Sociology of Crime and Deviance

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Book Reviews

Book Reviews

This first general theory of the sociology of crime and deviance, which was at the basis of the structural-functionalist school which dominated sociology almost until our time is judged [r]

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Dissertation Title: Kicking the Habit: Recovering from Addiction across Social Divides (expected defense fall 2015)

Dissertation Title: Kicking the Habit: Recovering from Addiction across Social Divides (expected defense fall 2015)

American Sociological Assocation Crime, Law, and Deviance Body & Embodiment Race, Gender, and Class Medical Sociology Midwest Sociological Society. Society for the Study of Soci[r]

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Boredom and Social Deviant Behavior: An Empirical Study

Boredom and Social Deviant Behavior: An Empirical Study

choice (Matza, 1964). In this context, therefore emerges the subject individuality that is permeated by forces, stimuli, apathy, intolerances culminating in the reaction. According to Matza (Gibbons & Krohn, 1991) individuals are to a considerable extent constrained or influenced by social and environmental forces, but at the same time, they are reactive subject able to exercise a certain degree of freedom or choice on their behavior; when a young falls into deviance he is still influ- enced by the morality of conventional society. To reduce the guilt that most people will develop before committing a crime, individuals will use a method known as neutralization (Matza, 1964). In social processes, the “meaning” is particularly important: an absence of meaning in an activity or a circumstance leads to a boredom experience and push the actor to search meaning, with the assumption of atypical social practices, including risk taking. Meaning directs and defines action; pervades core categories for sociology as “culture”, “value”, “norm”, and so on. The “meaning” typically refers to a set of symbolic objects that identify or create significant social realities. Meaning, therefore, is not an intrinsic property of objects but of the relationships of people who come into contact with such objects. Since certain meanings provide context, reference, purpose to actions, social life itself would become unrealizable without the qual-
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Phenomenological Analysis of Teachers’ Organizational Deviance Experiences in a Rural Primary School in Turkey

Phenomenological Analysis of Teachers’ Organizational Deviance Experiences in a Rural Primary School in Turkey

), organizational deviance behaviors increases. In conclusion, ambition and grudge may be accepted as personal characteristics that lead to deviance. But it is clear that organizational environment paves the way for these characteristics to emerge. Whatever stated as the reasons for it, as a reaction to sabotage teachers stated that they just warned that person. The school, in which this study was conducted, was a rural primary school. The owner of state schools is everybody. However, when any negative behavior emerges at the state schools, no one takes responsibility. In fact, everybody needs to possess public property and protect it as if it was his own. For this reason, behaviors that may result in serious problems like sabotage should not be passed over with just a warning. It is important to give psychological support to that teacher showing this behavior in order to both guarantee schools effectiveness and existence of school property, and for teachers and students well being.
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teaching of sociology did give rise to some fairly major controversies involving actors inside as well as outside the education system. Teachers themselves have been important actors in the conflicts that have surrounded the subject. André Chervel (Chervel 1988) approached academic disciplines as institutional forms which, in the case of the French system, form the basis of the education system’s cultural creativity. A ‘school sub- ject’ is not entirely congruent with the academic dis- cipline that it may take as a point of reference. True, it is characterised by its knowledge content, but the de- velopment of certain modes of teaching and the exis- tence of a specific body of teachers are also distinctive features of a school subject. As early as the late 1960s, Musgrove (Musgrove 1968) was already analysing a subject’s teaching personnel as a social community in- fluencing the content of the subject they taught. Our work on economic and social sciences, the broad sub- ject area within which sociology is taught in French lycées, illustrates the power of ‘school subjects’ as in- stitutional forms, just as it reveals their composite and socially constituted nature. It highlights the role of teachers in shaping the changes in the content of this subject, including at the level of the formal curriculum. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, we outline the institutional position of this course and trace the contradictory history of its evolution. The role played by lycée teachers in the subject’s develop- ment is also outlined here. In the second part, we fo- cus on the teaching of sociology, and in particular on the successes and difficulties inside the classroom. Our concern here is with lesson content, teaching methods and student outcomes. The composite nature of the subject is also highlighted. In the third part, we en- deavour to draw general conclusions from this experi- ence of introducing a new subject into the secondary school curriculum with the ultimate aim of developing a theoretical perspective on curriculum change. 2. A troubled history with a happy end:
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Introduction: Preliminary Reflections on the Legacy of Pierre Bourdieu

