software architectural design

Top PDF software architectural design:

Software Architectural Design in  Agile Environments

Software Architectural Design in Agile Environments

DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2018.61018 184 Journal of Computer and Communications life-cycle. However, none of them covers the software architectural design phase. Moreover, the rationalization of phases covered was missing. The question raised is whether an agile method is more profitable to cover more and to be more extensive, or cover less and to be more precise and specific. On one hand, some agile methods that cover too much ground, i.e. all organizations, phases and situations, are too general or shallow to be used. On the other hand, agile methods that cover too little (e.g., one phase) may be too restricted or lack a connection to other methods. Completeness, a notion introduced by Kumar and Welke [46], requires a method to be complete as opposed to partial. In the final analysis it was realized “completeness” is an element associated both with vertic- al ( i.e. , level of detail) and horizontal ( i.e. , life-cycle coverage) dimensions. None of the existing agile methods were either extensive or precise. Practitioners and experts are still struggling with partial solutions to problems that cover a wider area than agile methods do.
Show more

19 Read more

Frameworks for enhancing temporal interface behaviour through software architectural design

Frameworks for enhancing temporal interface behaviour through software architectural design

For many years, temporal issues in interface design have been largely ignored, with the exception a few studies (Dix, 1987), (Dix, 1992a), (Dix, 1994a), (Gray et al., 1994). However, the importance of time and delays has become more widely recognised with the ever-growing use of the Internet (Johnson and Gray, 1995). The impact of delays on user interaction was illustrated in Chapter 2 (Section 2.3) by using the Web as an example Chapter 3 examined various architectural models for single-user systems (Section 3.2). Software architecture is about dividing systems into components to perform certain functionalities − what the system can do. In order to work as a complete system, the components must be linked together in such a way that they can communicate effectively with each other. While all the components are running as part of the same program on the same machine, these communications are easy and acceptable response times can be achieved.
Show more

268 Read more

Toward Quality Attribute Driven Approach to Software Architectural Design

Toward Quality Attribute Driven Approach to Software Architectural Design

It has been well-documented that the software architecture of any system plays a critical role in success or failure of software intensive systems. In this paper, a method has been proposed to evaluate the software architecture’s fit- ness with respect to key quality attributes for a web-based system. To the end, a comparative analysis based on quality attributes scenarios and tactics is car- ried out to select an optimal software architecture that meets the system level requirements of a web-based system, namely, Student and Course Evaluation System (SCES). The comparative study was driven by study of quality attributes and tactics with the selected architectures to select the optimal one.
Show more

18 Read more

Effect Detection of Software Architecture Changes in xADL

Effect Detection of Software Architecture Changes in xADL

In this paper, we propose an alternative software architecture design method for the large scale software product. The changes of the consecutive architectural design model will be detected and located using our proposed supporting tool, called xSACEDT tool. In our approach, the essential information on project description, the related requirements, and design quality attributes is attached into the architectural model as an annotation or comment tag in xADL. The resulting xADL is still valid and conform to the schema standard. We demonstrate the final report of the impacts and effects found after the detection. It is potentially useful during the evolution of the software architectural design model.
Show more

5 Read more

The Meta-Mechanics of Holography and How It Affects Architecture

The Meta-Mechanics of Holography and How It Affects Architecture

He claims that architects have the ability to see material architecture in combination with the new immaterial architecture of the flow of information, as a unified whole. He concludes that the design of electronically augmented spaces can be approached as an architectural problem. “In other words, architects […] can take the next logical step to consider the ‘invisible’ space of electronic data flows as substance rather than just as void – something that needs a structure, a politics, and a poetics”. In recent years, references to the coupling of the digital and physical are increasing as technological advances mark the transition from the immaterial to the material. “We observe that the digital dimension is involved directly with the ‘physical’ in a series of hybrid conditions”. A few years ago, virtual reality was tantamount to an artificial reality. Today, when we talk about “virtual reality”, emphasis is placed on “reality”.
Show more

