We aim to identify and characterize key social aspects of BCI use. In particular, the intent of the paper is to retrieve and synthesize existing scientific data on the perspective of BCI users. The focus of the review is not on technological and medical issues, but on psycho-so- cial, personal, and ethical aspects of BCI use. For that purpose we turn to studies that employ socialresearchmethods as these methods can be regarded as a standard for reliable research outcomes with respect to societal and psycho-social practices. Hence, we selected the method of a scoping review with the intent of exploring the extent of research on the topic, summarizing findings and identifying research gaps. Given that the body of literature available is quite extensive and heterogeneous, a scoping review of the social and human implications of BCI use helps create a comprehensible overview for future research in this area of emerging and urgent relevance. This means, at the same time, that the body of literature is “not amenable to a more precise systematic review” .
At first glance ResearchMethods may look like a technical course alongside the more abstract sociological subjects you have encountered thus far. In some sense, this is true –being able to do research is indeed a practical skill! However, an introduction to researchmethods must encompass more than practical know-how. This is because the domain of socialresearch speaks to key issues around the production of truth. In fact methodology speaks to the heart of academic life, looking at the systems which scholars have come up with over time to gather information about people and social organisation. As you will come to see –methodology is itself a very complex field with many abstract questions which arise from the diverse ways in which new knowledge is produced. Research is an integral part of what C. Wright Mills called our “intellectual craftsmanship”. It is in this spirit that socialresearchmethods will be introduced!
Feminist sociolinguists also find naturalistic methods appropriate for the studies of language, for they see that numerical summaries obscure the subtleties of meaning that language is designed to convey. These methods that are used in sociolinguistic research treat linguistic values and social values as equivalent. Sociolinguistics need researchmethods, which can uncover the social meanings that attach to linguistic categories, and how language shapes our social worlds. What we need to study is the processes of linguistic construction rather than their products. In doing naturalistic research there are several commonly used methods that suit many feminist researchers. Among others that will be discussed here are interviewing and ethnography.
achievement test are assigned to remedial training designed to improve their performance. The low frequency of use may be attributable to several factors. Certainly, the design is a relative latecomer. Its first major field tests did not occur until the mid-1970s when it was incorporated into the nationwide evaluation system for compensatory education programs funded under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. In many situations, the design has not been used because one or more key criteria were absent. For instance, RD designs force administrators to assign participants to conditions solely on the basis of quantitative indicators thereby often impalatably restricting the degree to which judgment, discretion or favoritism may be used. Perhaps the most telling reason for the lack of wider adoption of the RD design is that at first glance the design doesn't seem to make sense. In most research, we wish to have comparison groups that are equivalent to program groups on pre-program indicators so that post-program differences may be attributed to the program itself. But because of the cutoff criterion in RD designs, program and comparison groups are deliberately and maximally different on pre-program characteristics, an apparently insensible anomaly. An understanding of how the design actually works depends on at least a conceptual familiarity with regression analysis thereby making the strategy a difficult one to convey to nonstatistical audiences.
However, when comparing digital techniques and socialresearchmethods, it will not do to consider only the formal features of analytic measures themselves. If we want to establish what these techniques are capable of, we also need to attend to the contexts of their application, to the different questions, concerns and aspirations they are used to address and to the modes of valuation they enable. As Weltevrede and Marres (2012) discussed, online data tools such as Infomous and Steamgraph address a highly specific context: they are part of the continuously evolving infrastructure that enables the real-time web and wider ‘update cultures’ which need to be continuously informed of ‘what is happening right now’. The tools are implicated in the valorisation of live content, popularity or ‘currency’: they are participants in a wider digital economy invested in real-time analytics (Back & Puwar, 2012). Here, what is of value is the detection of topical variation in the moment in which it occurs. The analytic context in which co- word analysis sought to intervene in the 1980s was a different one: this method was designed to identify what Callon and colleagues called not only ‘pockets of innovation’ but also ‘dynamics of problematization’ (Callon et al, 1983). Rather than focusing on countable trends of the now, the aim was to detect the emergence of ‘happening’ research problems and topics at the
The use of data science and big data in all these disciplines may add new opportunities to existing researchmethods. Typically, the use of big data involves a data driven approach, comparable to explorative data analyses and in contrast with more traditional explanatory research approaches that are usually hypothesis driven or theory driven or both. The latter approach starts with formulating a hypotheses based on theory (sometimes phrased as a research question) that is then tested against available data (that often have to be collected first via empirical research). After this testing, the hypothesis can be either be accepted or rejected and the existing theory can be expanded or amended with the research results. The use of hypotheses requires a certain amount of intuition, prior knowledge and/or theory regarding what a researcher is looking for, mainly because not all hypotheses can be tested due to limited resources.