Introduction: Preliminary Reflections on the Legacy of Pierre Bourdieu

drew on a range of intellectual traditions and on a variety of thinkers whose works are associated with these traditions. Far from covering all of the intellectual schools and paradigmatic trends that infl uenced Bourdieu’s oeuvre, the collection of essays published in the present volume has three main foci. The fi rst set of essays traces the roots of Bourdieu’s thought in classical sociology by closely examining his intellectual connections with the writings of the founding fi gures of sociology, that is, with the works of Marx (Fowler and Karsenti), Durkheim (Wacquant), and Weber (Bourdieu/Schultheis/Pfeuffer). The second set of essays is mainly concerned with Bourdieu’s relation to modern social philosophy, in particular with regard to the works of Nietzsche (Rahkonen), Elias (Paulle/van Heerikhuizen/Emirbayer), Adorno (Susen), and Honneth (Basaure). The third set of essays explores the relevance of Bourdieu’s writings to key issues debated in the contemporary social sciences, such as the continuous presence of religion (Turner), the transformative power of social movements (Frère), the emancipatory potential of language (Kögler), the political legacy of 1968 (Robbins), the socio-historical signifi cance of the rise of the public sphere (Sintomer), and – particularly important in the current climate – the social consequences of economic crisis (Adkins). The wide range of topics covered in the present volume indicates that it would be a mistake to associate Bourdieu’s work exclusively with one particular theme and, in so doing, disregard the fact that intellectual eclecticism constitutes an essential feature of Bourdieu’s oeuvre, not only in terms of its roots and points of reference, but also in terms of its overall impact on the contemporary social sciences.
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Changing Concepts of Deviance

Changing Concepts of Deviance

If we have difficulty in dealing with or developing the concept of physical health, we have even greater difficulty with the concepts of mental and emotional health[r]

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Labelling, Deviance and Media

Labelling, Deviance and Media

The labelling theory pioneers’ focus on the dramatic and colourful made it much easier to ignore the harms done by some primary deviance. They concentrated on the creation of crime by the labelling activities of low-level control agents, reversing the moral assessments of criminal law and justice – as explicitly advocated by Becker in his call for criminologists to ask ‘Whose Side Are We On?’ (1967). This not only neglected the harms done by some crime, but bracketed out its structural causes, and the structural determinants of control activity – law, culture, political economy, wider social patterns and institutions (as Gouldner argued in his 1968 repost to Becker ‘The Sociologist As Partisan’). This critique stimulated the morphing of labelling theory into more politically radical forms of ‘new criminology’ and ‘deviance theory’ in the 1970s (the core classics were Cohen 1971; Taylor, Walton and Young 1973;; as well as the seminal studies discussed extensively in this paper, Young 1971; Cohen 1972; Hall et al 1978).
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Articles | British Journal of Community Justice

