Socio-Economic Deprivation

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Accessibility to food retailers and socio economic deprivation in urban New Zealand

Accessibility to food retailers and socio economic deprivation in urban New Zealand

environments (Swinburn et al., 2011), are a possible explana- tion for socio – spatial variations in health outcomes. While demographic, socio-economic and contextual relationships surrounding health, diet and physical activity are complex, supportive environments are said to be fundamental in shap- ing people's choices (Swinburn et al., 2011). The human body exhibits good physiological defences against energy depletion; however, it has been noted that defences are weak against excess energy accumulation, particularly when highly palatable food opportunities are abundant (Lowe et al., 2009). Furthermore, such environmental barriers may under- mine individual motivations to change unhealthy behaviours and habits. Obesogenic environments have been closely linked to socio-economic status, having negative health effects through several pathways including impeded engage- ment in healthy behaviours, limited education on nutrition and limited financial and geographic access to resources (Fraser, Edwards, Cade, & Clarke, 2010). Research between such environments and socio-economic deprivation is centred on the deprivation-amplification hypothesis whereby populations living in highly deprived areas experience further disadvantage regarding access to health-promoting resources
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Using GIS-based methods of multicriteria analysis to construct socio-economic deprivation indices

Using GIS-based methods of multicriteria analysis to construct socio-economic deprivation indices

Although our analysis was not age-adjusted by individual SES variables contextual effects of community socio-eco- nomic characteristics are well-known indicators of popu- lation health independent of individual SES [52,53]. Moreover, scenario modeling of survey response scores should not obscure the fact that socio-economic status remains positively related to health status throughout the Vancouver CMA regardless of deprivation index. The rela- tionship between neighborhood SES and prevalence of reporting 'fair or poor' self-rated health is equally pro- nounced when assessed by provincial MHOs as when evaluated using variations of Principal Component Anal- ysis, which suggests that MHOs can play a valuable role in quantitative evaluations of population health. Variations between both the SEFI and OWA indices suggests that the dissimilar variables used by both indices are equally important indicators of the conditions that tend to increase social gradient in health, but that developing local socio-economic deprivation indicators may be a more appropriate strategy.
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Professional resilience in GPs working in areas of socio-economic deprivation: a qualitative study

Professional resilience in GPs working in areas of socio-economic deprivation: a qualitative study

Policies to promote professional resilience, particularly in settings such as areas of high socio-economic deprivation, must recognise the importance of flexibility and adaptability, wor[r]

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Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: variation by socio economic deprivation

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: variation by socio economic deprivation

Background In England, there is a discrepancy between the prevalence of Attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ascertained from medical records and community surveys. There is also a lack of data on variation in recorded prevalence by deprivation and geographical region; information that is important for service development and

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The relationship between unhealthy food sales, socio-economic deprivation and childhood weight status: results of a cross-sectional study in England

The relationship between unhealthy food sales, socio-economic deprivation and childhood weight status: results of a cross-sectional study in England

equivocal [30]. Area level deprivation may also be used as a proxy measure of the socio-economic status of individ- uals, and so associations seen between area measures may reflect the differing behaviours of residents, whereby indi- viduals of lower socioeconomic status are likely to live in more deprived areas, and to have different food purchas- ing habits. Ransley et al. [29] analysed dietary fat and en- ergy intake using supermarket till receipts in a sample of Tesco customers. They found that food with higher than recommended levels of fat and energy were more likely to be purchased by those with lower socioeconomic status. Results of another study using similar groups of healthy and unhealthy foods and Tesco loyalty card data of cus- tomers segmented by home tenure, marital status and af- fluence, found poorer families, single parents and council tenants, consistently purchased more unhealthy foods and generally less healthy foods that other demographic groups [31]. For such households, income may influence dietary behaviour [32], but will undoubtedly interact with many individual psychological and social factors [33, 34].
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The relationship between unhealthy food sales, socio economic deprivation and childhood weight status: results of a cross sectional study in England

The relationship between unhealthy food sales, socio economic deprivation and childhood weight status: results of a cross sectional study in England

In order to adjust our analyses for known area-level corre- lates of childhood obesity and its behavioural determi- nants we obtained a range of measures for each MSOA from national data agencies. The Income Deprivation Children Index (IDACI) measures the proportion of chil- dren aged up to 16 years living in low income households and was obtained from the UK data service based on 2010 data [19]. Measures of population ethnicity (% non-white), and age structure; % aged under 7 years for models of weight status in Reception children, and % aged 10–14 for Year 6 models, were obtained from the UK 2001 census [20]. The 2001 Census was used by the National Obesity Observatory for the aggregation of the NCMP obesity data for 2008–2011, and allowed access to demographic data for the same geographic boundaries. Both deprivation and non-white ethnicity have been associated with increased risk of obesity [21], while the number of similar age chil- dren in each MSOA is an indicator of possible social net- works thought to be important for both diet and physical activity behaviours [22].
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Elucidating the spatially varying relation between cervical cancer and socio-economic conditions in England

