Software vulnerability is a kind of flaw that arises in software or is a hole in the security of the software that allows an attacker to exploit that flaw. Unlike bugs, software vulnerability can affect a whole network thereby allowing unauthorised access to the database itself. In order to reduce threat impact of software vulnerability, organisations should use vulnerability management frameworks. Vulnerability management involves the cyclical practice of identification, classification, remediation, and mitigation of vulnerabilities. Repetition of this process helps in mitigating the vulnerabilities in the software effectively. A risk can lead to significant loss as that of a vulnerability but it is not mandatory that all vulnerabilities will involve a risk. There can be vulnerabilities without risk especially when the affected asset has no value. An exploitable vulnerability is basically a vulnerability with one or more instances of fully implemented attacks. An exploit exists for an exploitable vulnerability. An exploit is a code that an attacker creates to target a software vulnerability in applications like multimedia, security programs. There is also a window of vulnerability that decides a time between when a security flaw is introduced in the system that compromises system security and the time when an attacker is disabled. Apart from software vulnerabilities, vulnerabilities can also exist in hardware, site or personnel.
Abstract. Recently, the software has been developed increasingly. It is more and more difficult to find software vulnerabilities. Therefore, this paper proposes a software vulnerability prediction model based on the complex network. This model regards the software defect evaluation as three classifications or regression sub-problems, including the defects in each class, software defect severity evaluation and software defect priority evaluation. This model uses machine learning method to train complex network feature, object-oriented feature and structure feature. The model can evaluate software defects on the hierarchy of class and assess software vulnerability effectively. An experiment on Hibernate is carried out, which selects random forest model as each sub-model. The experiment shows that the model is valid and accurate to evaluate vulnerability.
10 Read more
Race Condition Vulnerability. A race condition is a case in which two competing processes attempt to use the same resource at the same time. The resource can only be available to one process at a time, but there is no external control that enforces the limitation. A common example is Time of Check in which there is a time gap between when a check is performed and when the action based on the result of the check is taken. An example is modifying files. Suppose that a program functioning as a system administrator works with a user-controlled file after making a certain modification to the file as passing the security test. The user of the file can figure out when the program has modified the file and replace the file with a link to a protected system file, which enables the user to access the protected file.
in scope. It looked at only three vulnerabilities, and for each, they restricted their dataset to self-reported breaches (intrusions). Though this data gave the authors in- sight into factors affecting the lifetime of a vulnerability, such as automation (script- ing) on the attackers’ side, and patching behavior on the defenders’ side, the authors could say nothing about the overall quality of the software, about the vulnerabilities that might remain to be found (quantity or severity), or about the rate at which new vulnerabilities might be discovered in software. Nor could their model be applied across incidents (new exploits). This limited their model’s overall applicability. How- ever, this paper made some significant contributions to the field of security metrics by providing new definitions for software and hardware vulnerabilities. They defined security vulnerabilities as software flaws with distinct characteristics differentiating them from functional defects, e.g., “A flaw in an information technology product that could allow violations of security policy” [ [WAMF01], p. 52], as “A flaw or defect in a technology or its deployment that produces an exploitable weakness in a system, resulting in behavior that has security or survivability implications” [ [WAMF01], p. 54], and considered for their analysis, a vulnerability to be a flaw that has been discovered, deployed and “available for widespread use”. These definitions go beyond typifying a flaw as a mistake in coding; by including deployment as a risk factor, and by recognizing that the behavior of the technology and the behavior of attackers each play a role in successful exploitation. Although, later work by Ozment claimed that these definitions were too broad, since they failed to account for multiple vulnera- bilities, and their definitions didn’t include the entire software lifecycle.“... a single defect or flaw could result in multiple different vulnerabilities or "exploit instances" and that a vulnerability could occur in any part of the development and deployment process.” [Ozm07]
224 Read more
The software defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the assumption that a URL is canonical . This can allow a non-canonical URL to bypass the authorization.Even if an application defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the URL, but it does not convert to a canonical URL before making the authorization decision, then it opens the application to attack.
Security characteristics of different software products are analyzed and compared based on the data collected from public vulnerability databases. An approximation of the cumulative failure distribution by a logistic function is presented, the bounda- ries of different stages are outlined, which makes it possible to introduce a new metric, determine the current stage of the product and predict the vulnerability detection rate expected in the future.
Abstract – Many organizations are cautious about their ICT computational task environments regardless of their sizes because computer security accidents often cause numerous financial compensations with major damages on their reputations and painful law suits. However, it is next to impossible to remove all the possible ICT security vulnerabilities completely from their workplaces. Fortunately, we still can improve the unsecure computing environments by measuring risk levels and trying to reduce the risk values one by one. In this paper, we propose a novel concept of how to measure ICT risk values based on multiple software vulnerabilities in a target organization. A final produced ICT risk value from an organization that we are considering is a specific number so that risk levels could be compared one another. It is expected that ICT department managers could utilize the result from this research to estimate potential risk levels in their workplaces.
