use, yet menthol cigarette use is a continuing public health problem, especially among young adults and Black/African Americans. Smoking cessation is warranted to reduce smoking-related diseases and premature death. Ample evidence has demonstrated that having an intention to quit smoking is strongly associated with attaining cessation. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the sociodemographic correlates of intention to quit smoking for good between menthol and non-menthol adult smokers in the U.S..
The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) and the American Optometric Association (AOA) recommend comprehensive eye examinations by ophthalmologists or optometrists for adults with no signs or risk factors to be conducted as a baseline at the age 40 years [13-15]. Current recommendations by the AOA suggest that 40 to 54 year olds without risk factors should be examined every two to four years, those age 55 to 64 every one to three years, and those over 65 every one to two years. In addition, they recommend that any patient at higher risk for developing disease, based on ocular, medical, or family history should have periodic examinations determined by their individual risk and eye care provider. Understanding the distribution of eye and vision conditions, as well as the sociodemographic correlates of adults who visit eye care providers, may inform eye care efforts and allow for tai- lored eye care intervention efforts. Therefore we: 1) Exam- ine sociodemographic correlates of eye care provider visits among adults 40 and older; 2) Describe the strength of the association between sociodemographic characteristics associated with eye care provider visit; and 3) Provide state-level prevalence estimates of eye care provider visits.
Despite these health benefits, few studies have reported the prevalence and correlates of muscle-strengthening activity participation . Previous studies from US [13–15], Australia [16 – 18] and Japan  suggest a wide range of participation rates, with between 4% and 32% of adults (aged 18 years and over) meeting the muscle-strengthening activity recommendations of at least 2 sessions/week. While little is known about the sociodemographic correlates of par- ticipation in muscle-strengthening activity, there is some evidence that males, younger adults (18 – 24 years) and those with higher education levels are more likely to meet the recommenda- tions . Developing an understanding of the prevalence and correlates of muscle-strengthen- ing activities is vital for orientating public health approaches to promote this essential
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In the analyses described in this paper, we examined sociodemographic patterning of energy drink consumption among adolescents in the US population. Although there is a substantial literature on the sociodemographic correlates of cigarette use and alcohol use in this population, there is a surprising dearth of research on the socioeconomic patterning of energy drink use. This paper is, to our knowledge, the first to examine such patterning and to provide depth to this examination by comparing this patterning to sociodemographic correlates of other substance use, especially in the US representative adolescent population. This approach provided us several insights into the sociodemographic and possible behavioral determinants of energy drink use. First, our results made it evident that prevalence of energy drink consumption was higher than current cigarette use and approximate to current alcohol use, suggesting easy access to and popularity of this substance. Moreover, higher odds of energy drink consumption were observed in whites, males, 12th-grade students, and those with less than high-school-educated mother or father. These results were in consonance with a study conducted in Canada except that there was no significant difference between males and females and the consumption of energy drinks was also associated with sensation-seeking behaviors, depression, and substance use in adolescents. 14 Similar results were reported in adult
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Quality of life (QOL) is a vague concept. It is multidimensional and theoretical in nature. It incorporates all aspects of individual’s life. The main aim of the present study is to explore the sociodemographic correlates (i.e. gender, marital status, socioeconomic status, religion, educational status and social support) of quality of life. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, short version (WHOQOL-BREF) was administered to 100 adults. WHOQOL comprised of four domains i.e., physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environmental domain. Independent t-test was used to analyze the data.
sociodemographic factors associated with suicidality in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) from six Asian countries. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 547 outpatients with MDD. Patients presented to study sites in China (n = 114), South Korea (n = 101), Malaysia (n = 90), Singapore (n = 40), Thailand (n = 103), and Taiwan (n = 99). All patients completed the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Montgomery – Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Global Severity Index(SCL-90R), the Fatigue Severity Scale, the 36-item short-form health survey, the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Patients were classified as showing high suicidality if they scored ≥ 6 on the MINI suicidality module. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine sociodemographic and clinical factors related to high suicidality.