Elucidating the spatially varying relation between cervical cancer and socio-economic conditions in England

Many studies have shown that ill health issues are related to the surrounding socio-economic and socio- economic deprivation conditions [11-13]. For example, children in Bangladesh with a working mother have been found to have a higher chance of suffering from diar- rhoea than those who have mothers who stay at home [14]. Other studies have shown that such relations may also vary between regions and that such variation should be taken into account [15] to provide more representative modelling and more accurate prediction. One reason postulated for the importance of local variation in such relations has been local variation in ability to access healthcare services [16]. Ill-health condition may also be related to human behaviour which may be a function of social background as well as educational level.
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Towards identification of educational priority areas in Dublin

Towards identification of educational priority areas in Dublin

Table 1 shows the rank order and score o f all 196 wards on the socio-economic deprivation factor, and Table 2 shows the raw data scores on the four selected indicators for the thirty-on[r]

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Sticks and stones: the impact of the definitions of brownfield in policies on socio economic sustainability

Sticks and stones: the impact of the definitions of brownfield in policies on socio economic sustainability

The study took advantage of the accessibility of the land use data and indices of deprivation in England to analyse the questions of interest. This study statistically analysed land use data from local authorities in England to investigate which types of brownfield land are most relevant to socio-economic deprivation and greenfield protection. Deprivation is considered a signal of unsustainable socio-economic conditions, while greenfield preservation is considered to be an indicator of improving environmental sustainability. Based on the results derived from analyses of variance (ANOVA), t-test and the comparison of greenfield and brownfield development in England, the paper discusses the possible effects of the types of PDL on socio-economic deprivation and greenfield preservation. The paper concludes with the suggestion that for countries or regions with high population densities, to further encourage sustainable development, the definition of brownfield in the regeneration policies should exclude the underused land or land that is profitable for redevelopment without regulatory intervention (A site). Furthermore, the redevelopment targets should be allocated based on the concept of mixed use to accommodate the regional differences as well as the degrees of urbanisation.
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Understanding the Socio Economic Distribution and Consequences of Patterns of Multiple Deprivation: An Application of Self Organising Maps  ESRI WP302  June 2009

Understanding the Socio Economic Distribution and Consequences of Patterns of Multiple Deprivation: An Application of Self Organising Maps ESRI WP302 June 2009

Turning to cluster 2 - involving multiple deprivation that is least pronounced on housing facilities - we again observed a substantial impact for income with the odds gradually declining from 67.2 to 1.2 as we move from the bottom to the fourth quintile. Farmers are even less likely to be found in this cluster than in cluster 1 with an odds ratio of 0.14. Class differentials are also greater for the remaining classes with the odds ratios ranging from 2 for the petit bourgeois to 3 for the lower grade non-manual. Not being married again raises the risk but in this case the strongest effect is for being widowed with an odds ratio of 3. The impact of lone parenthood is considerably greater than in the previous case with the odds ratio reaching 5.0. Rural residents and home owners enjoy comparable advantages to those prevailing for cluster 2. However, the pattern of interaction between public sector tenure and urban location is rather stronger. On this occasion the gap between tenants and private home owners is less in rural areas with an odds ratio of 2.7 while in urban areas it is wider with the corresponding value being 15. In contrast with cluster 1, where the HRP is aged less than 30, individuals are least likely to be found in this cluster as reflected in an odds ratio of 0.12. This figure rises to 0.4 for the 30-39 category and to 50-64 to 1.3. Overall, this cluster shows more moderate but still substantial differentiation in relation to income and stronger effects in relation to lone parenthood and urban public sector tenure.
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An economic analysis of the Lao PDR tourism industry

An economic analysis of the Lao PDR tourism industry

China is becoming a major tourist destination in the world and a major ‘international tourism player’ (Wen and Tisdell, 2001). Since its economic reforms in 1980s, the country has progressed from being an insignificant world international tourist destination in terms of visitor arrivals and receipts to being one of the top ten tourist nations. The UNWTO (1999) revealed that in 1999, China (excluding Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) ranked fifth in the world in terms of international tourism receipts. Wen and Tisdell (2001) also reported that the tourism sector exhibited high economic multipliers, high interdependencies and strong inter- industry linkage effects on the economy of Yunnan Province. According to UNWTO, China emphasis was on the expansion of inbound tourists as a vehicle for its economic growth but subsequently attention was also given to the expansion of domestic tourism. On the other hand, the regional distribution of tourism in China is extremely uneven. Therefore, UNWTO recommended that it is becoming increasingly important for China to develop its tourist destinations in all regions and improve its tourist products to compete with other popular destinations within the country. For example, the development of ecotourism may stimulate further and balance the growth of tourism throughout the country.
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Socio-economic factors associated with maternal health-seeking behaviours among women from poor households in rural Egypt

