Socio-economic Impact of Reform

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Socio economic impact of act east policy  in northeastern region

Socio economic impact of act east policy in northeastern region

The main concept aboutNortheastern Region as Indian union is considered as showcasing only in themap processon piece of paper, the pragmatic socio-economic development was partially distributed in this region, which is viable the region today as economically backward and politically neglected. China and Myanmar political propagation toward northeastern region on the other hand make major realization in Indian economic policy, the significance started partially in new second reform i.e.but it emerge as only hypothetical strategy not in therealistic features, only after the 2 nd phase of Look East Policy, the mainland Indian release as and when only electrocuted by some economic hit from the other part of the neighbouring country.The latest and more convincing dividing paradigm is Development factor. Partially develop the region hoping to submerge the problems of identity, problems of assertion, problems associated with creating a nation out of essentially tribal communities were seem to be not efficient and effective political tools. Given the historical and contemporary circumstances one can only say that there existed only an imagined correlation between these initiatives and the desired results.
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The Potential Socio-Economic Impact of China Pakistan Economic Corridor

The Potential Socio-Economic Impact of China Pakistan Economic Corridor

Pakistan minister of planning, development and Reform Professor Ahsan Iqbal describe ―CPEC, Pakistan‘s visions 2025‖ in Beijing in his speech in the think tank of China at Pak-China Joint Cooperation Committee (JCC) on CPEC, he said that ―Pakistan itself seeking his position from a lower middle income country to high middle income country by achieving the target per capita GDP of $4200, to touch this goal and generate jobs opportunities for the new phase into the labor force‖. He further added that ―Pakistan aim to achieve his goal of growth rate 8% and fall the inflation rate to one digit in the period of 2018 and 2025‖. Mr. Ahsan added that in ―vision 2025 seeks to increase exports from the present $25 billion to 150$ billion, tax GDP ratio to 16-18%, investment rate in the range of 22-25% of GDP through domestic saving of 18-21% and foreign saving of 3-4% of GDP in the long run‖, he said that main objective is the long-term sustainability, peace and development of both countries (Iqbal, 2015). On another occasion during the inauguration ceremony of China Pakistan Economic Corridor Council (CPECC) on 8th April 2015 Professor Ahsan Iqbal said that this multi-billion project will solve many of the social and economic problems. Pakistan is facing slow pace of business activities and unemployment. In another study it is mentioned that CPEC is expected to stumble in growth to add 2% GDP and to omit the economic barrier for investment worth 7.6% of GDP or US$22 billion with a concessionary loan for the different project (Mazher et al., 2015).
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IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON TEACHING AND LEARNING

IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON TEACHING AND LEARNING

Whenever a process of change begins in a country to reform the socio-economic system, the first priority should be given to education because education is the fundamental necessity for development. Good quality is the prerequisites of globalisation. Quality education depends on proper educational and infrastructural facilities like libraries, computers, audio/visual aids, laboratory, workshop, well maintained buildings, furniture, hostels, electricity, water, telephone, etc. So there should be sufficient funds to develop educational facilities of international standards in institutions.
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Social cohesion in Europe after the crisis

Social cohesion in Europe after the crisis

At the start of the transition, all post-communist countries had to implement very ambitious reform agendas. Whereas aus- terity has become the catchword for the measures to tackle the crisis of the eurozone, in the early nineties the catchword for the reforms in the transition countries was “shock therapy”, and it brought with it a very high social price. Countries that were late to adopt “shock therapy” measures (like Bulgaria) paid an even higher social price. Compared to the protests against austerity policies today it seems surprising that “shock therapy” did not meet much opposition at the time. The simple explanation for this is that the reform agenda in the transition countries was driven by the hope for a better fu- ture and membership in the EU, or simply for a change of the status quo. In contrast, today’s reform agendas that go under the austerity label are driven predominantly by fear. Proposals on the creation of a social dimension of the eurozone come as an attempt to accommodate the concerns of citizens in the eurozone countries about lowering social standards, changing the status quo. These fears should no doubt be ad- dressed. At the same time, a social pillar of the EMU should not be designed in a way that neglects the aspirations of the still poorer younger member states. As the eurozone consolidates and extends its ranks, it should be remembered that the im- plementation of similar measures could lead to diff erent out-
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Impact of Gender Equality on Socio-Economic Development of Kazakhstan

