of the hills runs in east west direction with its highest point of 2,200 m which rises abruptly from the floor of Kath- mandu valley of 1,200 m. The climate is typical monsoon; hot summer and cool winter. The maximum temperature goes up to 30°C in summer and minimum temperature in winter falls below the freezing point (–3°C). The annual rainfall is about 1,400 mm, mostly distributed only in the months of July and August and other months are almost dry. The site is mainly composed of Schima forest, mixed broad-leaved forest, pine forest and oak forest. This study was limited only to the south facing slope of the hill from 1,200 m to 2,200 m. This slope is mainly composed of pine forest (Pinus roxburghii, Sargent) up to an altitude of 2,000 m. Above this altitude, the hill consists of only deciduous oak forest (Quercus lanuginosa D.).
The effect of soil moisture on soil respiration was analyzed in this study for the account to evaluate its effect in ecosystem. Many studies have revealed that tem- perature and soil moisture are the major ecological abiotic factors, regulating determinants of soil respiration in terrestrial ecosystems from regional to the global scale     . The negative relationship (Figure 4(a)) be- tween soil respiration and soil water content observed in October 2015 was liable to the rain events in first measurements day, after few days of clear weather. This type of negative relationship between soil respiration and soil water content with consequent restriction on soil respiration was observed in tropical rain forest of French Guiana . Normally, the suppression of soil respiration due to rain events is caused by capillary effect where excess water in the soil limited gas production and transport. The soil respiration was generally increased with the increasing soil moisture up to some limit of soil moisture level. The upper limit of soil moisture to which the soil respiration increased was 35% and above that limit the soil respiration began to drop until the soil water content decreased and the negative curve was determined in October (Figure 4(a)). Similarly, in April 2016 lower soil moisture caused to suppress the soil respiration and that began to rise with increase in soil water content up to 35% that caused to result the positive exponential relationship between soil respiration and soil water content (Figure 4(b)). Reducing and enhancing of soil respiration under drought condi- tion and high soil water level was observed in semiarid temperate grassland . This showed that soil water availability has not only positive effect on soil respi- ration but also has negative effect with the decrease in rate of respiration, as ob- served in this study. Many studies have also obtained the results showing lower soil water availability reducing soil respiration   . However, com- bined effect of soil water content and soil temperature is more responsive to the variation of soil respiration  . Soil respiration had minor sensitivity to temperature under low soil moisture level and it was more responsive to the temperature under high moisture level which was observed in this study (Figure 4), that was very much comparable to the previous studies   . How- ever, the practical way of confounding soil respiration with soil moisture was de- rived using different equation indifferent ecosystems . Therefore, when soil moisture is adequate to support biological activity; soil temperature becomes an important determinant for soil respiration as observed by Carbone et al. .
Abstract: Estimation of total carbon stock in any forest is very important as it provides ecological as well as economic benefits through various environmental services. The study was carried out to quantify the vegetation and soilcarbon stock of natural Chirpine (Pinus roxburghii) forest of in sub-tropical region of Makawanpur district, Nepal. The inventory of estimating above and below ground biomass of forest was carried out using stratified random sampling method Forest biomass was calculated using standard allometric models. Soil samples were taken from soil profile up to 40 cm depth at the interval of 20 cm. Walkey and Black method (1934) was used for measuring soil organic carbon. Total amount of carbon stock in Pinus roxburghii forest was 213.05 t/ha with above ground carbon stock 140. 56 t/ha, below ground carbon stock 27.14 t/ha and soil organic carbon 45.35 t/ha respectively. Total carbon stock in Pinus roxburghii forest was composed of 66% for above ground, 21% by the soil and 13% by below ground. The study concluded that forest types and soil play an important role on total carbon sequestration. Hence, the goal of reducing carbon sources and increasing the carbon sink can be achieved efficiently by protecting and conserving the carbon pools in existing forests ecosystem.