Articles | British Journal of Community Justice

suspect that this politicisation is part of a deliberate strategy to flush out opposition to victim-focused changes, so that opponents can be accused of woolly-minded, sentimental support for the civil liberties of criminals. The attempt to justify harsher sentencing of offenders and curtailment of civil liberties in the name of victims is not new, and it is part of an international trend, but it has yet to be effectively challenged in England and Wales. Nevertheless, many of the recent changes – both to the law and to policies in various criminal justice agencies – have been very welcome. This special issue is timely, featuring mainly British research on victims of crime soon after the first legislation devoted specifically to victims enters the statute book in England and Wales. The Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act received royal assent in November 2004, and seems likely to be implemented relatively quickly: some provisions came into force immediately, and one was introduced before the Act became law (the establishment of a central Victims’ Advisory Panel). It is undoubtedly an important piece of legislation: it makes significant (and controversial) changes to the law on domestic violence; it establishes a system for reviewing official handling of cases of ‘domestic homicide’; it introduces surcharges on fines and fixed penalties which will contribute to the cost of a new Victims Fund; it allows the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority to recover from offenders the money paid to their victims; it widens victims’ rights to receive and give information in cases where offenders are sentenced to imprisonment, to include those who are sent to special hospitals due to mental illness; perhaps most importantly, it introduces a Code of Practice for Victims and a Commissioner for Victims and Witnesses.
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ROLE OF HR IN NAVIGATING THE WORKFORCE FROM NEGATIVE DEVIANCE TO POSITIVE DEVIANCE

ROLE OF HR IN NAVIGATING THE WORKFORCE FROM NEGATIVE DEVIANCE TO POSITIVE DEVIANCE

Research surveys have shown workplace deviance to be both a common and an expensive problem for organizations (Bennett & Robinson, 2000) [12] that add to financial, psychological and social cost of an organization (Bodankin & Tziner, 2009; Hollinger & Clark, 1982; Hollinger & Clark, 1983; Coccia, 1998) [13] [14] [15] [16]. The consequences of deviant workplace behaviour are critical because they can affect all levels of the organizations including decision-making, productivity and financial costs. However this is not a holistic view since researchers have focussed only on negative aspect of deviant behaviour. There also exists other type of deviance which is beneficial for organizations, known as positive deviance. Warren (2003) postulated that study of deviance should be undertaken with both forms of deviant behaviours i.e. constructive and destructive deviance [17].
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The Root Causes of Crime and the Roles of Community Organizations in reducing Crime: South Ommo and Gammo Goffa Zones

The Root Causes of Crime and the Roles of Community Organizations in reducing Crime: South Ommo and Gammo Goffa Zones

A 42 years old religious leader states that violation of norms and law in the traditional (rural) Gammo, Goffa, Gidicho and in the Zeyise community leads to the worst or harsh or excuseless measures. For example, vowing social burden or social sanction on those who are rejected to obey to the decision of traditional elder personality. He added that the sanction system is strong and will force to on cash or ban social penalty. It is not only stretching the sanction system but it is strongly discouraging social involvement. To avoid social embracement or social pain you have to obey the decision of the elders. Thus the system enforce you take the issues to the legal institutions in the consultation with the traditional elders. If and only if it is beyond the capacity of elders you are told to present it to the legal bodies. As Bola (inmate) mentioned, the clan and tribe elders are core persons in turning down criminal acts/conducts in Gammo community particularly Gammo highlands, in Boreda and Kucha areas. Several cases are handled by local clan and tribe groups. Using community policing as other important system that will encourages the involvement of community in crime/criminal behavior prevention or control. The strong community members’ involvement stretches the system to identify the new faces, new actions and new practices in their villages. There is over stretched reporting chain which rooted from each member of community to the police office. It created strong network among police and the member of community. As one of police officer stated, in Arba Minch city the rate and report of crime is decreasing from time to time just after the implementation of the community policing in the city. He added that Local social organizations/institutions such as ‘Idir’, ‘Eqib’, ‘Mahaber’, are our backbone in the process of crime prevention and control chain and network and ‘’these are our indigenous knowledge or tools to handover crime at its grass root level if we are powerful to exploit them very well’’ he added.
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Strategic Deviance and Accounting Conservatism