Impact of Gender Equality on Socio-Economic Development of Kazakhstan

Based on the data of Table 2, it can be noted that the gender gap index affects the gross domestic product per capita, which is one of the indicators characterising the economic condition of the state. The greater the Gender Gap Index is, the smaller is the inequality between the sexes and the higher the GDP per capita. The European countries such as Iceland and Sweden go ahead in this indicator. The indicators of Kazakhstan and Russia are neither high nor low; the GDP is 23 or 24 thousand dollars. The Kyrgyz Republic has the lowest rates among these five countries,
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SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

CONCEPT OF SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACT The socio-economic impact of RA and AS is the repercussion of these two pathologies on the social and economic aspects. Thus, it consists in evaluating the direct, indirect and intangible costs of RA and AS. [3, 5, 6] Direct costs are related to expenditure in terms of consumption of care such as consultations, hospitalizations, various treatments, biological and radiological explorations. [3, 7] They take into account also financial aid provided by the family and friends. [7] Indirect costs are defined by the professional impact in the form of losses of productivity in relation to work stoppages, the temporary or permanent cessation of work
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Impact of Migrant Remittance on Socio-Economic development of Ghana

Impact of Migrant Remittance on Socio-Economic development of Ghana

In Ghana, remittances amounted to $18.7 billion in 2012 according to the Bank of Ghana (BoG). However, in the midst of growing volumes of remittance flow into most developing countries such as Ghana, most of them still face much development problems such as poverty (Nikoi, 2014). The question to ask is therefore what the impact of these large remittance flows has on the economic development of developing countries such as Ghana. Ghana was chosen for this study not only because of high level of poverty rates but also the increased number of money transfer institutions (both formal and informal) in the country and also the recent rapid growth in the volume of remittance in the country. It has been argued that migrant remittances are becoming a potential source of foreign exchange whose magnitude exceeds the amount of ODA to Ghana.
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Smog can Cost More than What We are Earning Now:  A Case Study of Fangshan District in Beijing, China

Smog can Cost More than What We are Earning Now: A Case Study of Fangshan District in Beijing, China

In conclusion, smog impacts on human beings basically on human health and socio-economic development. From the global and local experiences of places where smog has appeared or has appearing, people who live in smog have higher rate of getting diseases such as cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and lung cancer, this statement has been shown from some medical reports. And for people who already got those diseases, they have increasing mortality rate related to the diseases. The other type of impacts from smog on human beings is the socio-economic impacts. This kind of impacts could be categorized into two sub-types, the direct socio-economic impacts and the indirect socio-economic impacts. The direct impacts refer to loss of capital directly caused by smog, and the indirect impacts mean the follow-up loss related to the direct impacts, for instance, the abatement costs and increasing public health expenditure. More importantly, the impacts do not only refer to monetary loss, but also refer to emotional impacts such as people’s feeling about the impacts since there have been a lot of people got mental diseases because of the smog, directly and indirectly. The impacts of smog are more than what the report has stated, but here the focusing point is only the impacts of smog on people. People lose health and economic development because of the impacts of smog. Recently, some international organizations such as United Nations, they are concerning on the issue and have publishing academic reports looking for the solution of smog and other environmental pollution, also some goals have been made for reducing the impacts of the problem.
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Socio Economic Profile of People with Disabilities: A Health Impact

Socio Economic Profile of People with Disabilities: A Health Impact

Men and women were distributed similarly in the three categories of disabilities; there as a distribution with a significant difference among the three groups in terms of age groups, no [r]

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Volume 03  Issue 11  (2015) Nov. 2015