be enhanced by minimizing soil disturbance at the time of forest management practices. The variation in age of the forest stands also results in divergence of carbon stocks in different forests (Sun et al., 2004). Besides, some studies have reported that soil organic carbon (SOC) also varies with variation in vegetation types and topographic aspects. The study done in Ethiopia showed that SOC varied significantly among 3 vegetation communities at different topographic aspects (Yimer et al. 2006). Similarly, another study showed wide variation in distribution and stocks of SOC across 4 vegetation types (Fu et al., 2010). Influence of intensity and duration of sunlight affects different aspects of hill slopes (Yadav and Gupta, 2006). Around quarter of Nepalese forests have been handed to more than 1500 community forests users group (CFUG), which represents one third of the total population of the nation (DoF, 2011).
system; conventional tillage with stubble removed (T); no-till with stubble removed (NT); no-till with stubble retained (NTS) and conventional tillage with stubble incorporated (TS) were arranged in a randomised complete block design with three replicates. The seedbeds for conventional tillage practices were prepared by ploughing to a depth of 10–20 cm. Ploughing was carried out immediately after harvest of the previous crop. Harrowing was conducted prior to sowing in spring. In T plots, all stubbles were removed before ploughing, whereas in TS plots, all stubbles from the previous crop were returned to the original plots immediately after threshing and then incorporated into the soil with ploughing. No ploughing was performed throughout the season in the no-till system. The crops were sown with no-till seeder. In NT plots, all the stubbles were removed at crop harvest, whereas in NTS plots, all the stubbles from the previous crop were returned to the original plots on the soil surface without incorporation. Plots were 4 m wide × 17 m long in block 1, 21 m long in blocks 2 and 3 and 20 m long in block 4. This study was conducted on blocks 1, 2 and 4. Spring wheat was sown in mid-March at a rate of 187.5 kg/ha with a line spacing of 20 cm and harvested in late July to early- August. Field pea was sown in early April at a rate of 180 kg/ha with a line spacing of 24 cm and harvested in early July each year. Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at seeding at 105 kg/ha as urea (46% N) and at 45.9 kg P/ha as calcium superphosphate (6.1% P) for spring wheat and 20 kg N/ha and 45.9 kg P/ha for field pea. The fertilizer was applied simultaneously at sowing with the no-till seeder.
ice action, but also because they are more exposed to phys- ical disintegration, as moraines have less continuous vegeta- tion cover than colluviums. These features result in distinc- tive soil properties that affect the pattern distribution of stable elements and radionuclides in the profiles. In spite of the fact that studies on the vertical distribution of elements in soils of cold regions are scarce, results from previous research in Maritime Antarctica (Navas et al., 2005a, 2008) have also evidenced the variation of FRN and ERN contents in relation to processes affecting soils in different morphoedaphic envi- ronments. Moreover, similar to what it was observed in the study valleys, the variability in some radionuclides and ele- ments was also related to the mineral composition of parent materials and to cryogenic and soil processes influencing the depth distribution of soil properties, such as that of granulo- metric fractions and organic matter.
Due to the problems associated with the use of inorganic fertilizers, combine use of organic and inorganic manures may be beneficial to soil and crop productivity in this agroecology. A balanced use of organic and mineral fertilizer could enhance soil chemical, physical and biological properties in addition to rapid rate of nu- trient turnover within the soil-plant system. Integrated use of organic wastes and mineral fertilizer is reported to reduce the cost and amount of fertilizer required by crops -. Bair  opined that proper soil fertility man- agement and sustainable agriculture could be achieved with the use of both mineral fertilizer and organic ma- nure. Paul and Mannan  suggested that integrated nutrient management through combined use of organic wastes and chemical fertilizers could be an effective approach to combat nutrient depletion and promote sus- tainable crop productivity. Replenishing the nutrients removed by crops by recycling agricultural wastes into the soil could sustain soil and crop productivity . Practices which focus on recycling agricultural wastes into the soil would contribute to improved quality and health of the soil.
