Noga and Nurit (2017) performed a study to find out why people walk through investigating the issue on Israel’s national trail (INT). The primary goal of this study was to reach a better perception of the reason why people use INT. They also investigated the behavioral, experiential, spatial and contextual phenomena accompanied by this activity. In this exploratory research, they assumed that walking on INT incorporates two universalism dimensions. In its capacity as a common motility system, it is used by long-distance mountain climbers from all around the globe and, in its specific aspect, it enables walking with the full recognition of such concepts as “spatial attachment”, “sense of place”, “government and nationalization” and “socialization of the civil awareness” within the special format of the nation, culture, and history of Israel as evidenced in the scientific studies. In general, the findings’ analysis through Parson’s specificity lenses in contrast to the globalism pattern showed that the walking on INT as a movement system is specified by many general and universalism aspects of hiking as well as by a number of specialism aspects enabling the perception of the unprecedented role of hiking in Israeli society. Neto (2015) conducted a research entitled “the index of walkability, evaluation of the quality of the constructed environment, and designing a city in street level using multidimensional and satellite images” to point to the importance of the walkable urban environments in the current vehicle-oriented cities, so as to simultaneously enumerate the planning for pedestrianism amongst the significant priorities of modern urban planning. The author of this study made use of citizens’ surveys and polling to compare the pedestrianism indices (within the format of 48 indicators) with their wants and perceptions. The results of the study signified that there is a significant correlation between pedestrianism and citizens’ perceptions.
Studies have shown that there are several benefits and services provided by urban agriculture, which can be observed through a framework of ´ODQGVFDSH multi-IXQFWLRQDOLW\ µ ZKLFK HQWDLOV WKH production of food resources, ecological services, and socio-ecological functions, each of which benefits the health of the surrounding community ( Lovell, 2010 ). Therefore, supporting and expanding community gardens could benefit many urban dwellers in neighborhoods where people lack access to affordable healthy foods and opportunities for interactions with nature ( Larson, et al. 2009; Miller, 2005 ). Research findings from local distributions of cultivated vegetation suggest that the social environment may significantly influence these distributions. Cultivated floras within settlements, vary with social factors ( Kendal, et al., 2012 ). These factors include, land use (gardens, parks or streetscapes) ( Welch, 1994; Jim & Liu 2001; Martin, et al. 2004 ), socioeconomic and lifestyle gradients ( Martin et al. 2004; Hope, et al. 2003; Luz de la Maza, et al. 2002 ) and with historical patterns of physical and social development ( Lubbe, et al. 2010; Jim & Liu 2001 ). People from different cultural backgrounds cultivate different kinds of plants, suggesting that places with very different cultures will have different cultivated floras. This implies that as people migrate to settlements around the world, the cultivated floras of those settlements will become more similar ( Head, et al., 2004; Fraser, & Kenney, 2000 ) and affords immigrants the opportunity to re-create the natural environment, history and culture left behind ( Mazumdar, & Mazumdar, 2012 ). Community gardening is one of the avenues toward revitalizing urban environments, and it provides a way of addressing multi-faceted urban problems ranging from limited food access, safety, community cohesion, preservation of tangible cultural heritage (food- traditional cuisine), to enhancing cultural sustainability. That being said, it is necessary to continually evaluate the roles which society,
41 This is not to deny that significant numbers of women also migrated to the mines. See in this regard the classic by Ellen Hellmann, Rooiyard: A Sociological Survey of an Urban Native Slum Yard (Oxford: Rhodes Livingstone Institute, 1948). On successful migrant men returning home, see Michael Barrett, “’Walking Home Majestically’: Consumption and the Enactment of Social Status among Labour Migrants from Barotseland, 1935-1965” in Marja Hinfelaar, Iva Pesa and Robert Ross (eds), The Objects of Life in Central Africa: The History of Consumption and Social Change, 1840-1960 (Leiden: Brill, 2013). The exception being Warwick’s descriptions of impoverished migrants who walked home following the outbreak of the South African War in 1899, Peter Warwick, “African Labour during the South African War, 1899-1902”, The Societies of Southern Africa in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Collected Seminar Papers No. 7, University of London, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, 1977, 106. 42 Ruth First, “The Gold of Migrant Labour”, Africa South
I am working on three things at the moment: a book on Latin American poetry since the 1950s, which looks at how poets explore changes in the language and at what has changed in the type of reading required by recent poets. A study of the 1930s in Peru, which is a type of culturalhistory centred on language through the whole social/cultural/political field, but which takes the work of certain poets (Vallejo, Westphalen) as a useful hermeneutic. And a book on non-hermeneutic reading, which is an experiment in non-academic reading, centred various recent Latin American and American poets (Creeley, O'Hara, Gola, Zurita, etc). The idea is to see what happens if you give up having any institutional handle on the poems - if that makes sense - not, in the actual act of reading, reaching out for interpretative powers granted by academy or marketing, but trusting what the poems are able to do. I guess that's not culturalstudies, but part of it will be the question what happens to reading now, at the edge of the future, when electronic media have expanded vastly the possibilities of cutting and recombining - what happens to imagination then? To study the arts without taking imagination
