Sociology of Health and Illness

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Feminism and the sociology of gender, health and illness

Feminism and the sociology of gender, health and illness

In an article on doctor-nurse relations Karen Davies observed that one of the difficulties in theorising gender is that in western society it is a primary social category which we automatically and unconsciously categorise any specific other with whom we must relate (Davies 2003: 729). A social relationship with a person of indeterminate gender is less tolerable than ambiguity around age, sexuality, class or disability. The potential for women to conceive and bear new life has played an important role in maintaining the binary division of gender, since it homogenizes all women as mothers, and locks women into reproduction as central to everyone’s lives, echoing medicine’s determinacy (Annandale and Clark 1996: 29). Thinking premised on a binary division between men and women, between male and female has the unfortunate effect of ‘universalising and valorising’ gender differences. A focus on the abnormalities of women’s reproductive health means that, at the same time as sociology criticises biomedicine’s pathologisation of women, it also replicates its problematic (Annandale and Clark 1996: 32), allowing women’s health problems to stand for the broader issue of gender and health.
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Architecture and health care: a place for sociology

Architecture and health care: a place for sociology

examine ways in which buildings give concrete expression to ideologies of health and recursively help to configure medical knowledge. Cultural geographers have generated insights into the landscapes of health care, but we suggest medical sociologists should complement these in order to extend our understanding of how the built environment implicates and embeds ideas, ideologies and knowledge of health and medicine, and in turn may be consequential for those who use them. To date there is an extant literature on the use of buildings but little on the social processes of their production; our focus then is on the role that buildings, at all stages of their production, play in the configuration of the embodied experience of health and illness. A key finding is that there is a lack of, and need for, sociological work on buildings and architecture in the making. Through gathering together these literatures we identify substantive and methodological affordances that could be developed within the sociology of health and illness i .
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Society, culture and health   an introduction to sociology for nurses

Society, culture and health an introduction to sociology for nurses

The experience of illness ociological theory has also contributed ro our understanding of how mdividual understand and experience illness by examining social interaction as it tak place [r]

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Family health narratives : midlife women’s concepts of vulnerability to illness

Family health narratives : midlife women’s concepts of vulnerability to illness

The interviews were entered into N-Vivo software for ease of data retrieval, and any mention of health in relation to family members was coded. To provide an overview of women’s health concerns related to illnesses suffered by family members, our analysis begins with a summary of responses from 60 women that set their own health in relation to that of others in the family. Nine women talked about health in the family in more general terms. In 47 of the 60 interviews the women talked about family health in the first part of the interview when asked about general health issues including present and future health concerns. In the other 13 interviews women talked about family health in relation to questions on HRT and screening, or on talking to health professionals. How women talked about family health was categorised and is described below. Those shifting between categories were categorised as being ambivalent. We explored whether the way concerns were expressed about different conditions depended on type of condition. We also looked for disconfirming cases, where concerns were expressed about conditions that no family member suffered. Results from this first stage analysis set the scene for an in-depth analysis of narrative representations of health in the family which will draw on theories of the narrative construction of kinship from sociology and medical anthropology. These theories will drive the analysis of the interview data where women compare themselves to other family members.
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SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF THE NIGER DELTA OF NIGERIA

SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF THE NIGER DELTA OF NIGERIA

Second, that the government and its representatives should ensure that the MNCs engage international best practices in the process of producing the national wealth, thereby protecting the people and its environment. Third, if by peradventure, disease and illness occur along the line, government and MNCs should have a rapid response squad to attend to eventualities. The people should on the other hand be encouraged to seek medical assistance from organised government well equipped healthcare facilities in the zone; and this practice will go a long way to reducing the gap between the indigenes, MNCs and government officials. Finally, it is further recommended that, everyone should act as environmental watchdog, since it has been identified that there is no known water-tight compartment between the globe’s environments. Therefore, environmental studies should be taught everywhere, be it home, school and religious centres.
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Critical Sociology

Critical Sociology

Critical sociology is a methodology to examining society, educated by chronicled realism, which looks to make dangerous existing social relations keeping in mind the end goal to uncover the hidden structural clarifications for those relations. Accordingly, it can be connected to all ranges of sociological request and is not the investigation of any subfields inside humanism. In each of these territories, we can distinguish a discriminating humanism, one that berates the hidden supposition of the relating standard human science. Promoters of a basic social science contend that standard humanism is, comprehensively expressed, an index of what is normal and a clarification for how people act when working outside those desires. For discriminating sociologists, the key is the way the standards are characterized and what constitutes activities by people who abuse standards. Where standard social science would see a plane flying out of arrangement, basic humanism asks whether the development is flying on course, and who or what decides the shape and course of that development in any case.
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History of and in Sociology