lack of skilled birth attendants and the absence of emer- gency services and equipments in rural health centers . The vast majority (73%) of birth takes place at home in rural area of Nepal among them 55% of women are assisted by traditional birth attendants and relatives . Some 40% deaths occur at home, 14% in transit to health facilities and 41% in health facilities . A retro- spective study done in Nepal has mentioned the major complications were retained placenta 84.1%, postpartum hemorrhage 17%, shock 10.2% and third degree perineal tear, the study revealed that home deliveries are asso- ciated with increased maternal morbidity related to the third stage complications . Nepal had made an effort to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG-5) targeted for reducing MMR by three quarter to 134 per 100,000 live births by 2015 . The MDG report showed little improvement in decreasing MMR in Nepal . The achievement however is not uniform across the rural and urban setting and there seemed to be im- portant disparities by caste/ethnicity, socio-economic and eco-geographical regions . Proper medical atten- tion and hygienic condition during delivery can reduce the risk of complications of mother and baby.
soilcarbon sink under current farmers’ practices. Chinese croplands are therefore a net GHG source. Over-fertilization with N and low energy use efficiency of irrigation and other agronomic management practices are largely responsible for these high GHG emissions. To feed an increasingly wealthy population, Chinese crop production is expected to continue to expand in the future, posing great challenges for reducing GHG emissions. However, there is still much room for improving the net GHG balance of Chinese croplands. Mitigation measures can focus on, but are not limited to, optimizing fertilizer applications, better irrigation practices and conservation tillage.
An unbalanced nested sampling scheme (Webster and Oliver, 1990; Lark, 2005) was applied at Higher Wyke Moor site, the topology of which is shown in Fig. 2. This is a hierarchical sampling scheme with eighteen main points located on a regular 30 × 30-m grid, and nested sample points separated from the main station in a set of steps of fixed decreasing length in a random direction, as represented in Fig. 3, for the FLF-C results. As well as FLF-C (N), the IALF (C, N) and total soil C and N contents were measured in each sample. The substations were taken subsequently in random directions at 10 m, 1 m, and 0.12 m apart from the main station in the grid (actual directions not shown in Fig. 3). These distances were selected to span a scale range of interest in roughly equal steps on a logarithmic scale. The directions were chosen as random numbers between 0 and 360, allocated in the field by a compass. The total sample size was 72.
directly proportional to soil organic carbon. However, it is not clear if these models are robust under changing environ- mental conditions (Lawrence et al., 2011; Schimel and Wein- traub, 2003; Barichivich et al., 2013) since they often ignored the effects of changes in biomass and composition of decom- posers, while recent empirical studies have shown that micro- bial abundance and community play a significant role in soilcarbon decomposition (Allison and Martiny, 2008). The con- trol that microbial activity and enzymatic kinetics imposed on soil respiration suggests the need for an explicit represen- tation of microbial physiology, and enzymatic activity, in ad- dition to the direct effects of soil temperature and soil mois- ture on heterotrophic respiration (Schimel and Weintraub, 2003). Recent mechanistically based models which explic- itly incorporated the microbial dynamics and enzyme kinet- ics that catalyze soil C decomposition have produced notably different results and a closer match to contemporary observa- tions (Wieder et al., 2013; Allison et al., 2010) indicating the need to incorporate these microbial mechanisms into large- scale earth system models to quantify carbon dynamics under future climatic conditions (Wieder et al., 2013; Allison et al., 2010).
Abstract Energy and other environmental conservation measures are emerging issues of concern all over the world. The awareness on climate change and sustainable environmental resource utilization are discussed globally in all sectors of development. This study was conducted to investigate selected Kenyan biology teachers’ understanding of photosynthetic carbon translocation and sequestration in ecosystems as an emerging issue. The study sought to relate biology teaching content to a wider scope of energy flow in ecosystem; a subject taught and assessed by teachers of different secondary schools in Kenya. The study employed descriptive survey method. Secondary school agriculture teachers were randomly sampled from secondary schools in one district of Western Kenya. Self-valuation questionnaires were used to capture key information on teachers understanding of photosynthetic carbon and its sequestration as some of the emerging issues in terrestrial ecosystems. Results revealed a rich understanding of green house effects on the general environment among assessed teachers. Majority of the assessed teachers demonstrated clear understanding of carbon dioxide and its contributions to climate changes. However, a high percentage of selected and assessed teachers demonstrated lack of clear grasp on translocation of photosynthetic carbon and its sequestration process from plants into the soil. Furthermore, teachers’ demonstrated poor understanding of mitigation of environmental pollution, particularly via Green House Gases (GHGs) control. It was concluded that there was a general knowledge gap among selected agriculture teachers concerning emerging issues particularly in ecology. The study recommended refresher courses to strengthen teachers’ competencies in understanding such emerging ecological concepts.