statistical processing of data, obtained during the survey was carried out, using grouping, comparison and cross – tabulation. The calculations were performed, using computer programs Excel and SPSS. The method of cross – tabulation, using the SPSS programs helps to identify the connections between different variables  and its application allowed identifying certain patterns in the consumption of the cultural product of the state institutions of Latvia among various social and economic groups. The method of comparative analysis was also used with the help of which was compared the data obtained during the survey conducted by the authors with the results of studies carried out by European institutions, in particular, the research “European Cultural Values”, conducted on the request of the European Commission. The method of analysis of the secondary information: the statistical data, provided by the Ministry of Culture of Latvia and foreign cultural institutions helped to obtain additional information on analysed topic. During the preparation for conducting research, theoretical sources were studied. For today the topic of the influence of sociocultural factors directly on consumption of cultural products in Latvia was not considered. However, it can be noted that many foreign researchers pay great attention to this topic, as a rule, scientific publications are devoted to certain directions of art and entertainment. Thus, it is possible to emphasize works in which the influence of sociocultural factors on the attendance of theatres (Ateca-Amestoy V. , Bernstein J. S. ), museums (Pop E.L. & Borza A. ; Brida J. G., Meleddu M. & Pulina M. ), demand in the entertainment industry (Bizzozero P., Flepp R. & Franck E. ; Dessy O. & Gambaro M. ), visiting cinemas (Macmillan P. & Smith I. ; Sisto A. & Zanola R.  is examined .
It is not only a broadly cultural-history interdisciplinary approach which distin- guishes my work from that of others concerned with the rapidly expanding topic of cosmopolitanism. There is also the more iconoclastic tradition of ‘arguing against’ which has characterized much culturalstudies research from its inception (Williams 1979) and which here has been combined with my insistence on view- ing everything through a feminist lens. My perspective has also been influenced by my personal history and psychic formation, an account of which (in the autobi- ographical chapter on our mongrel selves) I interweave with the main narrative of the book (Nava 2007). This is where I explain my interest in the topic – a contex- tual element too often missing from most historical accounts which tend to present themselves as somehow unembedded in the vicissitudes of life outside the text. Finally, it is also worth noting that my conclusions and the way I write – the con- struction of a more progressive reading of British encounters with cultural and epidermal difference in the last century – arise in part from my generally opti- mistic albeit argumentative disposition. This is not a problem per se, and is not a disavowal of more melancholic readings, but like all factors which influence our understanding of the past and present, needs to be noted.
The American Dream seems particularly problematic in this regard not only because of its prevalence in popular discourse as the essence of a national character, but also because of its concatenation with another idea that is in even worse repute: American Exceptionalism. At the heart of any notion that the United States is a unique civilization in the history of the world – and at the heart of any moral claim in that uniqueness – lies an assertion that the nation offers historically unprecedented opportunities for individuals to forge their own destinies. Empires come and empires go, but this empire is special because (in the words of George Washington) it is an empire for liberty.
The research aims at analyzing the socio-cultural semiotic that characterize the deixis in taglines. Such types of deixis are analyzed qualitatively by examining the socio-cultural functions using “Sign Mapping of Roland Barthes”. The analysis focuses in describing the signifier and signified as well as the meaning of denotative and connotative characterized the deixis in taglines of various advertisements. Findings have shown that the signifiers and signified concepts function to inform, to challenge, to emphasize, and to persuade, of the consumers as the addressee. The types of deixis occur into such types of pronominals deixis (she, you, I, me), nominal deixis (girl, age, the city), verbal (blow, drive, come, follow, let, change), adverbial (in her face, anywhere, Marlboro country, when you can fly), and grammatical deixis (imperative, statement, interrogative). The denotative meaning is reflected from the use of signifiers that serves the real of sense of the product referred to, i.e., the commercial product that is divided into categories, man’s category, woman’s category, and unmarked category. The connotative meaning relates to some cultural values, such as pleasure, masculinity, feminity, passion, luck, beauty, freedom, and the sense of belonging.
