Analysis of women’s health maintenance and disease prevention, gender bias in medical treatment, medicalization of “natural” processes, and women and the health system, medical-legal system, and bio-medical research. Subject matter may include: eating disorders, contraception, sexually transmitted diseases, fertility, stress and mental illness, menopause, breast cancer, and alternative and traditional healing systems. Issues of social class, nationality, race, culture, and sexual preference are emphasized throughout. Recommended Preparation: Previous coursework in the area of health and illness. Also offered as WMST 424. Students may not receive credit for both.
Evidence from the interviewees sheds light on the geographies of international activity of the POCARIM population. For example, the attractions of the UK, Germany and the USA were strongest in a number of disciplines: Germany in archaeology, for instance, and the USA in the socialsciences more generally. In other cases the national character of a discipline limited or shaped international engagement. A French interviewee reported, for example, that ‘in socialsciences we have a very French way of doing ethnography which is highly embedded within the philosophy and the sociology’ [FR10]. This ‘French way of doing’ was something of a barrier to the transmission of knowledge and building of networks across borders for some respondents, not least because it defined the geographical limits of a disciplinary community.
Rather than proposing a derivation from the greek nomos (economics), logos (psychology, anthropology, sociology, etc.) or graphos (geography, sociography), many of the recent domains of inquiry that acquired academic status use the term “studies.” This preference for a more common sense notion and the avoidance of alearned label is typical of their academic position. Many of them emerged and became institutionalized after the university crisis of 1968. Following earlier examples such as “area studies,” the use of the term studies expressed a critique of scientific disciplines’ academic status and the division of labor between them. The common denominator was the primacy attributed to the object of inquiry over the specific academic perspective with which it was treated. This goes for politically motivated projects (women’s studies, black studies, gay studies, etc.) as well as for more professionally oriented projects (business studies, communication studies, translation studies). To speak of ‘studies’ indicates a twofold opposition to the academic order of classical disciplines. It implies, first, that the academic or scientific perspective as such is biased and insufficient, because it excludes, legitimate extra-academic considerations, whether political or professional. Proponents of many ‘studies’ are critical of ‘value-free,’ ‘objective’ and ‘scientific’ ambitions privileging ‘critical’, ‘professional’ or ‘artistic’ views. The plural of the word ‘studies’ indicates, secondly, that the object in question needs to be approached from multiple perspectives (ethical, historical, psychological, professional); disciplinary monopolies are misplaced, pretentious or fundamentally erroneous. The proponents of ‘studies’ wish to leave the ‘ivory tower’, promote ‘interdisciplinarity,’ and align research and higher education with extra-academic, either political or professional interests.
I don’t like to be isolated in my discipline [even] geographically. To be in a beehive like that with different social scientists, it’s the way I like to work. So kind of like I get up, I walk and I went to go to the… I talk with the sociology of economics professors and then we have more things [to] discuss, maybe just the work of people in my department or something, and you know that’s the way I work. So always crossing things, meeting people by kind of like [asking] ‘what are you working on’ and not the methodology, or to feel like I don’t care [CH16]. The second way in which interdisciplinarity can be facilitated is through planned ‘moments’ of interaction, for example through conferences, workshops and symposia which bring people of diverse disciplinary backgrounds together in the same place. The following Swiss interviewee, who works in the field of development studies, spoke of her involvement in interdisciplinary events and the strategic way she managed them:
and many others. The common ground for the vastly differing perspectives and methodologies that characterise the evolution of sociology is the com- mitment to applying scientific methods to the study of social relations. Security in a broad sense is ever present in this endeavour, predominantly through various incarnations of social security, understood as one form or another of social insurance linked to national social policy. Institutionally it can be traced back to the founding of the International Labour Organisation in Brussels in 1927, and it continues to inspire vast amounts of academic research (Falk et al. 2003, Isham et al. 2002, Johnston & Kay 2007, Last et al. 2004, Marden 2003, Marshall 2001, Muffels 2002, Standing 2009). Sociological issues relating to security policy, for example in the European Union, have also played a major role in the expansion and development of the concept of security in the field of sociology (Beck 2006; 2009, Carter et al. 2008, Cassano et al. 2010, Evrigenis 2008, Farrar 2008, Favell 2009, Hassenteufel 2008, Herzog 2008, Kriesi 2008, Leander 2010, Malešević 2008, Nardulli 2008, Nash & Scott 2008, Prechel 2008, Sarat 2008, Spread 2008). As with political science, a subfield of sociology is concerned with questions of law enforcement and justice (cf. for example, Berki 1986, Bigo 2007, Bigo et al. 2008, Cunningham et al. 1985, de Hert 2005, Johnston & Shearing 2003, Kessler 2009, Reyes 2007, Sarat 2008). Sociological interest in security also covers demographics and electoral politics (such as, for example, Caplan 2007, Prechel 2008, Simon et al. 2008). It also embraces a broader historical critique of European social models (such as, Amineh et al. 2005, Carter et al. 2008, Gill & Sahni 2001, Spohn 2010, Zuiderhoek 2008) and the question of state security as a socially determined issue (in works such as, Enloe 1980, Feaver et al. 2001, Käkönen et al. 2005, Rosen 1996, Rueschemeyer & Skocpol 1996, Sarkesian et al. 1995, Sutton et al. 2008, Ulmer et al. 2000). Finally, newer sociological approaches include the challenge of urbanism, security and society (such as, Newman & Jennings 2008, O’Neill & Thomas 2011, Oblet 2008, Rieker & Ali 2008, Shapiro 2010).