5 Read more

Nuclear architecture : perceptions of architectural technology

Nuclear architecture : perceptions of architectural technology

The copying of standard details becomes futile when the student is required to create imaginatively the architectural design which they are simultaneously attempting to resolve at the nuclear level. The latter relies less on applying a technique than on making sound judgments (Wittgenstein, 1968). The role of the interpreter (tutor, made even more of a challenge if the student is not a native English speaker) in helping the student to critically reflect on 2D and 3D detail design explorations is crucial. The interpreter deciphers how the representation of the construction presented in tutorials; in graphical or model form; is an assemblage of parts designed to solve problems of constructional stability, thermal performance, building regulation compliance, aesthetics, cost, environmental design, water penetration, cold-bridging and, in the focus of this paper, assembly/disassembly. In order for understanding to happen, the student needs to conceptualize that this is a graphic representation and cognize the symbolic representation. If the student sees the actual physical representation of the construction 1:1, or even better participates in a constructional exercise, in model form or on site, they are able to use their other senses of touch and their body to feel the weight of the objects and handle the bulk of the objects. They gain an immediate recognition of that object and an emphatic ‘naming’ of what it is: there is little ambiguity and the perception has changed into materialization (Wittgenstein, 1968). This is why the teaching about detail design uses video, photographs, full-size constructional exercises, and site visits for students to cognize building construction elements.
Show more

16 Read more

Abstract:- WSN demands low power and high speed data rate over network topology, Multi Band OFDM

Abstract:- WSN demands low power and high speed data rate over network topology, Multi Band OFDM

In digital circuit design, RTL (Register-Transfer Level) is a design abstraction which models a synchronous digital circuit in terms of the flow of digital signals (data) between hardware registers and the logical operations performed on those signals. RTL abstraction is used in HDL to create high level representations of a circuit from which lower level representations and ultimately actual wiring can be derived.

9 Read more

Architectural design contest with social participation as a part of building culture in Europe

Architectural design contest with social participation as a part of building culture in Europe

As can be seen from the presented examples, there is no one recommended procedure that would ensure social participation. Probably more interesting examples could be found across Europe, but they all should meet common guidelines within the EU. The main dif Þ culty is the need to maintain the legal framework that results from the long tradition of the competition, based on the anonymity of the participant. The social participation in the case hampers the preservation of this condition, hence various attempts to modify the exist- ing formulas. It seems that there is a need to work out a clear regulation that would allow both values to be maintained. Perhaps separate study is needed to de Þ ne which method is the most effective and should be recommended. It seems certain that the participation should be consultative for a jury’s work, which consists of professionals and is able to balance contradictory arguments and make the Þ nal independent decision. Architectural competitions with social participation would allow then to obtain even better, properly selected design solutions. It seems that such a tool would be a high quality instrument positively in ß uencing the building culture in Europe.
Show more

6 Read more

The Study of Architectural Animation Based on Computer Aided Design

The Study of Architectural Animation Based on Computer Aided Design

Interactive design is the focus of making architecture animation, and it is the most attractive point. It mainly includes the virtual scene of the object movement, rotation, scaling, etc., but also includes event design, behavior design, human- computer interaction design, such as mouse and other triggers, animation design, etc. This is a process of giving life to the virtual scene of architecture animation, giving it the ability to communicate with others, how to make the communication more natural and true, which depends on the subjective consciousness of the designer. Designers will be stored as the corresponding format into Cult3D, VRMI, Converse3D and other software after the completion of the virtual scene, through the scene editing adding event response, to conduct a series of interactive design. Designers grasp the behavior of the virtual world standards, interactive events and interactive time and even the specific subtle interaction, which requires the designer's subjective settings. So the designer must take full consideration of the user's behavior intention, behavior mode, interest and other factors. The purpose of interaction is to serve users, to meet the user's exchange of purpose and desire is the design of the original intention.
Show more

5 Read more

The Blind Men and the Elephant: Towards an Empirical Evaluation Framework for Software Sustainability

The Blind Men and the Elephant: Towards an Empirical Evaluation Framework for Software Sustainability