The idea of low carbon society has originated as a re- sponse to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are considered to be responsible for global warming and climate change. A national carbon mitigation strategy must be developed in order to mature an idea of low carbon society. However, in developing countries like Nepal having very low per capita emissions (as well as total emissions), and still needing to meet basic devel- opment needs including education, healthcare and the like. This is a problem with the developing countries. Therefore, Nepal might not be able to afford concentrated focus on deep emission cuts development pathway, which might incur massive cost of development. Never- theless, it should prepare to opt for one of the emerging and accepted approaches to overcome development pa- radox that is through sustainable development (SD). The sustainable development pathway results in lower emis- sion mitigation costs in addition to creating opportunities to realize co-benefits without compromising the original objective of enhancing economic and social development. Such co-benefits include improved air (indoor, outdoor) quality and associated social cost reduction . More- over, the cost (GDP loss) associated with low carbon development pathway (sustainable development pathway) can be compensated through international financial as- sistance (direct financial assistance, technological trans- fer or carbon trading mechanism like CDM etc.).
There is limited information on the quantification of carbon stock in Tanzania and Africa in general due to limited researches and surveys conducted in the area. At least the Eastern Arc Mountain seems to have more carbon stock than other places because of litter decomposition than the arid and semi arid areas which lacks vegetation. This review has shown that SOC is potential for improving soil fertility and that higher crop yields are obtained under SOC. In addition, it is potential for SOC sequestration and therefore, it mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. In forestry aspects, it is highly associated with trading of carbon credit under the umbrella of Kyoto Protocol. By that not, SOC is significant for human life and thus, more surveys and researches (original researches) should to be conducted on the same for the betterment of ecology, social and economic aspects.
Elaeis guineensis Jacq. have been introduced in Mizoram, Northeast India under a joint venture of Government of India and State of Mizoram. Oil palm plantations in Mizoram was started in 2004-2005 with the State Department of Agriculture as a nodal agency under schemes like the New Land Use Policy (NLUP) as an alternative land use to divert farmers practicing the traditional shifting cultivation. The promotion of oil palm under the scheme was to de- crease GHGs emissions, increase local production of biofuels and to ensure energy security and creation of jobs in the state. The oil palm plantations were re- stricted to shifting cultivation fallows and other degraded lands and focused to support the marginal and small land holders. Extensive studies on the botanical and cultivation aspects of oil palms had been carried out owing to its commercial importance and their rapid expansion may well be a cause of deforestation in many countries of Southeast Asia . Conversion of forests into oil palm planta- tions has aggravated environmental issues such as biodiversity losses and net emission of carbon dioxide responsible for global warming  . In addition, carbon storage and soil fertility get affected as soil organic carbon (SOC) con- tents become lower under oil palm than under primary or secondary forest .
II. H OW IS C ARBON S EQUESTERED IN S OILS ? Through the process of photosynthesis, plants assimilate carbon and return some of it to the atmosphere through respiration. The carbon that remains as plant tissue is then consumed by animals or added to the soil as litter when plants die and decompose. The primary way that carbon is stored in the soil is as soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is a complex mixture of carbon compounds, consisting of decomposing plant and animal tissue, microbes (protozoa, nematodes, fungi, and bacteria), and carbon associated with soil minerals. Carbon can remain stored in soils for millennia, or be quickly released back into the atmosphere. Climatic conditions, natural vegetation, soil texture, and drainage all affect the amount and length of time carbon is stored.