Let us consider the model of social and humanitarian knowledge, ways of its organization and peculiarities as well. Ideas justifying the fact that rationality is not the only principle defining human mindset and behavior form the basis for social and humanitarian knowledge. Will, feelings and emotions are equally important here. This means that an individual does not perceive herself/himself as a fully known reality. Moreover, at any time an individual acts as an unknown human being thus creating an interest towards her/him and her/his internal world. It is that interest that serves a key imperative of socialsciences and humanities.
Provision of information in electronic formats is becoming much more important than the traditional information services in today’s context. People want to get pinpointed information in the speediest way possible. To meet the rapidly changing needs of users, libraries have started providing electronic access to a wide variety of resources including full-text articles and journals. In recent years, a respectable portion of the traditional top journals in various disciplines have started offering new channels of access via electronic media that do not differ essentially from their paper formats. Increasingly more full text editions are appearing on the Internet. This article intends to provide an overview of the electronic journals as a means of scholarly communication, with emphasis to journals available via Internet, in disciplines like Arts, SocialSciences and Humanities.
47 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss formalized (e.g., in publication manuals, submission guidelines of journals, etc.) or informal within a research community, the latter with differences between nations and ethnicities, too (see, e.g., Liu & Fang, 2014). Such differences in professional communications and publications between the humanities (and—at least in part—the socialsciences) and the natural sciences refer, for example, to (1) the preferred publication types (e.g., so-called book sciences vs. journal sciences), (2) the frequency of single versus multiple authorships and the number of coauthors, (3) the number of references, (4) the length of publications, and (5) linguistic style (e.g., passive vs. active voice, longer vs. shorter sentences, etc.). These indicators of professional communication culture in the sciences are unobtrusive measures, which were introduced 50 years ago as ―novel methods‖ by Webb, Campbell, Schwartz, and Sechrest (1966, p. V; for an overview see, e.g., Lee, 2000) to the socialsciences. Unobtrusive measures avoid perfectly reactive measurement effects (measurement errors from the respondent, i.e., the subject under study), because they refer to, for example, physical traces, archives, simple and contrived (hidden) observations, etc. In short, the data (or artifacts in historical research) are already there and must (only?) be analyzed. Scientific publications and databases—―Werke von Menschen‖ (human works) in terms of Bühler (1927)—belong to such data, and unobtrusive measurements of the above-mentioned indicators are possible.
communities) draw on a portfolio of virtual and physical mobility practices to fulfil professional (and family) roles (Storme et al. 2016). Such diverse patterns of mobility and proximity enable the transmission of knowledge not just within distributed communities but also between different communities that may or may not be spatially proximate. In such cases, the mobility of people acting as brokers or boundary spanners (Wenger 1998) provides a ‘pipeline’ (Bathelt, Malmberg, and Maskell 2004) through which knowledge moves. Boschma (2005) argues that in order for the transmission of knowledge to take place and to have value, communities of practice must exhibit both similarities and differences in terms of their cognitive, organisational, social, institutional, and geographical characteristics. The right balance between sameness and difference enables mobile brokers to move between communities, and to identify and make use of ‘unusual’ knowledge.
The other challenge for the humanities disciplines lies in monographs. These pub- lications have different sites of reception and altered economic cycles compared with journals. They are expected to appear in book shops, which depends upon gatekept aggregation systems and also means that value is expected to come at a price, rather than for free online. Thus, it is a mistake to simply treat them as scaled-up articles. For instance, the trade-crossover market of these publications can be seen as either an op- portunity or a challenge. It is an opportunity because it presents another route by which the cost of the labor of publishing might be covered. It is a challenge, though, because in this environment, print must always con- tinue to exist and the costs of marketing, etc. remain. That said, there are many projects already investigating these problems such as OAPEN-NL, 6 OAPEN-UK, 7 the HEFCE Mono-
Now, there are important modern publications in the field of sociology of quan- tification as Theodore M. Porter’s book Trust in numbers (1995), and articles written by Wendy Espeland and co-authors (Carruthers and Espeland 1991; Espeland and Sauders 2007; Espeland and Stevens 1998, 2008; Espeland and Vannebo 1998). But the most important and most influential works – at least in Europe – were published by the French statistician and sociologist Alain Desrosières who mixed all together these four traditions of social studies of quantification. And the contributions in this HSR Special Issue refer to are grounded in his seminal work. From its beginning, sociology of quantification in France has focused firstly on social categories, classifications and counts of categorizations. Here, French scholars could continue this tradition founded by Emile Durkheim, which was advanced by Pierre Bourdieu and the French scientific movement of the so-called économie des conventions (EC, see be- low).