As an area of research, software sustainability is receiv- ing increasing attention with a significant increase in research output in the last few years[7]. Its importance has been underlined by recent funding initiatives from the National Science Foundation and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) in the UK combined with the establishment of the Software Sustainability Institute and the emergence of a number of workshops dedicated to the topic of sustainable soft- ware and systems. This leads us to the question of what is software sustainability? Software sustainability is a rather ambiguous concept and a number of definitions have been proposed. The Oxford English Dictionary[8] defines sustainability as ‘the quality of being sustained’, which in turn is defined as ‘capable of being endured’ and ‘capable of being ‘maintained’. Endured being defined within the context of this paper as ‘continuing to exist’ and main- tained as ‘being supported’ [8]. Seacord et. al.,[9] view sus- tainability in relation to ‘all activities related to software evolution and the ability to modify a software system based on stakeholders changing requirements’. This per- spective accords with the OED definition of maintainabil- ity. However, they argue that there is a strong dependency on a range of other factors including the organization, developers, end-users, the operational domain in which the software operates as well as other software artifacts including the architecture, design documentation, and test scripts. The Software Sustainability Institute define sustainability as ‘software you use today will be avail- able - and continue to be improved and supported - in the future’ which implicitly suggests that sustainability is concerned with concepts of availability, extensibility, and the maintainability of the software[10]. This aligns with the previous definitions, which emphasize the concepts of maintainability, extendibility and evolvability as being core underpinnings of sustainability. Calero, Bertoa and Moraga[11] define sustainable software as ‘a mode of
Show more

6 Read more

Architecture Studio Learning: Strategy to Achieve Architects Competence

Architecture Studio Learning: Strategy to Achieve Architects Competence

This reflexive quality is what makes the design studio stand out in higher education as a different educational environment (Schön, 1985) and is why, in architectural education, Kolb’s learning style inventory (Kolb, 1984) and the idea of experiential learning is most commonly used by scholars to study learning in the architectural design studio. An example of this type of research is a study based in China that found biased correlation between the academicsuccess of students with different learning styles. The investigators concluded that students who were convergers (are students who are more apt to be successful in conventional systems, such as tests, and are more geared toward the physical sciences) were less successful in the architectural design studios being studied than assimilators (students whose strength lies in their ability to create theoretical models) (Jia&Kvan, 2004). Another study by Kvan and Yunyan (2005) expanded on the aforementioned study, attempting to relate the design process to the process of experiential learning. Demirbas and Demirkan (2003) also embarked on the same journey as Kvan and Yunyan (although Demibras and Demirkan’s focus was the design process through Kolb’s learning styles and not experiential learning). Additionally, in design education, cognitive styles, described by Messick (1984) as “ characteristic self- consistencies in information processing that develop in congenial ways around underlying personality trends” (p. 61), are studied in relation to student progression in learning in architecture (Roberts, 2006, 2007); student understanding of architectural concepts in architecture (Saalman, 1990); artifact production in architecture, planning, and engineering (Akin & Akin, 1996; Purcell &Gero, 1998); and design process and cognition (Chan, 1995; Lui, 1996). i
Show more

8 Read more

The Blind Men and the Elephant: Towards an Empirical Evaluation Framework for Software Sustainability

The Blind Men and the Elephant: Towards an Empirical Evaluation Framework for Software Sustainability

associated with developing sustainable software. We propose that software sustainability is a composite, non- functional requirement that is a measure of a number of core quality attributes including extensibility, interoper- ability, maintainability, portability, reusability and scal- ability. In addition, we suggest that software architectures and architectural evaluation methods are integral to the development of sustainable software. Complex software systems can only be built when we architect them using existing as well as newly engineered parts that provide the required overall capabilities. During the development and evolution of such software, the architecture plays a crucial role in defining the relations between these parts. It permits the decomposition of software into manage- able parts and to compose the software from existing or adapted parts and enables the cost-effective engineer- ing of software by multiple teams. Architecting sustain- able science and engineering systems essentially means finding the right trade-off between the attributes and the various other requirements imposed on the system. Architectural representations of systems can be effective in understanding broader system concerns by abstracting away from system details, hence the trend for reason- ing about quality attributes at the architectural level. A key task in this activity will be the derivation of suitable measures and metrics to be used for evaluating the archi- tectures, addressing both functional and non-functional concerns. It is important to define measures and metrics that truly quantify the characteristics of the architectures they intend to assess. This should include formalizing intuitive ideas of measures and metrics, which follow a rig- orous process of validation. The parable of the Blind men and the Elephant[1] has been used to illustrate a range of different purposes including the need for improved com- munication and respect for different perspectives. Each of the six blind men has their own perspectives as to what they have observed. We propose that the development of a software sustainability architectural evaluation frame- work would assist in facilitating a greater holistic view of software sustainability.
Show more

