Modeling the strategic goals of the stakeholders can also help in deciding the best alternative to solve the problems at hand. Take, for instance, the model of Figure 2.3: the diagram shows different possible solutions to satisfy the secretaries’ goal Spend less time scheduling meetings. Using means-end relationships, the diagram states that this goal can be satisfied either by (a) asking meeting organizers to help and not place un- necessary load on the secretaries; (b) train secretaries to perform better; (c) replace the secretaries with more capable ones; (d) hire more secretaries to help out; or (e) develop a scheduling software that automates many of their tasks. Using qualitative contribution links to softgoals that represent quality criteria (which should also be elicited from the stakeholders) helps identify which would be the best solution to be implemented. In real projects, however, a more thorough feasibility study and cost-benefit analysis is advised. Once the solution to be implemented has been chosen, the social setting for the system- to-be can be represented in a new Strategic Dependency diagram, as shown in Figure 2.4. The diagram shows that stakeholders now depend on this new softwaresystem to satisfy all of their strategic goals, thus setting a criteria for the completeness of the requirements for the new system: the requirements have to satisfy all of the stakeholder goals.
Software development is not a precise science. Software development must be accompanied by quality assurance activities. It is typical for developers to spend around 40% of the total project time on testing. For life critical software (e.g. flight control, reactor monitoring), testing can cost 3 to 5 times as much as all other activities combined. The destructive nature of testing requires that the developer discard preconceived notions of the correctness of his/her developed softwaresystem. In softwaresystem development project, errors can come at any stage during development. The main causes of errors are
The article considers the problem of application of the laser devices for forest inventory. The article contains mainly the description of the softwaresystem for automated forest inventory using a laser range finder. The system includes the low-level programs of interaction of sensors with microcomputer controlling the developed device, the information system for the information accumulation and interaction with the user and also the software for the analysis of the raw data. The novelty of this approach is in the application of the multi-level structure for the control of the measurement process, and the possibility of the system scaling. The developed equipment is a part of the low-cost technology of forestry created in the Syktyvkar State University named after Pitirim Sorokin.
Abstract. This paper addresses the need for novel softwaresystem development (SSD) practices in finance. It proposes Empirical Modelling as a novel approach for SSD in finance . This approach aims at finding a suitable framework for studying both the traditional and the emerging computing culture to SSD in finance. First, the paper studies the change in the financial industry and identifies key issues of the application of computer-based technology in finance. These key issues are framed in a wider agenda for computing in finance. Second, the paper motivates a paradigm shift at the computational level to meet the wider agenda for computing in finance and overviews the distinctive qualities of model building in EM that are of particular relevance to this wider agenda and that can potentially support a paradigm shift at the computational level. Third, the paper considers four case studies that reveal how EM technology can provide a framework for SSD in finance: in the financial enterprise, in the financial market, for financial engineering, and for financial analysis. The paper concludes with the need for new paradigms for SSD adaptable to domain specific needs.
how to better use the system by simply using it. The user interface requires functions accessible through menus and via shortcuts from the mouse and keyboard to give the user options in how they use the system. The software is to have an organised, structured interface, similar to medical record keeping, so that images and analysis sessions are contained under a unique patient’s record. A structured file organisation should facilitate the management of patient records and patients’ image files in a graphical and secure manner.
This paper presents an overview of the software for wordnet processing Hydra. The system has fully-fledged GUI and API, both working with powerful modal query language. Hydra has been used for the development of the Bulgarian Word- Net for the last 7 years and recently was improved, became open source and is dis- tributed as part of the Meta-Share plat- form.
Usability has been defined by a number of standards and studies  , which con- sider it as a software quality attribute and specify certain characteristics of it. ISO 9241-11 defines usability as, “The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a speci- fied context of use” . IEEE standard 1061 is related to Software Quality Metrics and defines usability as, “Usability is the ease with which a user can learn to operate, pre- pare inputs for, and interpret outputs of a system or component” . Jakob Nielsen, a prominent usability expert, defines usability as a quality attribute that depends on five components: Learnability, Efficiency, Memorability, Errors and Satisfaction . Other components of usability can also be found in literature, which include utility, safety, accessibility and some others according to the nature of the softwaresystem  . Privacy and security also become important usability factors according to the domain of a softwaresystem . Examples of such domains are e-commerce, social network- ing systems, and e-banking.
1) Conventional visualisations remain limited to a relatively small number of dimensions: On the face of it, there seem to be plenty of possible dimensions within a standard visualiza- tion upon which to project a softwaresystem. The relative locations of objects can be used to imply relationships such as mutual relevance, either in 2D , or 3D . Software attributes (e.g. metrics) can be overlaid onto these locations by varying standard rendering parameters such as colour, geometry, line-thickness, opacity, etc. So location (x, y, z) and colour with transparency (r, g, b, α) alone represent 7 dimensions. If we add typical additional visual attributes such as shape and size, then a mere three-dimensional scatter plot presents 12 ways in which to vary the appearance of an element (or group of elements).