Students must take at least three hours in each of the two emphases other than the primary emphasis for a total of nine credit hours. For example, if the primary empha- sis is psychology, a student could take six hours of Pueblo Indian Studies courses and three hours of Humanities courses. At least six of these hours must be upper division.
Prisoners in the evaluation focus group reported their session time provided a safe and non- judgmental space, facilitating their retaining ownership of their own narrative. Given the need for emotional distance, discussion was cast in the third person (for example, a discussion of a fictional character’s actions in a book or play). In this way, the study of the humanities based projects provide empowerment, rather than requirement; enhancing community engagement, something one “can trust it to pace itself to your needs and wants rather than to anyone else…It can be private until you decide to share it.” 92
As is well known, most disciplines in HASS receive very limited coverage of output in Thomson ISI for two reasons: much of their output appears in other media, such as books, book chapters, and non-ISI journals; and, ISI’s coverage of the disciplines’ journals is not as comprehensive, particularly for Australian research, as it is in the experimental sciences. However, leading Australian bibliometrician Linda Butler has shown that is possible, though time-consuming because of the only semi automated nature of the process, to construct metrics based on Thomson ISI which capture ISI journal citations to not only ISI journals but also articles in other journals, books, book chapters, conference proceedings and other publications (see Figure 1, taken from ‘RQF Pilot Study Project – History and Political Science: Methodology for Citation Analysis’). This was trialled by Butler in a CHASS Bibliometrics Project piloted with the Political Science and History disciplines in Australian universities in late 2006 and received general though cautious assent from leaders in those
Different contexts and fields of research ask for different approaches. The result is a practical theological approach that does not look the same everywhere. Sometimes it is similar in nature and methodology to the quantitative and qualitative methodology of the socialsciences. At other times, it is narrative in nature and more oriented towards the arts. In my own approach to the discipline, I make the distinction between the narrative metaphor according to which I practice practical theology and narratology. The latter is based on the knowledge of narratives as a phenomenon and the ability to analyse and interpret the narratives. It therefore also works with stories, but is structuralistic and analytical in the analysis thereof.
• WUPES 2009 – LogICCC working day 19-24 September 2009, Liblice, Czech Republic Uncertainty processing, i.e., methods for represent- ing, managing and exploiting uncertain knowledge, is one of the main topics within several of the LogICCC CRPs. Th is is quite natural, since one can hardly imagine that modelling intelligent interac- tion (especially for humanities and socialsciences) could be based on deterministic behaviour. However, not all of the CRPs share a common methodology when it comes to uncertainty processing. Whilst LcpR is based mainly on probability theory, the LoMoReVi project develops approaches based on multivalued logics. For both of these research teams then (as well as for researchers from other CRPs), it is important to fi nd conferences and workshops which embrace varied methodologies, so that project members can learn from each other’s methods.
The Jaffna University Library has a modest collection of about 1,60,000 (1.60 lakhs) books that cover the whole spectrum of subjects taught in the different faculties of Arts, Science, Medicine, Management, Agriculture and Engineering. The SocialSciences& Humanities collection comprises around 63% of the total. Of the latter, about 40% of the books are in Tamil. The Automated Library System LIBSYS has been in service from 2005, for users to search the entire bibliographic records of books available through OPAC. The database of books available in the library is being updated on day to day basis with details of recently acquired books.
The program offers work for the degrees master of science and doctor of philosophy in microbiology and for a minor for students majoring in other programs. The interdepartmental microbiology major is offered through faculty housed in twelve departments, including Agronomy; Animal Science; Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology; Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering; Entomology; Food Science and Human Nutrition; Genetics, Developmental and Cell Biology; Geological and Atmospheric Sciences; Plant Pathology and Microbiology; Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine; Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine; and Veterinary Pathology. Faculty coordinate graduate education and research in a wide range of topics fundamental to the discipline of microbiology. Specific information about individual faculty and their research areas is available at www.micrograd.iastate.edu. (http://www.micrograd.iastate.edu) Prerequisites to graduate study include a sound undergraduate background in chemistry, mathematics and biology, including microbiology and genetics.