perspective varies from country to country and from place to place. All communities have their concept of health, as part of their culture. Proper understanding of the local beliefs, perceptions and cultural practices is important for planning proper health education programmes, health services, in treating women seeking treatment for nonpathological vaginal discharge and in providing access to health services as a part of global health strategy. As there are no similar studies in this region, this study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of the problem of vaginal discharge in the women of reproductive age group and the sociodemographic factors associated with it, causes and effect of vaginal discharge as felt by the women, other associated gynaecological morbidities and their treatment seeking behaviour. METHODS
Given its cost and health implications, there has been substantial policy and academic interest in avoidable ED utilization. Research attempting to identify the patterns of avoidable ED visits dates back four decades [4,5], and ef- forts to curb their occurrence go back to the Johnson ad- ministration . Recent studies predict that the Affordable Care Act will further increase ED usage , intensifying the pressure to address the looming healthcare crisis of increasing costs and reduced accessibility to care. In particular, the episodic and reactive nature of ED medical care makes it ill-suited as a medical home for chronically ill patients. It is therefore of great policy importance to understand the correlates of avoidable ED utilization, particularly at the population level in the most populous state in the United States.
Background: It has been reported that the majority of individuals with mental illnesses (MIs) do not seek help. Few studies have focused on correlates of a positive attitude toward profes- sional help-seeking for MI. This study aimed to determine levels of knowledge, perception, and attitudes toward MI, determine attitudes toward mental health help-seeking, and identify sociode- mographic predictors of correct knowledge and favorable attitudes among the Saudi public. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 650 Saudi adults aged >18 years who attended the Saudi Jenadriyah annual cultural and heritage festival during February 2016. The previously validated Attitudes to Mental Illness Questionnaire was used. Attitude to professional help-seeking was also assessed, using a tool retrieved from the World Mental Health Compos- ite International Diagnostic Interview part II. Multiple regression analyses were applied, and statistical significance considered at P<0.05.
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Methods: We examined 1,436 census dissemination areas within the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. For each census dissemination area we determined age and sex-specific 25-hydroxyvitamin D testing rates over a one year period. We then compared these testing rates with the following sociodemographic variables obtained from Census Canada: first nations status, education level, household income, visible minority status, and recent immigrant status. Results: Overall, 6.9% of males in the city of Calgary were tested during the study period. Females were 1.7 times more likely to be tested than males. Testing rate increased with increasing age, with 16.8% of individuals 66 years and over tested during the one-year study period.
The structural characteristics concern ethnolinguistic vitality and communication networks that either favor or do not favor the use of the L2. Ethnolinguistic vitality reflects the socioeconomic power of a community and the extent to which its members are represented in sociopolitical institutions (p. 555). Communication networks refer to the groups with which there is regular communication; these can consist of L1 and L2 subnetworks. Perceptual and affective correlates determine “attitudes and values regarding the L2 community and the motivation to adapt and reduce social distance between ethnic groups” (p. 556). Intergroup relations are often tense and this will affect L2 learning and communication. Prejudiced atti- tudes might demotivate L2 learners. Gardner (1985) found that parents’ attitudes are highly influential on their children’s language-learning motivation. Parents who encourage their children to learn an L2 might nullify this by showing negative attitudes toward the L2 group in question.
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dissemination area map for Calgary using the ArcGIS v9.3 geo-mapping software (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, California). This software tool uses Getis-Ord Gi * statistic to produce z-scores and identify statistically significant hot (increased testing) and cold (de- creased testing) spots depending on how many standard deviations the data is removed from the mean . Statis- tical inference regarding sociodemographic variables asso- ciated with testing rate was performed using the generalized estimating equations version of Poisson re- gression in SAS v9.4. The reported relative risks refer to the independent contribution of each variable with the other categorical variables (age, gender, group) held con- stant at an arbitrary reference value. The differences in testing rates are reported as relative risk (RR) for the inde- pendent contribution of that variable to the analysis and results were considered statistically significant at a p-value of 0.05.