However powerful in increasing software modularity, object-oriented design alone will not reduce software complexity , . This is because in object-oriented design, software concerns are intuitively separated into distinct entities – often based on experience. However, to reduce complexity software concerns must also be explicitly separated into functions. A minimally complex softwaresystem will allow functions to be modified or added independently, without disrupting other functions. This will then ease maintenance, modification, and extension . Such functional independence is not ensured in object-oriented design – for example, one class may contain two or more functions, which are highly inter-dependent, as dependencies
KeyNodeRank algorithm takes the depth analysis of the network topology, which is based on the adjacency matrix of the network. KNR algorithm utilizes the power iteration to evaluate the softwaresystem . In specifically, the KeyNodeRank value of each node in the network is calculated and the key nodes are selected according to the rank of KeyNodeRank value. However, the times of iteration is so huge when calculating the KeyNodeRank value. In order to reduce the time complexity, the initial vector of the iteration uses in-degree, which can combine the local attributes and the global network. The process of KNR algorithm is as follows (see Figure 4).
Lalji Prasad,Aditi Nagar has defined a work on the analysis of softwaresystem for different structural and object oriented metrices. This metric based component estimation along with relationship analysis is performed under the procedure based analysis. Author discussed the metrics such as LOC, cyclomatic complexity, cohesion and coupling metrics. Author defined the analysis under the class level analysis so that the software product error detection and correction can be performed over the system. The estimation of softwaresystem under the operational measures is also performed to analyze the software quality. The operational features of the project and product is also discussed along with coupling analysis so that the estimation of software related metrices will be obtained. The paper has also discussed the software coupling measurement under the structural analysis. Zeeshan Ali Rana has defined an estimation on software products to analyze the softwaresystem under defect analysis for object oriented softwaresystem. Author defined the work to perform the defect prediction in the softwaresystem and analyze the softwaresystem
This paper concludes our experience on the development of LabVIEW VIs and an Arduino sketch for a prototyped pediatric gait trainer. The main objective is to develop a softwaresystem to control the operation of the gait trainer based on two major requirements; multi-mode speed control and UI for clinical tests. Based on the state machine pattern, LabVIEW VIs has been developed to realize UI and control features. Then the control loop portion has been ported to a customized Arduino sketch via the mapping into the state pattern. By matching design patterns, the development of both LabVIEW VIs and Arduino sketch was rapidly prototyped within a very short period.
Historically, there has always been a split between the process of software devel- opment and the process of software evolution (software maintenance). People think of software development as a creative activity in which a softwaresystem is devel- oped from an initial concept through to a working system. However, they sometimes think of software maintenance as dull and uninteresting. Although the costs of main- tenance are often several times the initial development costs, maintenance processes are sometimes considered to be less challenging than original software development. This distinction between development and maintenance is increasingly irrelevant. Hardly any software systems are completely new systems and it makes much more sense to see development and maintenance as a continuum. Rather than two separate processes, it is more realistic to think of software engineering as an evolutionary process (Figure 2.8) where software is continually changed over its lifetime in response to changing requirements and customer needs.
In this study we elaborate the initial design principles of a system for automatic workflow generation that would be capable of autonomous composition of novel workflows from existing software components. We have presented two workflows with human-designed blending, implemen- ted in the ClowdFlows and ConCreTeFlows platforms for online workflow composition. The first workflow clearly illustrated the potential for the composition of computa- tional creativity solutions. The second use case presents several computational creativity software components that were combined in a collaborative effort to implement an interesting conceptual blending solution, resulting in con- ceptual, visual and textual blends. The benefits of a uni- fying workflow for blending are twofold: the user can get blends of various kinds through the same user interface and the components can affect one another to produce a more coherent and orchestrated set of multimodal blending re- sults. The presented prototype solution is fully operational
However, in our example, most of the strings are illegible. We do see the words UPX. UPX is a common type of packer. This software extracts packed code into memory and runs it as if it was never packed. If you can determine the packer (UPX) you can often get the software and try to unpack it. This does not often work with malware.
There are three working modes of coal mine electrical equipment, namely, operation mode, standby mode and maintenance mode. When electrical equipment changes from one state to another, it is called switching. "Coal Mine Safety Regulations" stipulates that "  the mine should have two-circuit power supply lines, and the two power sources should come from different regions. When working normally, the mine power supply should be operated separately", which improves the reliability and safety of coal mine power consumption, but also brings some problems to the normal switching operation, such as the very complex switching process, affecting the normal production of the mine, etc. At present, the domestic switching operation is mainly to implement the operation ticket system and work guardianship system, that is, one-person operation, one-person supervision and one-person record operation mode. Such a simple switching operation requires more than a dozen pages of work tickets, and is operated by manual site, which is inefficient and has hidden dangers for the safety of operators. Based on this, an embedded intelligent switching operation control system is proposed in this paper. Frequency is measured by FFT windowed interpolation algorithm and phase is measured by fast Fourier transform algorithm. Then, according to the condition of switching, whether switching is needed or not is judged. If switching is satisfied, the processor controls the corresponding actuator action to realize switching.