different methods, the researcher intends that each method enhances the other, since all the information that is collected potentially offers to be contextually richer than if it were seen from only one vantage point. Each area provides a commentary on the other areas of the research (Frost, 2009). Triangulation can be a useful tool to examine data overload, where researchers analysing data may miss some important information due to an over-reliance on one portion of the data which could then skew the analysis. Another use is to provide checks and balances on the salience of first impressions. Triangulation is also a useful tool to help avoid data selectivity, such as being over-confident about a particular section of the data analysis such as when trying to confirm a key finding, or without taking into account the potential for sources of data unreliability (Huberman & Miles, 1998, pp.198-9). It should be noted however, that, although triangulation is generally considered helpful when using qualitative methods, it can just as equally be applied to quantitative or mixed- methodsresearch. It is a pragmatic and strategic approach, whether applied to qualitative or qualitative research (Denzin & Lincoln, 1998). It may be viewed as providing a way of expanding the research perspective and becomes another means of strengthening research findings (Krahn et al.,1995).
Writing your research question leads to selecting an appropriate research design, which in turn leads to data collection. But before you can analyze the data you worked so hard to collect, you need to convert the information from data collection forms to a “dataset”. Today that means entering the information into a computer spreadsheet or database, usually with a software package. This activity is commonly, and sometimes pejoratively, called “data entry”. But there is more to data entry than simply typing numbers on a computer keyboard!
Rajib Das received MBA in Apparel Merchandising from BGMEA University of Fashion and Technology, Bangladesh and also accomplished of his B.A. (Honors) in Apparel Manufacturing Management and Technology from Shanto-Mariam University of Creative Technology, Bangladesh and also doing his MSS in Industrial Relations and Labor Studies from University of Dhaka. He is functioning as a Lecturer and Student Advisor, Department of Apparel Manufacturing Management and Technology at Shanto-Mariam University of Creative Technology, Bangladesh and engaged with Accord Alliance as an Assistant Research Analysis to develop RMG Compliance Development Programme for last two years. His area of interest is Tools and Techniques of Merchandising, Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing, Social Compliance, Fashion and Apparel Marketing, Apparel Production Planning and Control. He has a blog about Garments Merchandising .He participated in a number of professional Trainings and Workshops and frequently participates as a Trainer to contribute the business phenomenon. He engaged with several types of social and cultural activities. He attained some Conferences, Trainings and Workshops in, Thailand and India.
In our example, we asked each member of the group to choose which others in the group they regarded as close friends. Each person (ego) then is being asked about ties or relations that they themselves direct toward others (alters). Each alter does not necessarily feel the same way about each tie as ego does: Bob may regard himself as a good friend to Alice, but Alice does not necessarily regard Bob as a good friend. It is very useful to describe many social structures as being composed of "directed" ties (which can be binary, signed, ordered, or valued). Indeed, most social processes involve sequences of directed actions. For example, suppose that person A directs a comment to B, then B directs a comment back to A, and so on. We may not know the order in which actions occurred (i.e. who started the conversation), or we may not care. In this example, we might just want to know that "A and B are having a conversation." In this case, the tie or relation "in conversation with" necessarily involves both actors A and B. Both A and B are "co-present" or "co-occurring" in the relation of "having a conversation." Or, we might also describe the situation as being one of an the social institution of a "conversation" that by definition involves two (or more) actors "bonded" in an interaction (Berkowitz).
Abstract: Researchmethods modules have become a core component of a range of nursing and allied health professional educational programmes both at pre-qualifying, undergraduate level and at post-qualifying and Masters‟ level, in keeping with requirements of professional bodies. These courses are offered both on a full time basis and part time for qualified practitioners working in the field accessing continuous professional development (CPD). Evaluation of these courses suggests that some students find researchmethods challenging to understand and the pace of sessions demanding, and has highlighted a need for additional ways to support learning and teaching. There are a number of existing electronic resources relating to researchmethods accessible to students via the internet, which could help to support learning and teaching in this area and meet the wide range of learning styles among students. However, many are not specific to health research. In addition, the quality of content can be variable and use/accessibility unpredictable. This, combined with the need for innovative ways to engage interest in researchmethods, suggested the need for a new electronic resource for health research, for use within the context of a classroom taught course. The process of developing an interactive resource incorporating a narrative element is described. A narrative approach recognises the power of story in capturing interest and transferring information and offers scope for imagination and intrigue within learning. A story of two fictional health practitioner characters working in a local health centre was created to weave around researchmethods theory. Interactive elements such as question-and-answer tasks, audio extracts, games and interactive graphics were added to offer varied and stimulating ways of presenting material to meet a range of learning styles. The resource also incorporates a number of self-assessment opportunities to reinforce learning. The use of voices heard in realistic scenarios arising in the health centre anchors learning in everyday practice aiming to help students appreciate the need for evidence and the value of research understanding.