Socio-economic factors associated with maternal health-seeking behaviours among women from poor households in rural Egypt

The current paper contributes to the research on health inequalities in Egypt by analysing the determi- nants of health-seeking behaviour among poor house- holds in Upper Egypt. The objective of this paper is three-fold. Firstly, we compare the national levels of health-seeking behaviour for maternal care with those reported by women living in households below the pov- erty line in rural Upper Egypt. Secondly, we construct innovative measures of socio-economic position among the rural poor by broadening the understanding to en- compass resourcefulness. Thirdly, we examine the asso- ciation between the resulting variables capturing SEP and maternal health-seeking behaviour. We hypothesise that the higher the socio-economic resourcefulness, the higher the odds of receiving maternal care. We also hy- pothesise that utilization of private care will be positively associated with a construct capturing economic or finan- cial resourcefulness. The main contribution of this study stems from conceptualising dimensions of SEP beyond traditional indicators such as asset ownership and educa- tional achievement. Based on Hausmann-Muela’s sugges- tion that “[t]o a great extent, health-seeking of households depends on their capacity and possibility at a specific moment to mobilise resources, both in material and social or symbolic terms”[11], we aim to capture the operationa- lization of scarce resources available to poor households. Such detailed analysis of determinants of seeking maternal care is crucial in order to design targeted interventions to address the remaining gap in the coverage of these essen- tial health services.
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INEQUALITY IN EDUCATION AND SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION A STUDY OF SCHOOL EDUCATION IN UTTAR PRADESH

INEQUALITY IN EDUCATION AND SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION A STUDY OF SCHOOL EDUCATION IN UTTAR PRADESH

educational opportunities. Rural economic factors like size of holdings, access to irrigation facilities and Improved formal practices are found to exercise significant influence on literacy levels. MAITRA, T. (1997) 8 basing on a survey of public education in West Bengal in terms of the regional distribution of educational opportunity, concludes that despite serious efforts education in the rural areas of the state is far below the level observed in urban areas, highlighting thereby the disadvantage of the rural communities with regard to educational opportunity as well as the definite advantage enjoyed by the urban community in this regard. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS:
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Determinants of and socio-economic disparities in self-rated health in China

Determinants of and socio-economic disparities in self-rated health in China

While SRH has been widely used to assess popula- tion health and health inequalities in high-income countries, only a few studies have analyzed the health-related factors among Chinese population. Some scholars found gender was associated with health and women were less likely to report good health than men in China [15–17]. This may be re- lated to the actual situation of Chinese families. In China, the lifestyle of women and men are different. Although more and more women choose to work outside home, the household related duties are still more dominant for women. Men mainly work out- side the household and may not do housework. Edu- cation and income were often reported to be associated with people ’ s health, and people with higher level of education or annual income were more likely to have a good self-rated health [15, 16, 18]. Income seems to be able to provide financial support for heath. The findings by Liang et al. [17] suggested that variations in levels of depression were associated with variations in SDH for Chinese popu- lation. One study found rural residents tended to feel healthier compared to urban residents [15]. Al- though rural residents have low socio-economic sta- tus compared to urban residents, they were more likely to report good health. However, Pei and Rodri- guez [19] found a strong relationship between resi- dential affiliation and self-rated health, and those living in rural area were less likely to report good SRH. Evidence shows socio-economic disparities in health exist in China. Chen et al. [20] found signifi- cant socioeconomic status (SES) differences in the mean level of health. More and more studies focus
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Female right to participate in election for vote casting; a dilemma;  with special reference to southern Punjab

Female right to participate in election for vote casting; a dilemma; with special reference to southern Punjab

When the question was asked about the participation of women in political assemblies and processions 82.5% of women denied because of their culture patterns. While rest of the others have mixed response on their participation. The table shows that 17.5% of the women agree that electronic media is the only source for them to get information about the election. While rest of the others get information about the election from their male family members. Hence 71.5% of the respondents agree that women have always restrictions to get permission from the male family head to cast their vote. While rest of the others can cast their or participate in election without any restriction. Another factor of the women political rights deprivation is that preference given to male in every sphere of life as compare to women on socio-economic and cultural rights. Alternatively 81.5% of the respondents agree that patriarchal system within society as well as in family is a major cause of their political right deprivation especially in the field of vote casting.
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International Journal of Movement Education and Social Science