To solve the problem of social, cultural, and traditional misrepresentation, Samer Akkach suggests implementing symbolic architectural criteria. He advises that the interpretive condition is influenced by a preoccupation with artistic creativity and a desire to understand the creative mechanism of imagination, both at human and divine level. He suggests a comprehensive reading of both universal natural symbols and specific symbols, and he focuses on the idea of the ‘sacred’ as “a key concept in modern discourses of the symbolism of pre-modern architecture” 29 . In order to promote a range of explorations that could enrich the understanding of architectural imagination, Akkach suggests shifting the focus from “the unchanging essentiality of form, style and aesthetics onto the multiple and changing concepts of self and place that arise in cross-cultural encounters” 30 . He indicates two strategies that might be fruitfully tested; learning about comparative philosophy, and also about literature. The examination of the causes of current historiographical problems outlined different problems of conventional historiography and diverse strategies to solve these problems. Because historical moments are generated by other moments that contribute to their creation, highlighting particular literary and social attributes, and interconnecting them with sources from other disciplines would generate more possibilities of a comprehensive examination of history, promote integrated historiographies that ensure connectivity between all the elements that created the city, and represent meaning in their relationship to one another. However, it is imperative to outline the challenges that accompany any attempt to establish another method
The culture has its own ways of expression, reflects in its communication and interaction. Culture is an outcome of social interaction among people over a period of time , provides socially acceptable pattern for meeting biological & social needs . A set of beliefs, customs, practices and behavior that exists. The factors include in social cultural environment, attitude of people to work, family and caste system, religion, education, etc. Companies often include an examination of the socio-cultural environment prior to entering their target markets and achieve the goals with following ethics in business .The cultural diversity, cultural harmonization between countries. It is for the establishment of a loyal relation and smooth cooperation .The globalization bring changes a n d argued that the consequences of globalization will be the end of cultural diversity. The business environment a p p r o a c h i s business as economic activities for production, purchase or sales of goods. It consists of suppliers, customers, market- intermediaries, competitors and public. Environment. Includes man, material, money, machinery and management, usually within the control of business. Business makes changes in these factors due to the change in the functioning of enterprise. The focus of this article is on to study the sociocultural environment in India in the context of social responsibility, social audit, business and society, business ethics.
A century later world demographic growth and ever higher levels of internal migration had led to a situation in which city-dwellers would soon be more numerous than those living in hamlets, villages and market towns in nearly every continent. 500 urban centres now had populations of more than a million. Tokyo had 35 million inhabitants and Delhi, Shanghai, Mexico City, Mumbai and Sao Paolo more than 20 million. In demographic terms European and north American cities were now near-minnows. Nevertheless, a handful continued to possess the same kind of economic, financial and cultural power as they had a hundred years earlier. Would this continue to be the case? Much depended on levels of financial and political stability. To take a single example: would London maintain its highly developed international status in the wake of the British decision to leave the European Union?
In spite of the unquestionable esteem in which mathematics was held by the medieval scholars, we must admit that they looked upon Greek mathematics in much the same way as on the Holy Scriptures. The texts provided philo- sophical and mathematical foundations for the artistic practice, but they were not regarded as parts of a living and growing body of knowledge. I shall not attempt to chart or explain the dramatic cultural changes that began with the Renaissance and the ensuing Scientific Revolution. Rather, I would like to focus my attention on an instructive and, I think, highly amusing facet of 17 th century life.