10 Read more
engineering processes and imperative to identify and eliminate rework that could have been avoided. While security or its absence is a property of running software many aspects of software requirements, design, implementation and testing contribute to the presence or absence of security in the finished product. Software is continues to function correctly under malicious attack. Verification and validation (V&V) techniques like security testing, code review and formal verification are becoming effective means to reduce the number of post release vulnerabilities in software products. The aim of reduce the dimensionality, removing irrelevant data, increasing learning accuracy and improving result comprehensibility. The feature subset selection algorithm and support vector machine as involves identifying a subset of the most useful features that produces compatible results as the original entire set of features. A feature subset selection algorithm may be evaluated from both the efficiency and effectiveness points of view. A feature subset selection algorithm is used for software vulnerabilities such as verification and validation. The support vector machines are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data and anomaly detection, predict the vulnerabilities in software. The used for classification and regression analysis to result.
code) without actually executing programs, thus avoiding risks linked to the execution of malicious programs. Static analysis techniques can analyze all control flows of a program. Therefore, static analysis approaches achieve, compared to dynamic test approaches, a significant higher coverage of program under analysis and, thus, produce a significant lower false negative rate. In other words, if there is vulnerability in the application under test, in most cases the analysis is able to find it. Mostly, static analysis tools detect vulnerabilities by scanning the program source code, a significant part of efforts in static vulnerability detection have been directed towards analyzing software written in some high-level language, such as C, C++, C#, Java, or PHP. It is a very effective method for detecting programing related vulnerabilities early in the software development life cycle.
The high recall from the vulnerability predictions can be attributed to the fact that files with high complexity, frequent and large changes, and many past faults tend to have more vulnerabilities than files with low complexity, less frequent and small changes, and the small number of past faults. However, the precision of the vulnerability predictions was much lower (0.09 after adjusting the classification threshold) than the precision of the fault prediction (0.47) because only a small percentage of files was vulnerable. This dependence on the amount of reported vulnerabilities in vulnerability prediction has two implications. First, if the amount of the reported vulnerabilities is small just because the latent vulnerabilities have not been discovered yet, we can expect a large portion of the false positives could be actually true positives that will be reported as vulnerable files as time passes. If so, it is worth to spend extra efforts to inspect and test the predicted vulnerable files. Second, if the number of reported vulnerabilities is actually small even after enough time has passed after the release of software, it will be difficult to expect high precision from a vulnerability prediction using the traditional fault prediction metrics in general.
169 Read more
The following table provides a summary of software vulnerabilities identified between September 17 and between October 3, 2002. The table provides the vendor, operating system, software name, potential vulnerability/impact, identified patches/workarounds/alerts, common name of the vulnerability, potential risk, and an indication of whether attacks have utilized this vulnerability or an exploit script is known to exist. Software versions are identified if known. This information is presented only as a summary; complete details are available from the source of the patch/workaround/alert, indicated in the footnote or linked site. Please note that even if the method of attack has not been utilized or an exploit script is not currently widely available on the Internet, a potential vulnerability has been identified. Updates to items appearing in previous issues of CyberNotes are listed in bold. New information contained in the update will appear in italicized colored text. Where applicable, the table lists a "CVE number" (in red) which corresponds to the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) list, a
44 Read more
To develop secure software, a lot of investments have to be done. In order to ensure safe and effective capital investment, we need to develop a threat-free system. If we don’t develop a secure system then losses will be imparted on the software industry and hence, other industries will also be affected . In general, any software can easily be targeted by viruses, outside attackers, application threats and intruders, etc . If redundant applications are embedded within our main software, then its efficiency will not only be degraded but may even be vanished. Consequently, its reliability and performance gets deteriorated. To avoid failure of software applications, most of the software engineers generate software security requirements. This stage identifies, captures all the major threats to the system
The proposal aims to integrate on a numerical scale that standardized assessments of hazard, vulnerability and risk, ensuring that all estimates are based probabilistically by its more affordable comparison; action that is per- formed by applying mathematical standardization and interpolation methods. The choice the method depends on the evaluators and can be done automatically with the help of GIS.
11 Read more
While invulnerability and its fiction of independence, I would argue, emerge from a psychopathology of fear, vulnerability, its other, is constructed socially and individually as a psychopathology of power/knowledge. Individuals and institutions with power/knowledge – teachers, schools, researchers etc. – through their capacity to position and enforce vulnerability and woundedness as ‘lack’ of power, knowledge, and agency, construct, and regulate deficit discourses which attempt to discipline, silence or co-opt for their own purposes, any disruptive or unruly forms of difference. Educators at all levels will need to be vigilant, especially given the level of trust placed in teachers across all levels but especially at those levels where government-administered high-stakes standardized testing is used. As Callahan’s analysis revealed, some of the pathology linked to Henry’s vulnerability system is generated by practitioners in Higher Education and certified/credentialed through programmes in higher educational institutions including perhaps those in which we work. Studying the vulnerabilities of educators while being vulnerable oneself in a variety of ways will likely prove a challenging but productive problematic for educational theorizing and the study of curriculum.