Abstract: Nowadays we have the dynamical velocity vector field of turbulent flow at our disposal coming thanks advances of either mathematical simulation (DNS) or of experiment (time-resolved PIV). Unfortunately there is no standard method for analysis of such data describing complicated extended dynamical systems, which is characterized by excessive number of degrees of freedom. An overview of candidate methods convenient to spatio- temporal analysis for such systems is to be presented. Special attention will be paid to energetic methods including Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) in regular and snapshot variants as well as the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition (BOD) for joint space-time analysis. Then, stability analysis using Principal Oscillation Patterns (POPs) will be introduced. Finally, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method will be proposed for detection of coherent structures in turbulent flow-field defined by time-dependent velocity vector field. Principle and some practical aspects of the methods are to be shown. Special attention is to be paid to physical interpretation of outputs of the methods listed above.
gile methods have seen widespread adoption in industry, with estimates that more than 80% of development projects now use an agile approach. While agile methods are becoming increasingly popular, they have also a number of limitations, such as their focus on small projects, co-located teams and non-critical software projects. Lero researchers investigate how agile methods can be tailored to address the needs of our industry partners.
Cheshire, L Fox, S, Kerswill, P. and Torgersen, E. (2008). 'Ethnicity, friendship network and social practices as the motor of dialect change: Linguistic innovation in London'. In U. Ammon and K. J. Mattheier (eds). Sociolinguistica: International Yearbook of European Sociolinguistics. Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, pp. 1-23.
research participants themselves, as well as by other actors outside their direct field of influence. Nevertheless, it does have at its core an iterative methodological pathway. There are identified as involving i) opening opportunities for dialogue between the various actors; ii) experimenting with different cycles of action and reflection; congruence (checking if what is claimed has actually happened); iii) reframing the issues in the light of new social learning; iv) seeking ways of acting through inner and outer arcs of attention; v) developing dialogue and participation skills; vi) developing design and facilitation skills; vii) validating processes. As there is a strong emphasis on experiential and social learning, there is also a tendency towards the use of narrative and discursive methods, such as open forum discussions, focus groups, citizens’ juries and learning histories. One key challenge for such a pproaches, as I shall explore more fully later in the paper, is a) how to practically capture these rich but often fragmented sources of ‘data’ and b) how to critically analyse and evaluate them once you have done so. Similar to most qualitative methods, an action research approach can, of course, be combined with quantitative data collection methods at any point in the overall study process. In this way, it can be used to inform the design of questionnaires or as an explanatory tool for interpreting the outcomes of statistical survey analysis. Perhaps a more unique application, however, is in helping those who are tasked with the delivery and monitoring of travel behaviour intervention projects, such as travel awareness programmes and cycling and walking promotion projects, to better understand the dynamic processes that are involved in shaping and reshaping everyday travel habits.
decades. New models of knowledge production such as the “Mode 2” research (Gibbons et al. 1994), the “academic capitalism” (Slaughter and Leslie 1997), the “entrepreneurial science” (Etzkowitz 1998) or the “post-academic science” (Ziman 2002) have opened up the discussion about the different ways in which science is organized and performed. A common feature of these new possible configurations of knowledge production is an increased effort to interact with other societal spheres such as governments and industry. According to (Hessels and Van Lente 2008), “Mode 2 knowledge is rather a dialogic process, and has the capacity to incorporate multiple views. This relates to researchers becoming more aware of the societal consequences of their work (social accountability). Sensitivity to the impact of the research is built from the start” (p. 742). Researchers are being pushed by public funding agencies in the direction of delivering a clear social utility of the knowledge they produce (Bornmann 2013). That implies that agents from the academic side are expected to being much more conscious about the particular needs and interests of other societal actors and infuse a clearer social orientation to their work. The quest for a societal impact of scientific research is also well reflected in what (Stokes 1997) has called the “Pasteur’s Quadrant”. This typology of research modes suggests that, even if scientists direct their efforts to the generation of fundamental knowledge, there is wide room for different degrees of inspiration by the potential considerations of use of research results. In other words, having in mind the potential impact of scientific research to non-academic agents is explicitly recognized as an individual- level preference which is irrespective of the basic or applied nature of the research performed by the scientist (Stokes, 1997).
Subsequently, GW went to market to big banks and corporate organisations, giving them a very green option for disposing of their furniture and managing 0.5million tonnes of waste in their first year. They charge their corporate clients for clearing furniture and for transporting it to GW‟s nearest depot. The respondent emphasised that they do not sell the furniture on to trade, as their corporate clients are giving them business precisely because of where the furniture ends up, i.e. with charities and social enterprises. This gives these contracts a social edge and fits well within their Corporate Social Responsibility agendas, unlike other removal competitors. GW‟s founder and CEO, Colin Crook, is also on the board of London Community Resource Network and has links with other social enterprises with whom they can trade. The social enterprise aspect of GW (alongside its environmental one) is contained within its workforce, of whom a large number are volunteers, long-term unemployed people, ex- offenders and from other disadvantaged groups. GW works closely with job centres, prisons and other services to recruit people and give them basic skills and paid training/part-time employment (eg in saw and forklift training, retail, etc). They have also recruited 50 people via the FJF.