History of and in Sociology

No intellectual historian myself but an enthusiast for comparative-historical analysis in sociology and elsewhere, let me shift the ground to an area where retrospective ethnography and critical comparison clearly do compete with each other. Looking at the field they define broadly as historical sociology, Julia Adams, Elisabeth Clemens, Ann Shola Orloff, and a host of contributors have recently produced an impressive volume of critical and synthetic essays. They call their book Remaking Modernity. The hefty book undertakes two related tasks: to interpret changes in the practice of historical sociology, broadly defined, since World War II; and to make the case for culturally situated interpretation as a superior alternative to the deterministic, externalist accounts of social processes most of the book’s authors see as having prevailed during the later twentieth century. As method, interpretation clings to retrospective ethnography, just as much of the previous work Adams et al. criticize clung to critical comparison.
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The history, geography, and sociology of slums and the health problems of people who live in slums

The history, geography, and sociology of slums and the health problems of people who live in slums

Ezeh, Alex, Oyebode, Oyinlola, Satterthwaite, David, Chen, Yen-Fu, Ndugwa, Robert, Sartori, Jo, Mberu, Blessing, Melendez-Torres, G. J., Haregu, Tilahun, Watson, Samuel I., Caiaffa, Waleska, Capon, Anthony and Lilford, Richard J.. (2016) The history, geography, and sociology of slums and the health problems of people who live in slums. The Lancet . doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31650-6

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Introduction to Sociology

Introduction to Sociology

The UExcel examination in Introduction to Sociology measures knowledge and understanding of the material and skills typically taught in a one-semester, undergraduate survey course in a baccalaureate program. The examination content reflects common knowledge drawn from courses with such titles as Introduction to Sociology or General Sociology. No prior knowledge or understanding of sociology is assumed. The examination tests for a knowledge of facts and terminology, an understanding of concepts and forms, and for the student’s ability to apply the concepts learned in an introductory sociology course.
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Humanist Sociology

Humanist Sociology

Various hypothetical schemas, among them Marxism, clash hypothesis, phenomenology, typical cooperation, women's activist human science, and postmodern humanism, can all be said to have some type of a humanistic introduction as a piece of their general skeleton. Be that as it may, as a particular school, humanist social science is most promptly related to those sociologists who in their instructing, exploration, and activism float around the Association for Humanist Sociology (AHS)—established in 1976 by Alfred Mcclung Lee, Elizabeth Briant Lee, and Charles Flynn. In spite of the fact that various sociologists (Glass 1971; Goodwin 1983; Lee 1973; Scimecca 1995) have offered meanings of humanist humanism, the one I will use here is that of a previous president of the AHS, Thomas Ford Hoult (1979), who calls human science humanist if "the examination and teachings of its experts have one extreme reason to create a general public where the best capability of all people is to be acknowledged; in short to create an accommodating society" (p. 88)
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Sociology. SOCI/Sociology SOCI 2050 SOCIOLOGY OF SPRT. Updated: 2/5/2016 6:04:13AM Term:1161 Spring 2016 Sociology

Sociology. SOCI/Sociology SOCI 2050 SOCIOLOGY OF SPRT. Updated: 2/5/2016 6:04:13AM Term:1161 Spring 2016 Sociology

NextGen classes use a combination of experiential/small group learning activities to give learners the feel and benefits of a smaller class size; online learning exercises give student[r]

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Influence of Parental Gender and Self-Reported Health and Illness on Parent-Reported Child Health

Influence of Parental Gender and Self-Reported Health and Illness on Parent-Reported Child Health

We examined the effect of parent characteristics on their reports of child health using the multidimensional domains within the CHQ to determine whether parental global health and illness were more strongly associated with particular domains of child func- tional health and well-being, ie, social roles, physical health, or emotional health related domains. The 20th percentile of observed responses for the multi-item CHQ scales was used to differentiate children whose health was significantly worse (those with re- sponses below the 20th percentile value) from children whose health was better. These thresholds were determined separately for mother and father reporters as the analysis was stratified by the reporting parent’s gender. This choice of the 20th percentile corresponds closely to the parametric concept of one standard deviation below the mean, shown previously to indicate socially and clinically meaningful differences in the health status of chil- dren at a population level 36 and within clinical studies. 38 Al-
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The sociology of education

The sociology of education

The British Journal of Sociology of Education (BJSE). Published six times a year by Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis group. This leading publication has been going for some considerable time – it was started in 1980 under the editorship of Len Barton, who is still editing it at the time of writing this chapter in 2010. Unlike some other journals, BJSE has a dual focus on both theory and empirical studies. It has always maintained a board of executive editors that reads a little like a ‘who’s who’ of the discipline in the UK. It also draws upon research from elsewhere in the anglo-phonic world, notably Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the USA. The journal is available online (www.tandf.co.uk/journals/bjse), and a free sample copy can be obtained. A quick trawl through recent volumes (which can easily be done online) will reveal what the key current issues in the sociology of education are. As well as the six or so main articles, each issue will normally contain a list of recent doctoral theses awarded in the discipline, a review essay, an extended review and a review symposium on a major book or collection of books. Like other journals it also publishes responses to articles from other academics, encouraging a debate on key topics.
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Syringe sociology