Volume 03 Issue 11 (2015) Nov. 2015

Socio-cultural Factors and House Forms The different forms of dwellings are a complex phenomenon for which there is no single explanation as people with very deferent attitudes and ideas respond to varied physical environments. These responses vary from place to place due to changes and differences in the interplay of social, cultural, ritual, economic, and physical factors which might be gradual in the same place with the passage of time. Since building a house in a cultural phenomenon, its form and organization are greatly influenced by the cultural milien to which it belong producing an environment best suited to the way of life of a people. Usually, given solutions or adaptations do not always occur simply because they are possible, because as the physical setting provides the possibilities among which choices are made through the taboos, customs, and traditional ways of the culture.
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Maori experiences of historical intergenerational trauma and transformative pedagogies (full version)

Maori experiences of historical intergenerational trauma and transformative pedagogies (full version)

Socio-cultural influences Socio-cultural influences Socio- Environmental Influences Socio- Environmental Influences Socio-Economic Influences Socio-Economic Influences CULTURAL BUFFERS C[r]

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METRO: An Ideal Solution for Traffic

METRO: An Ideal Solution for Traffic

[1] Kochi, the commercial hub of Kerala, is already experiencing signs of urban growth pressures. As per World Bank, Kochi is recognized as one of the seventeen major industrial cities of India and an easy city to start business in India. This decade is witnessing huge investments in the region like International Container Transshipment Terminal at Vallarpadam, Info Park at Kakkanad, Special Economic Zone by NEST, LNG terminal, Electronic hardware park. Among the districts, Ernakulum district contributes the highest portion (14.47) of Kerala's GDP. Being a centre of excellence of education and a destination for major industries and establishments like High court, Stock exchange, Kochi shipyard, Spice board etc. attract significant floating population form the neighbouring districts for their livelihood. In addition to this, Kochi has been emerged as a major tourist destination to domestic as wells as international tourists. Recently opened mall by Lulu group has multi folded the number of visitors in the city. Urbanization has been observed as a new phenomenon with a quickening pace in the last 15 to 20 years. Kochi Corporation with a population of 602046 in 2011 (Census 2011) will grow at an annual growth rate of 1.0 during 2011- 2031 (Development Plan for Kochi city region Draft (2031)). Kochi city region comprising two municipalities and surrounding local bodies with an area of 369.72sq.km will carry a population of 22.73 lakhs by 2031(Development Plan for Kochi city region {Draft (2031)). Roughly 68 percentage of the population, compared to about only 48 percentage in 2001, lives in urban areas in the Ernakulum district which is far beyond the state average. The urban population in Ernakulam is presently estimated to increase 4.2 percentages annually.
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Anatomizing Nigerian Electricity Infrastructure and Rural Development: A quantitative approach

Anatomizing Nigerian Electricity Infrastructure and Rural Development: A quantitative approach

In addition, empowerment theory emphasis on the capabilities of masses to enthusiastically partake in, negotiate, inspire, and hold accountable institutions that affect their lives (Narayan-Parker, 2002, 2005). Empowerment is concern with the support for self-efficacy, active in decision making process where people have better control over their lives (Rappaport 1987). Essentially, empowerment has four basic components that stimulate the reform of an individual and institutions: This include: (i)Accessible to information (ii) Active participation in policy processes (iii) Accountability (iv)mutual responsibility to achieve common goal. Also, the exclusive type of empowerment takes the form of community cooperation to enhance effective delivery of human service (Foster- Fisherman, 1998). Empowerment theory has multiple variables acknowledged by international institutions like the World Health Organization and the United Nations and can be fixed suitably into several disciplines (Capone & Petrillo, 2012, 2013; Fawcett et al., 2010). For instance, for professionals in community psychology and other disciplines, empowerment is perceived as a strengths-based, non-expert driven method that consider the ability of people to find their felt-needs and enthusiastically involve in solutions to the problems threatening them such paucity of capital to engage in business, electricity for domestic use, good road network among others(Baxamusa, 2008; Prati & Zani, 2013).
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Modelling the socio-economic impact of river floods in Europe

