chooses the “best” relay, is expected for minimizing overhead [18, 19]. The authors in  proposed the assessment mechanism for social resource allocation that considered welfare, allocation fairness, and algorithmic runtime. They utilized the social network model of virtualized containers from the users’ personal computers or smart devices. The assessment mechanism investigated on how the social networks able to leverage in the construction of Cloud computing infrastructures and how resources are allocated in the presence of user preferences. Our communication infrastructure explicitly takes into account both computational power and link communication capacity based on the user preferences (i.e., priority) in selection and mapping strategies to efficiently meet fluctuating demands.