Strategic Deviance and Accounting Conservatism

Zhao Feng et al. (2012) found that the diversification strategy of an enterprise can influence the performance of the enterprise through the interaction of dy- namic capabilities, and the diversification strategy has a significant negative im- pact on the performance of the enterprise [14]. Chen Shou et al. (2014) took a sample of China’s manufacturing listed companies to examine the relationship among CEO rights, corporate strategic deviance, and extreme performance. The study found that when the CEO’s rights are relatively high, the board’s and ex- ternal parties’ supervision are smaller, and the CEO can strengthen his position, use his position to promote the company’s strategy to deviate from the indus- try’s routines, bring greater risks to the company, and thus the company’s per- formance may also deviate from the average. Further, the study found that the improvement of environmental dynamics can, to a certain extent, suppress the relationship between CEO rights and corporate strategic deviance [15]. Lei Hui et al. (2015) used the VAR model and impulse response function analysis me- thods to study the time lag of the enterprise’s competitive strategy. The study found that the impact of the corporate competitive strategy on the performance of the company is lagging and persistent, while the performance of deviant strategy is more lagging behind and performance lasts longer [16].
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Articles | British Journal of Community Justice

Articles | British Journal of Community Justice

The neglected connections between human rights and crime prevention is an issue previously touched on in my work (Hughes, 1998a) as a possible means of rethinking how we ‘do’ crime prevention, and justice work more generally. In an important intervention, Bauman (1997: 63) has noted that the human rights discourse potentially opens up the exploration of the ‘universal, shared sense of frailty and the precariousness of humans, supplemented by collective sympathy’, and of making us all sensitive to others’ suffering and misery – including criminal victimisation - and eventually to struggle for the removal of misery as each of our tasks. To a large degree, this meta-narrative of human rights and shared human misery leads us back to the old truths of collective struggles against misery and oppression. There is a solidary potential here together with possibilities of pre- emptive collective action in relation to the law and crime prevention. This is an especially pressing issue today not least in the context of the new volatile, global ‘mobilities’ of peoples –and the vile trade in humans- associated with immigration and asylum seeking, and the all too often twinned processes of criminalisation and
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University of New South Wales

University of New South Wales

Philip Selznick spent a very long life engaged with large questions concerning society, politics, institutions, law and morals. He contributed to numerous disci- plines and sub-disciplinary domains, was a major figure in each of the fields he entered, and one of few to have been a participant, let alone eminent, in them all. Among these fields are general sociology, the sociology of organizations and institutions, management theory, political science, industrial sociology, the soci- ology and philosophy of law, political theory, and social philosophy grounded in what he came to call humanist science.
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The Cognitive Development of Sociology: The Contribution of John Stuart Mill

The Cognitive Development of Sociology: The Contribution of John Stuart Mill

The origin of sociology can be traced back to the work of individuals such as Auguste Comte in the nineteenth century. Comte worked out a general way to deal with the investigation of society. He referred to sociology as the “ruler of all sciences” and suggested that as the most elevated of all sciences, it would utilize the “positivist” strategy for perception, experimentation and correlation of com- prehensive methodologies to explain human actions. As mentioned earlier, soci- ology—as an independent discipline—began in the nineteenth century with the contributions from four scholars namely: Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber. From that point forward, several scholars and researchers have contributed towards the advancement of the discipline (Mar- shall, 2008: p. 2013). Each of the scholars laid a focus on the sociological prob- lems that individuals faced throughout the nineteenth and mid twentieth cen- tury. Such contributions are the premises on which the modern sociology was established.
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Law and the Parameters of Acceptable Deviance

Law and the Parameters of Acceptable Deviance

These parameters of acceptable deviance PADs are the limit of behavior that is normatively acceptable to most of the regulated and their regulators, and the informal standard that trigge[r]

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Against and beyond   for sociology : a study on the self understanding of sociologists in England

Against and beyond for sociology : a study on the self understanding of sociologists in England