Interestingly, there is this socio-cultural belief of Nigerians, which has it that Christmas is best celebrated in one’s village. Hence, people travel from all corners of the world to their respective villages to celebrate Christmas. This cultural belief is so common that it becomes abnormal and almost culturally forbidden for one to remain in the city during Christmas celebration. Omeayo (2012:14) called it “Annual Christmas homecoming”. Also, there is another strong belief that accompanies the above, which is that it is only the financially buoyant ones that travel home during Christmas. This is because it is only these ones that can meet the high social expectations of families and relatives at home. In most cases, one is expected in the first place to travel home with bag(s) of rice, goat(s) or chicken(s) and other necessary ingredients to spice up the celebration, or to have sent these items home to herald ones coming. More interestingly, it is often expected that when one leaves the village for the city to seek greener pastors, one should compulsory come home better than one left. Preferably, one receives a warm welcome from families and relatives, when one comes back with a car (s) or something to show for the months one has been away. This is so prevalent that it is common to see people refusing to go home (i.e. village) for Christmas just for the sole reason that they do not have enough finance not necessarily to fend for themselves, but for families and relatives at home.
Objective descriptors of social affiliation did not distin- guish girls with EDs from the control group. An important source of potential bias is the recruitment of the control group from female high school students in Krakow. The girls in the EDs groups more frequently came from vil- lages and small towns. This may mean that living in smaller populated areas, for some reason, may be con- nected with the significant cultural risk of developing eat- ing disorders in Poland. Other possibility is that girls from larger cities, especially Krakow, have access to private healthcare. Althought interpreting this result is not simple. It does not necessarily define a different membership to social groups of people living in various areas. After the year 1989, living in the countryside or in a smaller town may be a social advancement and moving to a detached house build outside large urban agglomerations may be interpreted as such. There was a significant difference in the professional activity of mothers across different diag- noses. The proportion of mothers that worked was lower in the BN and ANBP groups than in the NOR and ANR groups. The most common reason for the lack of profes- sional activity was a pension. The comparatively higher percentage of single parent families, especially in the pa- tients with BN, may indicate a significant level of socio- economic crisis in this families. An objective analysis of
expectations and social perceptions for people of different cultural backgrounds that may have led to certain social desirability responses reflective of their native culture. The sample size was relatively small given the attempt at a global sampling, as well. Further, a small number of cultural experiences were considered in this study as compared to the limitless daily occurrences that expose people to cultures outside of their own at any given time. Another limitation of this study was the limited representation of global music genres. Nine genres from various parts of the globe were utilized in this study, which equates to a very small sampling of the various possibilities. Modern music pieces were selected, which could be perceived as another limitation of this study as newer music may not appeal as much to older participants.
This presentation will focus on the ideas, methodology, issues of the regional typology and socio-cultural attributes of countries characterized by the presence of obvious center and frontier areas due to historical features of population settlement and distribution in their territory : the United States, Russia, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, China, Mexico and Australia.
Voluntary Co-operation among neighbours, during construction of house which was common during the olden days, has now become a history. Separate rooms are available now. With this, the quality of social interaction has decreased. Modern material is used for construction of house and facade of the modern houses. Modern houses and facades of modern houses reflect the prosperity of the people. Now the yard has become restricted and private area. Women in the family can move in the yard without scarf. Now, use of Takhtekhab (metal / wooden beds) is very common in the city. Custom of getting Rakhtekhab (mattress) in dowry is not prevalent now. Radiators and modern heaters are used for heating in different rooms. With this, the quality of social interaction has decreased. Use of sophisticated furniture, has become a common feature now. Many changes in the Traditional beliefs related to the house, have undergone considerable changes.
the other conceptual framework for dealing with heritage focuses on the connections between heritage and the environment. Heritage ob- jects and phenomena are always located in an environment. on the one hand, the environment impacts the heritage objects, and on the other, the heritage objects are an indivisible part of the environment. depending on the specific heritage, the environment can mean places, territories, landscapes, other objects, as well as the entire living environment more generally, in either the physical or intangible sense. changes in the en- vironment affect heritage, while heritage provides added value to the environment. The idea to study heritage as a part of the broader envi- ronment emerged in the 1970s, and found expression, for instance, in the council of Europe’s 1975 European charter of the Architectural Heritage and, especially, the Burra charter. This type of approach was based, to a great extent, on the paradigm changes that occurred in environmental protection, where the protection of individual species was replaced by a focus on the preservation of ecosystems and living environments as a whole. In the heritage field, the introduction of the concepts of land- scapes and cultural spaces alludes to this approach. these refer to the physical environment, as well as its mental representations along with values and meanings, instead of the clearly defined archaeological or architectural areas that were used before. Heritage is simultaneously a part of the physical, social and also cultural world. In the context of the same meaning, the concept of heritage landscape was also introduced. 6