6 Read more

An Improved Architectural Design of the Internet

An Improved Architectural Design of the Internet

The Internet is displaying this specialized arteriosclerosis today. Expansions to the specialized outline of the Internet have been produced are being created in the IETF at expanding rate. Cases Incorporate Integrated Service (IntServ) and Differential Service (DiffServ), IP Security (IPSEC), firewalls, portable IP, Network Address Translator (NAT) gadgets, mark exchanging, VPNs, and Web stores. We trust that sure of these augmentations were made with some compositional affectability; IntServ, DiffServ and IPSEC are cases. Be that as it may, a considerable lot of the ongoing augmentations have been produced as point answers for particular necessities of specific subsets of the Internet people group – sellers, clients, or ISPs – and to a great extent without compositional reasoning. They don't speak to upgrades of the engineering, despite the fact that they were produced to meet honest to goodness here and now needs and prerequisites. Seen all in all, this circumstance exhibits two sorts of negative impacts: those that emerge when specialized improvement does not take after an engineering system, and those that emerge when a design progresses toward becoming "tired" and requires reconsidering in light of new necessities.
Show more

7 Read more

Unit-III SOFTWARE DESIGN

Unit-III SOFTWARE DESIGN

Simple interfaces reduce the number of interactions that must be considered when verifying that a system performs its intended function. Simple interfaces also make it easier to reuse components in different circumstances. Reuse is a major cost saver. Not only does it reduce the time spent in coding, design, and testing but also allows development costs to be amortized over many projects. Numerous studies have shown that reusing software design is by far the most effective technique for reducing software development costs.
Show more

20 Read more

On dependencies between architecture and media: considering the remote work

On dependencies between architecture and media: considering the remote work

be understood and should be learned about. This suggests that researchers or students using Flickr will arrive at very different conclusions about Crown Hall’s architectural significance than those reading Blaser’s book, even if all they do is inspect the photographs. If, as the NF hypothesis suggests, the architectural significance of Crown Hall is truly independent of the medium through which the significance is communicated, then Figure 7 should exhibit a structure like Figure 8, with points-of-view evenly distributed rather than weighted to one side. The PB hypothesis explains the different structures because it assumes that each medium necessarily makes the architecture visible in fundamentally different ways. The purpose of the photographs in Blaser’s book is to forward a scholarly point of view, tempered by a “top-down” editorial process. By comparison, while Flickr is deliberately “bottom- up,” non-hierarchical and equivocal, it nevertheless clearly reflects the motivations of tourists interested in publishing their photographic contributions for public access. 28 Does
Show more

10 Read more

A Research on Undergraduate Architecture Teaching Approach Based on Integration of Architectural Design and Architectural History Teaching

A Research on Undergraduate Architecture Teaching Approach Based on Integration of Architectural Design and Architectural History Teaching

models by integrating project-based design and innovative research program. Project-based thesis design requires an authentic selection of project, covering a wide range of fields such as urban design, urban planning, historic architecture protection and restoration. On one hand, project-based design has practical val- ues, closely related to social needs, preparing students for the vast body of knowledge required to effectively manage architectural projects and practice. On the other hand, it is strictly confined to practice and subjected to the require- ments of Party A, which leads to an inconsistency between teaching and project management. We attempted to solve the problem by making adjustments to au- thentic projects and integrating desired research, with the aims of nurturing students with application and innovation. Only in this way can students get a whole picture of architecture education with innovative and critical thinking. By means of field research and literature review, students are expected to foster critical thinking abilities and creative problem-solving skills.
Show more