Criteria for new disorders in DSM-5 depart from those for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in not requir- ing the overvaluation of weight/shape or other body image disturbance. However, overvaluation of weight/ shape has been argued to have clinical utility as a diag- nostic specifier, or perhaps, diagnostic criterion, of BED [8,9]. New disorders such as BED also appear to have different demographic correlates to anorexia nervosa and possibly bulimia nervosa, occurring in older people with a more even sex distribution . There is also potential for people to meet criteria for more than one disorder depending on interpretation of the term “recur- rent” in regards to purging episodes. For example, a per- son who has weekly objective binge eating episodes, less than weekly purging episodes, and overvaluation of shape or weight, may be diagnosed as binge eating dis- order (if the less-than-weekly purging is deemed “not-re- current”) or bulimia nervosa of sub-threshold frequency and/or duration, i.e. OSFED.
The association of sociodemographic variables with any anxiety disorder and the four most common diagnoses (namely: GAD, OCD, social phobia and PTSD) were assessed by applying five separate multivariate logistic re- gression analyses whose results are summarized in Table 3. The findings showed that female sex (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.16), unemployment (AOR = 1.98), urban living (AOR = 1.31) and moderate (AOR = 1.23) or low (AOR = 1.49) socioeconomic status were significantly associated with higher prevalence of any anxiety disorders. Being married (AOR = 1.51), unemployment (AOR = 2.15), urban living (AOR = 1.77) and low socioeconomic status (AOR = 1.54) were significantly associated with GAD. Young age, female sex (AOR = 1.17), unemployment (AOR = 2.45) and urban living (AOR = 1.37) were significantly associated with OCD. Female sex (AOR = 1.19), retirement (AOR = 3.79) and moderate (AOR = 1.76) and low (AOR = 2.85) socioeco- nomic status were significantly associated with social pho- bia. The only variable showing a significant association with PTSD was being divorced or widowed (AOR = 2.68).
The sociodemographic and clinical features of the pa- tients were assessed using two structured self-report questionnaires developed by the researchers. The first, used prenatally, assessed both sociodemographic and clinical features. The second, used postnatally, focused only on clinical issues. The items on the questionnaire were designed to identify and assess the income level of the family, the occupation of the pregnant woman and her husband, and their education levels, family type (nu- clear or extended), whether the pregnancy was planned or unwanted, attitudes towards the pregnancy and the baby, the presence of domestic violence, and previous psychiatric and obstetric history. Physical violence in the prepartum and postpartum period was assessed through interviews with the study subjects. The questionnaires also measured the level of satisfaction with the preg- nancy on a Likert scale. The outcome of the pregnancy, the delivery method, and gender and health status of the baby were obtained from hospital records.
more representative sample is usually preferred in principle component anal- ysis, which could identify more robust and complete infant dietary patterns in the Aim 1 analysis, (2) the smaller samples for Aim 2 and Aim 3 were used because of practical survey issues such as missing data and attrition, and (3) for Aim 3, we further required complete growth data at both age 6 and 12 months to assess the change in growth mea- sures, which was essential for causal interpretation. Fig 1 shows the analytic sample ﬂ ow. Sample characteristics with regard to sociodemographic variables and birth outcomes are displayed in Table 1. Overall, the distributions of these characteristics were fairly similar across the original full 6-month follow- up and 12-month follow-up samples. However, compared with all newborns in the original full sample, the infants who had both 6-month and 12-month follow-ups had higher birth weight and household income, and their mothers were more likely to be white, highly educated, and married.
