The development of advanced Lithium-ion battery has received significant attention for the last two decades due to the high energy density of lithium, high battery capacity which is successfully taken place for electric vehicle applications and portable devices[1, 2]. However, lithium abundance in the earth crust is alerting the fact that researchers have considered it which is going to rise the fabrication cost of this battery[3, 4]. Sodiumion battery is a promising alternative energy storage device that has been considerably studied because of the high sodium element availability on the earth, therefore low applicable cost of the element supply, low electrode fabrication cost and low redox potential[5, 6]. Sodium device is preferably considered for large- scale energy applications such as stationary power generation. Although sodiumion battery has the similar principle of work and mechanism of a lithium-ion battery, different challenges face the advancement of this battery due to the large size of sodiumion which is the primary factor for many issues such as low capacity and poor cycling. As it is known that sodiumion battery has not been commercialized yet and one of the difficulties that prevent this achievement is finding suitable host anode material for sodium ions because of the large ion size of sodium which is about 55% larger than lithium ion. In this regards, many research groups hardly work in this area, and some promising accomplishments have been conducted but challenges to find host material with high capacity and long cycling reversibility still need more effort. Using carbon nanostructures, metal oxides, and sulfides, and alloys for anode material have been reported in sodium storage.
combustion method. The sample delivers a high specific capacity of 157 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C and good rate capability in a voltage range of 1.5–4.6 V. However, the capacity fades rapidly owing to the P2- O2 phase transition during cycling, causing irreversible capacity loss. The stable cycle performance can be achieved by testing in a narrow voltage range of 2.0–4.0 V. The results demonstrate that Na 0.5 Li 0.1 Ni 0.2 Mn 0.7 Mg 0.1 O 2 is a promising cathode material for sodiumion batteries.
Given the better electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of one-dimensional materials compared with multi-dimensional materials, high-purity one-dimensional nano-sized cuprous oxide rods, as anode materials for sodiumion batteries, were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. A rod width of approximately 150 nm and X-ray diffraction patterns were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with irregular nano-sized cuprous oxide, cuprous oxide nanorods demonstrated a high initial capacity of 380 mAh·g −1 and good reversible capacity of 245 mAh·g −1 at a capacity retention of 59% after 50 cycles. These results demonstrated the great application potential of the proposed material for sodiumion batteries. In addition, the Na ion diffusion coefficient have been quantitative analyzed by EIS, reflecting the good diffusion coefficient in one-dimensional materials. This work might provide a reference for the selection of the shape of energy storage materials.
synthesized via a facile one-step solvothermal method. The structure, morphology, and component of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ion chromatograph, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, and so on. Different rod morphologies which ranged from nanoscale to submicron scale were simply obtained by adjusting reaction conditions. With one-dimension channels for Li/Na intercalation/de-intercalation, the electrochemical performance of titanium oxyhydroxy-fluoride for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) was also studied. Electrochemical tests revealed that, for LIBs, titanium oxyhydroxy-fluoride exhibited a stabilized reversible capacity of 200 mAh g − 1 at 25 mA g − 1 up to 120 cycles in the electrode potential range of 3.0 – 1.2 V and 140 mAh g − 1 at 250 mA g − 1 up to 500 cycles, especially; for SIBs, a high capacity of 100 mAh g − 1 was maintained at 25 mA g − 1 after 115 cycles in the potential range of 2.9 – 0.5 V.
Ultimately, it is important to understand the electrochemi- cal testing methods and their limitations. The best practices for lithium ion electrochemical testing does not translate to sodiumion electrochemical testing in metal anode or half-cell test configurations. In a sodiumion test the performance of a material in a half-cell is very dependent upon the electrolyte types and is affected by the polarization occurring at the sodium metal and electrolyte interface. Due to coulombic inefficiencies observed because of the side reactions of the electrolyte with the sodium metal, higher specific capacities may be observed upon charge in a half-cell compared to that in a full-cell configuration. In addition, many electrolytes not stable in a half-cell are fine for use in a full-cell configura- tion; however, care must be taken to ensure that the anodes and cathodes in the cells are well balanced and to prevent sodium dendrites forming on the surfaces of the anodes, as this would cause gassing, as well as coulombic inefficiencies.