Modelling the socio-economic impact of river floods in Europe

The catastrophic floods hitting central Europe in June 2013 were selected as a case study to test the performance of the event-based method for rapid risk mapping. This was a se- vere, large-scale event which affected several countries and led to the loss of lives as well as considerable damage in the Danube and Elbe river basins. The event was associated with a quasi-stationary upper-level low located north-east of the Alps and characterized by a significant contribution of orographic lifting (Pappenberger et al., 2013). Also, in the weeks leading up to the event, rainfall accumulations were significantly above normal in large parts of central Europe, exacerbating the run-off process. The return period of the dis- charge peaks was estimated to equal or exceed 100 years in various rivers including the Isar, Inn, Salzach, Danube, Elbe, Mulde, Saale, Rhine and Neckar (Zurich, 2014). Figure 6 shows maps of damage and population affected in central Eu- rope, based on the simulated discharge maps from 25 May to 10 June 2013. Impact data in the figure are aggregated over NUTS 2 regions, while grey circles indicate hotspots of sim- ulated damage larger than EUR 100 million and population affected in excess of 5000. Aggregated estimates of direct damage in Germany, Austria and Czech Republic amount to EUR 10.9 billion and 360 000 people affected by the flood event. These estimates are in agreement with reported fig- ures ranging between 11.4 and EUR 16 billion (Aon Ben- field, 2014; Munich Re, 2014; Swiss Re, 2013), especially if one considers that the higher estimates from insurance com-
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Prohibition of Alcohol in Bihar: A Study of Socio-economic Impact

Prohibition of Alcohol in Bihar: A Study of Socio-economic Impact

Bihar became a completely ‗dry state‘ on Tuesday, banning sale and consumption of all kinds of liquor in a move seen as fulfillment of a poll promise to women by Chief Minister Nitish Kumar. The ban includes Indian-made foreign liquor (IMFL), left out of the partial prohibition clamped on April 1. Kumar‘s passionate pitch for prohibition citing the adverse effects of domestic violence and broken families besides economic and health costs had earned overwhelming support from women of the ruling Janata Dal (United) in last year‘s assembly polls.
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Spatial Planning for Socio-Economic Development

Spatial Planning for Socio-Economic Development

Location theory seeks to explain the distribution of activities in space, the aim being to identify the factors that influence the location of individual activities, the allocation of different portions of territory among different types of production, the dividing of a spatial market among producers, and the functional distribution of activities in space (Capello, 2011). Major change in planning approach can be traced from the third decade of development or 1970s when it was realized that in spite of success stories the thirty years of international development efforts, the hard core of mass poverty in the Third World countries remained unencroached (Higgins, 1980). The new approach of development planning emphasized on disaggregated planning at regional and local level from the below, participation of largest population itself both in planning and execution of development projects and improved style of development. This shift was that regional planning started occupying the centre of stage only in concept, but not in practice. Integrated area development programme postulated during this period refers to functional and spatial integration. Functional integration envisages integration of all economic and social activities
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A Study on Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Personality of Male and Female Pupil Teachers

A Study on Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Personality of Male and Female Pupil Teachers

The present research work intent to study the impact of socio- economic status on personality of male and female pupil teachers (B.Ed.) trainee. Hence the researchers aim at to find out the Impact of socio - economic status (SES) on personality of male and female pupil teachers. Researchers selecting 1000 samples out of total population on the basis random sampling techniques with the help of standardized tools collected data and on the basis of normative survey method analysis and interpretation with required statistical technique like Mean, Standard Deviation, Critical Ratio, Degree of Freedom, Coefficient of Correlation, and ANOVA tested the hypotheses find out the purposive findings to focus on proper suggestive suggestion towards conclusion.
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The Effect of Income Distribution on life expectancy and under-5 mortality rate in Iran