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or known as the abnormal eGFR result rate (dependent variable) per DU. Abnormal eGFR result rate was calculated by dividing the number of abnormal eGFR test results (as defined by eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m 2 ) by the total number of the first eGFR test encounter for the calendar year within each DU. The sociodemographic associations were represented by the risk ratio (RR), where a value over 1.0 suggested the independent vari- able in question had a higher risk of abnormal eGFR re- sult rate when compared to its reference state. For individual-level variables, all age groups < 69 years of age and the female gender were compared to a reference state of age ≥ 70 year and the male gender, respectively. Age was broken down into 7 groups (see Table 1). Each group-level sociodemographic variable was compared to its respective reference state. For example, all Indigenous populations from the 2011 Census groups not included in the study were used as a reference for First Nations and Metis groups in this study. Therefore MHI was represented in units of $100,000 CAD. P < 0.05 was deemed statistically significant (SAS v. 9 software).
Previous studies note that self-perceived weight status is inadequately explained by actual body size (43-48). A sizable fraction of normal-weight individuals attempts or desire weight loss, while an equally notable fraction of overweight people are not (Rand, 1996; Stephenson et al., 1987; Forman et al., 1986; Strauss, 1999; Serdula, 1993; Jeffery et al., 1984; Williamson et al., 1992; Bennett, 1991; Levy, 1993). Self- evaluation of weight status, however, is not simply an autonomous, individual response; it is likely subject to social patterning and environmental influences. Attitudes toward body size and preferences for distinct levels of fatness are mediated by local social and cultural factors, and perceptions may vary in predictable ways among population subgroups (Fitzgibbon et al., 2000). This work improves on previous studies in several ways. First, this study adjusts for a broad range of sociodemographic factors including race/ethnicity, household income and age. Second, Add Health data consists of a nationally representative sample of adolescents and measures weight at various intervals throughout their
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Attitudes towards TLs in multilingual countries or communities are also shaped by the position of individuals in communication networks, i.e. the groups with which there is regular communication; these can consist of L1 and L2 subnetworks. Perceptual and affective correlates determine ‘attitudes and values regarding the L2 community and the motivation to adapt and reduce social distance between ethnic groups’ (MacIntyre et al., 1998: 556). Intergroup relations are often tense and this will affect L2 learning and communication. Prejudiced attitudes towards the L2 might demotivate L2 learners. A rejection of the culture of the TL and an explicit choice to remain outside the TL community will undoubtedly limit the likelihood of engaging in authentic interactions in the TL. Hence the danger of getting in a vicious circle where low levels of perceived competence are linked to low frequencies of communication (MacIntyre & Charos, 1996) and low levels of willingness to communicate in the TL (MacIntyre et al ., 1998). Similarly, parents’ attitudes are highly influential on their children’s language-learning attitudes (Gardner, 1985a). Yamamoto (2001), for example, reports that Japanese parents may consider the knowledge of English as being useful for their children, thus transmitting this attitude, but they tend to dismiss other languages, especially African and Asian languages. Likewise, the socioeconomic status of the parents is important in predicting attitudes towards learning and academic performance (Furnham & Heaven, 1998). Parents with high socioeconomic status have certain values and beliefs that increase the likelihood of acade- mic success (Argyle, 1994). One could expect, by extrapolation, that attitudes towards language learning are also determined by the socioeconomic status of the parents.
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multiparous women attended antenatal classes. In France, seven antenatal classes are reimbursed by health insurance, in order to “contribute to the improvement of women, expectant mothers and newborn health” and to “encourage active involvement of the woman and the couple in their birth plan” . Such classes provide comprehensive information on female physiology, condi- tions of delivery (position and gestures), and essential care during the infant’s first months (feeding, sleep- ing…), and proposed several approaches: obstetric psychoprophylaxis, yoga, aquatic gym, sophrology and so on. However, as in other countries [41, 42], participa- tion in antenatal education has been shown to be closely related to socioeconomic status in France . Single women , born in foreign countries [41, 42], with a low education level or occupational status  are less likely to participate in antenatal classes. However, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal obesity was still significantly associated with antenatal classes among multiparous women, suggesting another under- lying mechanism. It was previously shown that obese women were more likely to have a negative perception of their bodies . We may assume that obese multip- arous women might have experienced uncomfortable feelings when attending such classes in a previous
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