Syringe sociology

The disruption of psychological, corporeal and social boundaries produced by injecting behaviour highlights the impact of Becker’s constructivist epis- temology for interpretations of the syringe. The drug users’ feelings of being different and thoughts of being judged negatively by others suggest the initia- tion to injecting behaviour involves the subject’s internalization of the objects meaning as deviant. Here, the symbolism of the needle separates the individual from the outside world. Here, the representation of the syringe challenges social roles and social identities. Here, the significance of the first hit ‘functions to cause the social death of the individual’ (Fitzgerald et al. 1999: 497). In foregrounding the symbolic importance of first injecting as ‘a separation rite’ (Fitzgerald et al. 1999: 497) from normal society Becker’s interactionist meth- odology brings into focus the sociology of injecting drug use. The social causes of injecting involve changes in the drug users’ perception of themselves in relation to others and the ongoing effects of these changes on future injecting behaviour.
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Sociology of Enterprise

Sociology of Enterprise

These associations are not linear and it may well be that interventions which enhance human, social and financial capital can have a positive impact on growth disposition, the formation [r]

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The Sociology of Journalism

The Sociology of Journalism

The sociology of journalism, like journalism itself, faces challenges of an ever changing media ecology. Many edited collections, books, and papers have ad dressed these challenges and sorted debates in this field of inquiry (Anderson & Schudson 2008; Brienza & Revers 2016; Schudson 2011; Waisbord 2014; Zelizer 2004). The field needs to continuously adapt its analytical concepts and methods in order to capture their ever transforming object of study. If successful, it will continue to provide an integrated understanding of how institutional efficacies, power relationships, and social inequalities operate through journalism in shaping public discourse and public opinion.
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Impact of tibb lifestyle factors in health promotion and illness management

Impact of tibb lifestyle factors in health promotion and illness management

Temperament: Is a combination of a person’s physical, mental, and emotional characteristics, which not only describes that uniqueness, but also his/her predisposition to illness (Hoosen, 2017). Tibb recognises that no two people are alike, lifestyle advice has to be individualised for health promotion to suit an individual’s temperament. Tibb divides people into one of four broad categories: sanguinous, phlegmatic, melancholic, and bilious, with a dominant and sub-dominant temperament. Each temperament has qualities of heat, coldness, moistness and dryness, with every combination having an overall dominant quality. The illustration describes temperament and qualities and shows that a person with a combination of a sanguinous and bilious temperament has an overall dominant quality of heat, less of moistness and dryness and the least amount of coldness. Similarly, the phlegmatic/melancholic temperament has an overall dominant quality of coldness, less of moistness and dryness and the least amount of heat. Changes to these overall qualities, especially an increase in the dominant quality associated with a person, negatively affect this person.
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Responsible Reporting on Mental Health, Mental Illness and Death by Suicide

Responsible Reporting on Mental Health, Mental Illness and Death by Suicide

We in the media carry an enormous responsibility to deal with certain issues in a sensitive and thoughtful way. With support from the Scottish Government this guide to reporting mental health, mental illness and death by suicide is the latest to be produced to help with that responsibility and to make you think about your own mental health. Since the first guide was produced, there has been a vast improvement in how journalists report mental health and deaths by suicide. However there are still lessons to be learned as certain recent events have shown. Public attitudes to mental illness have also improved vastly and nowadays the public are not slow to protest when mental health issues are presented inappropriately in the media or elsewhere. The link between violence and mental health still tends to be exaggerated on occasion and the use of derogatory language, while reducing, can still be problematic. Terms as derogatory as ‘nutter’, ‘maniac’ or ‘schizo’ would be unthinkable in relation to race or physical disability. This type of media reporting often has a negative effect on people with mental health problems. Similarly, journalists reporting on patients of the State Hospital at Carstairs should remember it is a hospital, not a prison, and those being assessed or treated are patients, not prisoners.
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General physical health advice for people with serious mental illness

General physical health advice for people with serious mental illness

The definition of serious mental illness with the widest consensus is that of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (Schinnar 1990) and is based on diagnosis, duration and disability (NIMH 1987). People with serious mental illness have conditions such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, over a protracted period of time, resulting in erosion of functioning in day to day life. A European survey put the total population-based annual prevalence of serious mental illness at approximately two per thousand (Ruggeri 2000). People with serious mental illness have a higher morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases than the general population, and this results in a significantly reduced life expectancy (Robson 2007). In schizophrenia, for example, life expectancy is reduced by around 10 years (Newman 1991). Sufferers from serious mental illness have increased rates of cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases (including HIV) (Cournos 2005), non-insulin dependent diabetes, respiratory disease and cancer (Dixon 1999; Robson 2007).
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Physical health care monitoring for people with serious mental illness

Physical health care monitoring for people with serious mental illness

Information obtained from physical health monitoring is often the catalyst for more intensive medical input, which can be ei- ther curative, palliative or preventative. The routine employment of simple and relatively inexpensive physical health monitoring has the potential to identify current, and pre-empt future, health problems. Subsequent action could improve the quality and dura- tion of life for sufferers of serious mental illness. Additional ben- efits may include a reduction in dependence on medical services. “There are potential savings to be made on prescribing and acute care budgets through prevention or early detection of serious ill- ness in these groups of service users” (DoH 2006).
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