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been recently regarded as one of the most powerful alternatives for lithium ion batteries. Owing to their multi-electron reaction mechanism and low cost, organic anode materials with suitable redox potential and high specific capacity are gradually applied in SIBs. In this article, sodium terephthalate (Na 2 C 8 H 4 O 4 , Na 2 TP) was synthesized through acid-base neutralization
an excellent cycling performance and a fairly high rate performance. The good Li storage performance can be attributed to the uniform porous structure without impurities that accommodates the strain due to the volume change in the charge/discharge cycles and expands the active area for lithium ion insertion. Additionally, the Na storage properties of MgFe 2 O 4 as an anode material of sodiumion batteries were
when the polar aprotic electrolyte solvents are irreversibly reduced. The formation of the SEI on the electrode surface can prevent the direct contact between the electrode and electrolyte and realize a stable cycling performance. Many literatures reported the SEI in lithium-ion battery system, but SEI in sodium-ion battery system is different and more progress is still needed. It is pointed out that the SEI in sodium-ion batteries is not as stable as that in lithium-ion batteries due to the high soluble SEI composition of sodium-ion battery system such as sodium oxides, hydroxide, and carbonates. 71 Additionally, the organic compound that formed SEI in lithium-ion batteries are more soluble in electrolyte leading to less inorganic salt depositions on the anode material compared with that in sodium-ion batteries. 72 The high reversibility and good rate performance can benefit from the stable SEI on the anode material. In order to achieve a good electrochemical performance, the electrolyte itself and electrolyte additive also play an important role in suppressing the decomposition of the electrolyte which is related to the stable formation of the SEI.
amount to have preferable conductivity and allow easy sodiumion penetrating. On the one hand, the pyrolytic carbon from pre-adding sucrose can suppress particle growth during the sintering process (as shown in Fig. 3). And it facilitates the formation of fine particles with carbon coating, which will improve the conductivity of NaFePO 4 /C composite and enhance the electron transport traversing. On
Generally sodiumion is retarded very little because normally sodium cannot replace other exchangeable ions of soil and adsorbed on to the clay surface. Barone et al.  have shown that the adsorption of sodium and potassium is affected by other exchangeable ions in the leachate. Anion plays an important role in this adsorption. It is proposed to study the retention of sodium in the presence of sulphate in soils of different cation exchange capacity. It is important to determine the effective diffusion coef- ficient (D e ) of sodium in soils to model its migration
nonwoven polypropylene with a thickness of 15 μm (NGO UFIM, Russia) was used. The cells were assembled in a glove box with a dry argon atmosphere (JSC “Spectroscopic systems”, Russia). The water and oxygen content in the box did not exceed 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Galvanostatic cycling of electrodes was carried out at a current density of 20 mA g -1 of active substance. Cycling of the sodium- ion battery was carried out with a current of 0.086 mA, which corresponded to a current density of 20 mA g -1 of Na 2 Ti 3 O 7 @C and 10 mA g -1 of Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @C. The mass ratio of Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @C:
Figure 2 shows the conductance spectra of P(VdF- HFP) + NaTf. Here, the conductance spectrum can be distinguished into three regions – a) low frequency dispersion region, b) mid frequency plateau region and c) high frequency plateau region. Low frequency dispersion region is inferred due to space charge polarisation at the electrode/ electrolyte interface which leads to the accumulation of charges. This is followed by frequency independent plateau region. Extrapolation of this plateau region to zero frequency gives dc conductivity which is consistent with conductivity obtained from Nyquist plot. According to jump relaxation model , at this frequency ion jumps from one site to neighbouring favourable vacant site in the host polymer matrix, contributing towards the dc conductivity. As the frequency is increased, the probability for the ion to go back again to its initial site increases due to short time periods leading to forward-backward hopping of ions. This high probability for the correlated forward-backward hopping together with the relaxation of the dynamic
It is well established that in normal man the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is responsive to changes in volume. The present study was performed to determine whether sodium has an action apart from volume in the regulation of the secretion of renin and aldosterone. Acute volume expansion was induced either by saline, dextran, or glucose infusion in supine, normal subjects in balance on a 10 meq sodium/100 meq potassium diet. Plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin II (A II), aldosterone (PA), cortisol, serum sodium, and potassium were measured every 10 min for the first 30 min and then at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h.