In the GR, the TOC was unexpectedly lower which may be attributed to the high grazing intensity within the catchment. Overgrazing affects carbon fluxes whereby the carbon inputs are less than the carbon outputs. Moreover, the cattle tracks in the GR increase the bulk density of the area therefore discouraging shoot emer- gence and encourage surface runoff. The area experiences high erosion rates [33, 36] which selectively carries away the SOC on the surface since it has a light density [51, 52]. A study done in Northern China on degraded grass- lands showed that there was up to a 50% loss of SOC due to exposure of the surface resulting from land use change and overgrazing. This is contrary to a research done by  which showed that grasslands have higher capacity to store SOC than SH, however in this study area there was controlled grazing. Differences were seen down the profile as TOC was higher in 0–15 cm than in 15–30 cm. This can be attributed to higher rates of inputs of litter in the surface compared to roots in the sub-surface. Fur- thermore there is minimal rainfall in the area which dis- courages movement of carbon to the lower horizons . The lower TOC in GR compared to SH can be attrib- uted to the distribution of plant root systems which  suggest has more influence on soil organic matter than climate. The plant function types influence the vertical distribution of SOC within the profile  where grasses have a shallow root profile while shrubs have a deeper root profile. This can explain the higher TOC in SH and lower in GR in the sub-surface horizon. The presence of shrub roots in the lower horizons increases the TOC concentration with root exudates, microbial soil biomass and dehydrogenase activity [57, 58].
decrease is lesser at the control level (56%) compared with ZF-SR (64%), ZF (69%) and SR (73%) treatments. This could reflect an improvement in the organic carbon stock more rapidly at the superficial horizons. This finding of the concentration of carbon stock in the first centimeters of soil has also been reported by several authors (Martin et al., 2011; Koala et al., 2015; Yang et al., 2016; Brahma et al., 2018; Gao et al., 2017). In addition, the ZF-SR and ZF treatments induced a large development of herbaceous and woody plants with a deposit of a large amount of litter. These plants also allow, through the residues of their root system, a significant sequestration of carbon in the superficial horizons of the soil (Lockwell et al., 2012; Zatta et al., 2014; Richter et al., 2015; Clifton-Brown et al., 2007). Indeed, according to Chenu et al. (2014) the duration of residence of C in soil depends on the composition of organic matter and local conditions (temperature, humidity, aeration, etc.). In addition, this time is increased by the association of organic matter with soil mineral particles, in particular clay, which providea physicochemical protection of MO with respect to the action of decomposing microorganisms (Deenik, 2006; Lal, 2004b, Alberti et al., 2015). According to Merante et al. (2017) and Lal (2004a) management practices can significantly influence the ability of the soil to sequester SOC through the improvement of micro-aggregates stability, humification, translocation of organic carbon from the soil to deep horizons avoiding erosion and carbonate formation. In addition, Barton et al. (2016) concluded that incorporation of OM into the soil reduces greenhouse gases.
It is fundamental to understand the different approaches to public administration while we study the reform of administration. Weber, Wilson and Taylor are the dominant authors of classical approach to public administration in the twentieth century. The most important theory of the classical approach to public administration was the direct control of hierarchy and accountability of civil servants--only to their superiors. It is also known as the traditional approach. The theoretical principle of the traditional model of Weber is critical. He focused on the “social and historical context of public administration, and more particularly, bureaucracy” (Katsamunska, 2012, p. 76). He stressed a system of control through hierarchy from top to bottom that was based on a set of rules and regulations. In addition, he incorporated the employment in the bureaucratic organization of defining their roles, responsibility, and incentives including the process of appointment. Moreover, Wilson “introduced the political- administrative dichotomy” (ibid, p.76) whereby he focused on a separation between politics and administration. He argued that this separation helps to control corruption in any given level. Common sense would suggest it seems to be true, but in reality it’s quite difficult to separate them adequately (ibid). Any political value in Nepalese bureaucracy that has supported corruption in the bureaucracy is deeply rooted. There might be a solution in the Wilson principle that could play a crucial role to control corruption. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the New Public Administration movement was initiated with the slogan of “participation, decentralization, and representative bureaucracy” (Katsamunska, 2012, p. 77). Participation referred to the political and organizational process that incorporated citizens’ involvement in governance and separation of power within the organization.