12 Read more
To make a quantitative assessment is to calculate or forecast the status of the target system. In the past, Network Security Situation Assessment (NSSA) is often used by many researchers to judge the network security status. This assessment method mainly contains these three types of indicators: running state, vulnerability and threat events. To optimize the network security status assessment and prediction method, researchers at home and abroad have carried out many researches: Reference  put forward a quantitative assessment method, which is based on Naive Bayesian (NB) and is convenient to be used in dealing with uncertain information sources; Ref.  proposed to percept network security status by using neural network. With the help of RBF neural network, the mapping relation in the non-linear network can be identified, the network parameters can be optimized and the self-adaptive genetic algorithm can be used to assess network security status. Ref.  proposed a penetration test framework which aimed to reveal possible vulnerabilities in each network layer, and to reveal the side effect to the whole network security and its users resulting from the error configuration in public network. There exists lots of researches talking about assessment methods on network security status, but throughout all the researches, most of them were narrowly focused on network security itself, or just focusing on the quantity of threat events or the details. These researches ignored the entirety and interaction of the whole system, namely, the mutual relationship between human and system, the impact of threat events, the response to the threat from supporting systems and so on, all these are important to cyberspace security research.
10 Read more
developed a Fussy ExCOM risk assessment model for Information system to integrate the estimation and assessment of risk activities in software project. The model uses a fussy novel as a technique. The model component comprise of Software size, Project Risk, Contingency Allowance and Effort Estimation. developed an architecture-oriented information security risk assessment model (AOISRAM) for Information system. The model components include risk monitoring, risk resolution, risk management planning, risk prioritization, risk analysis and risk identification. The model can be applied as a guideline in particular domains such as information security. The model was appraised to solves many difficulties caused by the process oriented approach in ISO 27001 of IS risk assessment such as irregular distribution of resources, poor safety performance and high risk.
10 Read more
To expand on these findings, the sample will include both children treated with and without radiation therapy, by including individuals without radiation we can look at how radiation affects children in comparison to individuals who were diagnosed with a brain tumor and did not receive radiation treatment. Mabbott et al. (2005), Mulhern et al. (2005) and Conklin et al. (2008) results did not include children who did not receive radiation therapy, so their results could be explained by either an early vulnerability to brain insult or an early vulnerability to radiation therapy. Additionally, Mulhern et al. (2005) divided age into a dichotomous age of old verses young (< 7 vs. ≥ 7 years of age). The current study analyzes age as a continuous variable and analyses included as many as 9 assessments over approximately 10 years in a heterogeneous group of brain tumors with 134 participants resulting in 487 cases for analyses.
45 Read more
The objective of the RVS procedure is generally to inspect seismic vulnerability level of a particular building based on the cut-off points as a level either has acceptable or hazardous or should be studied further in detail. A procedure for rapid visual screening (RVS) was first proposed by Federal Emergency Management Agency in FEMA-154 on 1988 for identifying, recording and ranking buildings that are probably seismically dangerous in the US (FEMA, 1988a) which was further modified in 2002 (FEMA 2002) to facilitate new technological improvement and also experience lessons from previous earthquake hazards. RVS procedure has been widely used in many other countries with some modification related to the local condition. FEMA RVS uses a methodology to examine
10 Read more
Concluding Statement We have provided a conceptual framework that uses the best available information to clarify exactly how individual factors are expected to interact to yield a particular outcome for vulnerability under climate change. The next great challenge will be to apply the theoretical structure of the framework to derive quantitative estimates of vulnerability across a broad range of taxa. That is, it will be necessary to design a practical set of algorithms that describe interactions between traits/factors identified in the framework and assign sensible values (observed or inferred) to the input parameters to estimate vulnerability. We are encouraged by the fact that some quantitative links in the framework are already beginning to be forged [48,50,52]. The framework will ultimately enable comprehensive assessments of relative vulnerability (species, habitats, and processes). This understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying vulnerability will allow natural resource managers to determine the most efficient allocation of resources and researchers to identify important gaps in knowledge. With the requisite information, optimising the allocation of management effort will balance the perceived threat/ vulnerability, rates of change, consequences of inaction, social/ political/scientific will, and available resources/management tools .
These achievements described partially solve the problem of OPC vulnerability analysis. Yet most of the works proposed mainly focus on analyzing the vulnerability from aspect of taking advantage of legal function to launch attack like ARP spoofing, Man-in-the-Middle and Packet Replaying, vulnerability detecting and exploiting is neglected, or only considered the security testing of OPC protocol itself without correlating it with underlying protocols like DCOM and RPC, which limited the further application of these achievements. The works on the security defending only cover the attack exploiting known vulnerabilities; the 0-day vulnerability related attack cannot be defended well. In a word, the defects mentioned above hindered the further application of these works and a vulnerability detecting mechanism which can satisfy the multi-layer testing requirements of OPC is seriously needed.