International Journal of Movement Education and Social Science

Socio-cultural barriers that working women face in society are the basic reason for their deprivation and retards their progress. In countries like Afghanistan women's deprivation is the result of traditional, social and cultural structure. Other prominent factors are insecurity and long history of gender discrimination. Socio-cultural barriers in the form of gender discrimination restrict the capacity and advantages of working women and contribute to the weak performances of working women. This study examines the experience of these barriers by working women of Bamyan province. The main objective of this study is to analyze these barriers considering three major variables including society, family and workplace. The research questions and objectives were answered by distribution of questionnaires across the five categories of employed women in Bamyan. The results showed that half of the working women still feel disrespected by society and the work of women is not totally acceptable for communities. The study examined that 78.3 percent of the families of the working women are in support of them. Although, a considerable preference in employment opportunities of women taken place by government and administration but still women do not feel this preference in reality.
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An exploratory spatial analysis to assess the relationship between deprivation, noise and infant mortality: an ecological study

An exploratory spatial analysis to assess the relationship between deprivation, noise and infant mortality: an ecological study

In order to further explain these health inequalities, researchers on infant mortality and its determinants have advanced the hypothesis that differential environ- mental exposures might add to role of social determi- nants [28-35]: “deprived populations are more likely to be exposed to a higher number of environmental nui- sances or to a higher level of environmental exposure such as ambient air pollution” [28,31,32,35-37]. In other words, socially disadvantaged inhabitants and ethnic mi- nority populations are more likely to live near traffic or industrial activity than better-off residents. Some authors concluded that the area level effect of air pollution modifies the socio-economic patterns of pre-term birth [28,31,34,35], low birth weight [31], and infant mortality [32,33]. Overall, these studies show that exposure to am- bient air particulates yields (i) a three-fold increase in risk of pre-term birth for an increase in PM10 in low- income groups [28], (ii) a significant increase in the risk of all-cause mortality only among infants with low and medium SES [32].
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An investigation of the determinants of women’s property ownership and inheritance practices among the kisii community in Kenya

An investigation of the determinants of women’s property ownership and inheritance practices among the kisii community in Kenya

This study investigated factors determining women’s property ownership and inheritance practices among the Kisii community in Kenya. The Kisii community, just like many other traditional patriarchal societies in the world, gives men priority over women in property ownership and inheritance. Though discriminative, this practice is normative and culturally sanctioned by both men and women. Though, human rights and constitutional provisions endevours to treat men and women hal societies, men still have an upper hand over their female counterparts with regards to property ownership and inheritance rights. This amounts to gender discrimination which is contrary to human and women’s rights. The objectives of this study were to; investigate the determinants of women’s property ownership and inheritance practices, and proffer strategies that could be used to promote women’s property ownership and inheritance rights of key ck. The study was informed by the conflict and social role theories. It adopted mixed method design. The findings revealed that cultural economic factors, patriarchy, lack of legal awareness on women’s rights nd scarcity were critical factors that influenced women’s property ownership and
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Social cohesion in Europe after the crisis

Social cohesion in Europe after the crisis

The current crisis has posed a challenge to the social fabric of many communities and regions in Europe. It has come in parallel with growing awareness about the struc- tural challenges for social Europe, which have to do with globalisation, demography and technological change. Consolidation of public finances and deleveraging will con- tinue to slow down growth in the medium term leading to further income divergence. As our survey and national debates have shown, a new consensus on the socio-eco- nomic model will need to be embedded in the formative experience of the crisis. There are several channels through which the impact of the social crisis has been felt. Politics has become less consensual and more adversarial. Some countries political scenes have been rebuilt entirely and this process is set to continue. For many intents and purposes, this has amounted to a redef- inition of the social contract with far-reach- ing political implications. Social policy has traditionally been about finding the right equilibrium between a concern for equity and social justice as well as the prerogative of economic growth. Its role in this area is only bound to grow in the post-crisis envi- ronment.
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Socio-Economic Aspects that Affect Loan Repayment in Selected Micro Finance Institutions in Kenya

Socio-Economic Aspects that Affect Loan Repayment in Selected Micro Finance Institutions in Kenya

Inability of borrowers to repay amount of loans collected is crucial for the long-term sustenance of the credit institutions. As a result, many studies have tried to examine loan repayment performance of many socio-economic groups. Empirical work by Oladeebo and Oladeebo (2008) on loan repayment among smallholder farmers in Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone, Nigeria examined socio-economic factors such as years of farming experience with credit and level of education were major factors that positively and significantly influenced loan repayment. In Ghana Wongnaa and Awunyo (2013) examined socio-economic factors such as farmers’ age, sex, educational level, marital status, household, occupation, farm size and other factors influencing loan repayment. In Ethiopia, Pasha and Negese (2014) explored the determinants of loan repayment performance. Among the determinant explored were socio-economic factors such as age, education level and family size in the household.
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