The Effect of Income Distribution on life expectancy and under-5 mortality rate in Iran

social disintegration leads to a decrease in public trust and to risky health behaviors. As a third way, income inequality affecting health, he refers to underprivileged people›s demands that want more public investments in the healthcare sector. Kravdal believes that adopting a policy of increasing public investments by the government in a society confronted with well-off people›s desires who want to pay less tax. He concludes that although policies are chosen by the ruling parties, but when socio-economic disparities are high enough result in more conflicts, the policies move towards allocating less public funds to the healthcare sector. Consequently, this will affect the health of both lower and higher income groups of people in that society [8]. Huijts et al. consider stress and unhealthy behaviors as the key factors through which people’s unequal socio-economic status (e.g. income inequalities) can affect aggregate society›s health levels [10]. Marmot & Wilkinson believe that more socio-economic inequalities in the US in comparison with Costa Rica are the reason why African-Americans have lower life expectancy than Costa Rican men despite the fact that per capita income in the United States is four times as much as that in the Costa Rica. They also refer to the same but a deeper gap between the US and Greece; where psychological variables influencing health as a result of socio-economic inequalities, are the reason for longer life expectancy in Greece, while Americans have a per capita income double as much as that of the Greeks [11]. Marmot underscores the crucial role of stress in a society where socioeconomic inequalities exist and believes that a rise in stress as a result of a decrease in people›s control over their lives and jobs and feeling being disrespected in the society in unequal socio-economic opportunities and conditions lead to numerous health problems in a society [2].
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Driving Forces of Forest Landscape Change in Ślęża Landscape Park (Southwestern Poland) in Period 1883-2013

Driving Forces of Forest Landscape Change in Ślęża Landscape Park (Southwestern Poland) in Period 1883-2013

In the context of analyzes of the character of changes and their driving forces, it should be emphasized that topography remains the basic factor determining the land cover of the research area. The slopes of Ślęża and surrounding hills have been covered with forests for years, settlement areas are developing at the foot of hills, while arable land dominates in flat areas. As the basic driving force behind changes in forest landscapes, weak soils are mentioned in literature [60], however, as shown by Szymura et al. [52] in the area of the Sudety soil types did not have a significant impact on landscape changes. Investigations of the driving forces of changes in forest landscapes mainly concern the Carpathian area [19,58,61], less frequently its Polish part [57,62]. There is little research on the area of the Sudetes and their foothills. Generally, there is a lack of research in Poland that would allow comparison of obtained results with other research. This is confirmed by Plieninger et al. [47] who show that from 144 analyzed articles which identify driving forces of landscape change across Europe only 4 refer to case studies located in Poland. In neighboring Germany, Czech Republic or Slovakia the number of such studies is much higher.
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Training for impact: the socio-economic impact of a fit for purpose health workforce on communities

Training for impact: the socio-economic impact of a fit for purpose health workforce on communities

The answer to how can the impact of educational in- vestments be maximized may be socially accountable education. It is increasingly seen as a mechanism to maximize impact and is included in several major policy guidelines and documents such as the World Health Or- ganization’s Guidelines on Transforming and Scaling up Health Professional Education. Socially accountable (SA) health professional education is broadly defined as “the obligation to direct their education, research and service of activities towards addressing the priority health con- cerns of the community, region and/or nation that they have a mandate to serve. The priority health concerns are to be identified jointly by governments, healthcare organizations, health professionals and public”. It means ensuring learners understand the culture, the needs and the assets of the communities in which they learn and then develop relevant competencies for practicing in these communities, becoming a more “ fit for purpose ” worker. Strategies to create a fit-for purpose workforce include giving community mem- bers a voice in both the selection and training of students, training diverse students early on and throughout their curriculum in primary care and underserved settings, training a cadre of health workers including community health workers, using competency-based assessment of theoretical learning, integrating and reinforcing learning on the effect of social determinants of health and equity on both indi- viduals and populations, and learning to practise in interprofessional teams.
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