11 Read more

Architecture in tension: an examination of the position of the architect in the private and public sectors, focusing on the training and careers of Sir Basil Spence (1907 1976) and Sir Donald Gibson (1908 1991)

Architecture in tension: an examination of the position of the architect in the private and public sectors, focusing on the training and careers of Sir Basil Spence (1907 1976) and Sir Donald Gibson (1908 1991)

In his earlier examination of group working, Manning highlighted the design and technical deficiencies often inherent in offices run by a dominant principal. In Coventry the professional development of all staff was clearly a vital factor in the working of the department. Staff were encouraged to undertake research and allowed time off to attend events of professional interest. Within the department technical journals were available, including European publications. The fact that Manning felt the need to highlight this facility suggests that it was not a standard feature of official offices at that time. In turn the importance which Gibson placed on the availability of up-to-date technical information is demonstrated by the development of this library into a huge technical resource, accessed by other departments and members of other local authorities. 30
Show more

379 Read more

Recent discourse and the promise for global networks on architecture and urbanism

Recent discourse and the promise for global networks on architecture and urbanism

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research has recently published an outline article that commemorated a decade of discourse and published research on architecture and urbanism since its inception and up to Volume 11, Issue 1, March 2017. The article offered a comprehensive coverage of the distinguished status of the journal being a Q1/Q2 journal in architecture and urban studies as one of the top high quality journals (Salama et. al, 2017). The purpose of the present article is provide reflections on some of what the journal has published since March 2017 and present thoughts on latest developments including collaborations with academic and professional organizations and the move to Emerald; one of the prestigious global publishers in various areas and disciplines including relevant fields in built environment, place making, and urban planning and design. Over the past two years, Archnet-IJAR continued to receive regular submissions from academics across the world. Notably however, the journal has collaborated with the Fifth Architectural Jordanian International Conference of the Architecture Chapter of the Society of Engineers, Amman, Jordan (Salama, 2017). A special issue on heritage conservation in the digital era has been published and guest edited by Nottingham Trent University’s lead of the world-leading Research: Global Heritage: Science, Management and Development (Abdlemonem, 2017). This is followed in 2018 by a collaboration with Passive and Low Energy Architecture (PLEA) by including a section which was exclusively dedicated to selected papers from the Education and Training Forum of PLEA International Conference – Design to Thrive, Edinburgh – July 2017 (Roaf, Brotas, and Nicol, 2018, Salama, 2018). In July 2017 Archnet-IJAR, volume 11, issue # 2 was produced
Show more

9 Read more

Cellular network monitoring system based on subscriber units

Cellular network monitoring system based on subscriber units

The Cellular Network Monitoring System is aimed to help on cellular system monitoring and quality assurance. The system is build with the goal of reducing the cost in time, resources and work invested in the collection of the field data needed to measure signal quality in a cellular network. The used approach takes advantage of costumers’ handsets and movement patterns to assists us in data collection. This is made possible by placing a piece of code (software agent) in costumers’ cell phones with the capacity to collect on field data measurements and transmit these measures to a central data gatherer application.
Show more

44 Read more

A Structural and Generative Approach to Multilayered Software Architectures

A Structural and Generative Approach to Multilayered Software Architectures

UML provides simple graphical notations with understandable semantics for specifying, viewing, modifying, and building the necessary documents for soft- ware development. Recent developments in this modeling language have expli- citly introduced the fundamental concepts of software architectures. It thus po- sitions itself as a candidate for the massification of software architectures [3]. First because it is accepted by the software manufacturers and the academic mi- lieu. Then it is commonly used by most developers. In this situation, it is impor- tant to be able to represent the whole development cycle within an ADL. Al- though UML through the diagrams it offers, presents the different abstractions of the system to be designed and it complies with the various architectural views as defined by the Kruchten model [4], it does not define a process of refinement to lead to the implementation. Apart from the transformation of the class diagram into code that is automatic, the refinement process for new architectural con- cepts in UML is usually done manually. From these facts, UML considered alone does not offer all the features that are expected of an ADL.
Show more

16 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...