electrolyte reactions at the surface of the electrode. The electrode acts as a catalyst or reactant for these reactions. The SEI can be stable or unstable and reform during each cycle. It can improve capacity, have no discernable effect, or it can degrade the capacity and shorten the life of the battery. Altering the surface chemistry of an electrode can lead to faster charge transfer across the interface and/or ion diffusion into the electrode 52–55 . Because of the reactivity of the electrode surface, electrolytes are usually individually matched to the electrodes. An ideal electrolyte will have very high ionic conductivity, fully wet the electrode surfaces, have a wide electrochemical window, have no
7. Satoh H, Hayashi H, Noda N, Terada H, Kobayashi A, Yamashita Y, Kawai T, Hirano M, Yamazaki N: Quantification of intracellular free sodium ions by using a new fluorescent indicator, sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate in guinea pig myocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991, 175:611 – 616. 8. Donoso P, Mill JG, O'Neill SC, Eisner DA: Fluorescence measurements of
from the crystal structures published to date. Whilst the locations of sodium ions were proposed based on the structure of the closed pore form (Payandeh et al, 2011), no density was seen in the SF in those crystals to indicate any sodium ions were present. Only structures of the open state (McCusker et al, 2012; Bagne´ris et al, 2014) pore of NavMs from Magnetococcus marinus have shown any electron density within the SF that might be attribu- table to sodium ions. The resolution of the first such structure (3.5 A ˚ ), however, was too low to determine the details of the sites of the ions in the SF, whilst the latter structures contained channel blocker ligands which interfered with ion binding. The sodiumion binding site locations and mechanisms for ion selec- tivity have also been predicted by a number of molecular dynam- ics (MD) studies, although they differ considerably in their details (Amaral et al, 2012; Chakrabarti et al, 2013; Stock et al, 2013; Ulmschneider et al, 2013; Xia et al, 2013; Zhang et al, 2013; Boiteux et al, 2014; Furini et al, 2014).
mortem interval was observed (Table-3). The linear correlation of the vitreous sodium (Na + ) ion concentration was found statistically insignificant (r=0.045) therefore the coefficient of regression could not be derived. Table-4 shows mean sodiumion concentration in vitreous humour of right & left eye in relation to various causes of death. The results indicate that there was no statistically significant association of vitreous sodiumion concentration in right & left eye in relation to various causes of death.
Rechargeable sodium-ion batteries were first proposed in the same time period as early work on lithium batteries [5–10]. Due to the overwhelming successes of Li-ion technology, research tended to move in this direction and interest in these sodium systems dwindled. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in Na-ion batteries. Figure 1.3 shows the yearly breakdown of number of manuscripts on sodium-ion batteries in the last fifteen years. While this trend would be dwarfed by a similar plot of lithium-ion battery studies, the figure makes it apparent there has been an explosion of interest in the topic within the last few years. This newfound interest can be attributed mainly to the fact that in the last twenty years our society has rapidly become dependent on Li-ion technology. Given this rising demand, it has become apparent that lithium itself is a limited resource. In contrast, sodium is relatively plentiful. The abundance of various elements in the earth’s crust is illustrated in Figure 1.4. Sodium is situated in the dark green field, indicating it is one of the major rock forming elements, as opposed to lithium that sits below the light green field of the minor rock forming elements. Consequently, the prospect of creating sodium analogues to lithium-ion batteries has become immensely attractive. Furthermore, in Fig. 1.4 cobalt can be found well below even lithium, motivating the interest in cathodes containing alternative earth-abundant transition metal redox ions, for example iron, manganese or magnesium.