(Mills, 1959). Mills thereby set an enormous counterpart to the functionalist mainstream of the neutral role of the researcher (Mills, 1959). Mills’ credo of making ‘personal troubles into public issues’ urged sociologists not to draw boundaries between the allegedly professional and personal domains. Mills’s own intersection between the public and the private has been the subject of extensive analysis (Brewer, 2005; Eldridge, 1983; Horowitz, 1962; Horowitz, 1983). According to Friedrichs, Mills was one of the prophets during a very priestly period in sociology in the 1950s (Friedrichs, 1970). Mills’ mission, like Alvin Gouldner’s ten year later, was to attack the sociological establishment and to criticise the increasing professionalisation of sociology. Similarly to Friedrichs, Calhoun and VanAntwerpen (2007) consider Mills’ major book as a documentation of his self- understanding as a prophet and saviour of sociology. 8 Mills complained that sociology had become less a creative ethos and a manner of orientation than a set of science machines operated by technicians. He particularly criticised the fetishisation of quantitative methods in sociology, arguing that science can never be value-free and extra-social: ‘Sociologists should seek first of all to situate themselves within the conflicting bodies that coursed through the particular setting of which they were a part. Then, using the most sophisticated tools of empirical analysis available (which would include biography and comparative historical studies), they should direct their sociological imaginations to the task of unraveling the subtle and not-so- subtle dynamics of power and privilege therein’ (Mills, 2000: 7). Mills’ program for creating a kind of sociology that was more aware of its historical foundations is
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Positive Deviance as a Mediator in the Relationship Between High Performance Indicators and Entrepreneurial Orientation

Positive Deviance as a Mediator in the Relationship Between High Performance Indicators and Entrepreneurial Orientation

The key recipients of the results of the study are CEOs and senior managers involved in day-to-day running of businesses. In their interest is the enhancement of entrepreneurial orientation as a tool to gain competitive advantage and high performance (Lumpkin & Dess, 1996). There are a couple of practical recommendations that can be drawn from the results of the study. First of all, positive deviance is a good way of supporting entrepreneurial orien- tation. Therefore, companies that are in pursuit of higher organisational entrepreneurship can use it as a good way of supporting it. It concerns all aspects of entrepreneurial orienta- tion, especially proactiveness. By promoting non-standard behaviours companies can there- fore surprise customers and gain first-mover advantage. Another practical recommendation concerns shaping the high performance factors to support both positive deviance and organ- isational entrepreneurship. It seems that some of them should be maximised, like constant improvement, creating extraordinary vision, mission and strategy, allowing to make mis- takes, welcoming change, fast decision making and action and integral, strong and confident leadership. All of the above behaviours support positive deviance and, in consequence, or- ganisational entrepreneurship. By contrast, organisations should be careful with using some other high performance indicators grouped in factors ‘workforce quality’ and ‘long-term ori- entation’. It seems that those factors introduce high level of stability that can be harmful to positively deviant behaviours. The answer to that might be the reconciliation of contradic- tion between stability and flexibility, organisations should make the environment as friendly to employees and at the same time encourage them to be flexible.
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Post-war sociology in Yugoslavia.

Post-war sociology in Yugoslavia.

Marx's ideas about the relation of work and arts are of particular importance for the sociology of art. Among these ideas, the particular place is taken by the thesis that the stage of labour development or, indirectly, the stage of production, through mythology, influences the art and the artistic transposition of reality. Then the attitude that social and practical experience, the labour specialization, prepares the man to perceive certain aspects of art, some­ times even disables him to understand certain artistic speci­ fic features. Finally, that the distribution of labour may in some circumstances have an unfavourable, preventing effect on the possibility of aesthetic perception of reality and art.
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When Moral Reasoning and Ethics Training Fail: Reducing White Collar Crime through the Control of Opportunities for Deviance

When Moral Reasoning and Ethics Training Fail: Reducing White Collar Crime through the Control of Opportunities for Deviance

If the proper tone is not set, it is generally only a matter of time before a company self-destructs or, simply, gets caught. Think of Enron, WorldCom, Tyco, Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities, and Gal- leon Group—all companies who appeared to be at the height of their game—until the walls came crashing down. In fact, since the economic bust of 2008, scores of public and privately-held companies and their chief executive officers (“CEOs”) have been charged with regulatory violations and white collar crimes. If the heads of these organizations’ C-suites had been unconcerned with or negligent in doing the right thing or setting the proper tone, their mindset and behavior likely had a trickledown effect of normalizing deviance, resulting in serious finan- cial and legal issues, and ultimately for some, putting them out of business.
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