forests managed by the Forest Enterprise of Forests of the Czech Republic (LČR) in Židlochovice (48°45' N and 17°1' E). The stands differed in the method of site preparation before regeneration – whole-area ploughing, agroforestry, no soil preparation, and in the clearcut size at regeneration – up to 3.00 ha (small clearcuts) and above 3.50 ha (large clearcuts). De- tailed characteristics of analyzed stands are presented in Table 1. The survey included 6 variants. Individual variants are expressed as three-figure codes for a bet- ter orientation in the table of results. The first figure (letter) is for soil preparation before regeneration: B = no site preparation, O = hole-area ploughing, P = agroforestry. The second figure (letter) is for clearcut size: M = small clearcut, V = large clearcut. The third figure (numeral) denotes a concrete stand because some analyses included pairs of identical forest stands. The number of stands analyzed in the tests was not identical. However, the basic aspect of analyzing the different methods of site preparation and the different sizes of clearcuts was respected at all times. The term agroforestry is taken to mean that after oak planting (sowing), agricultural crops were grown in the inter-rows. The used agricultural crops were only root crops, most frequently potatoes, beet, maize, exceptionally sunflower. The alternate system of forest and farm crops was in use for a maximum time of three years. Pursuant to prearranged proce- dures, the regenerating oak was treated along with the cultivation of farm crops.
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The study was carried out during 2012-2014onPiipsannevacutaway peatland at Haapavesi, central Finland (64 ˚06'N, 25˚36'E) ( Figure 1). Peat production had ceased on the site in 2010, one year before the establishment of the experiment. The establishment started in August 2011 by ditching and soil preparation and continued in March 2012 by ash-fertilization. The soil amelioration treatments studied were: 1) control, 2) ash-fertilization, 3) mounding, 4) mounding, levelling and ash-fertilization and 5) mounding and ash-fertilization (Figure 2). The former peat production strips were first levelled with normal peat production machinery (except control) and followed by mounding or ash-fertilization. Mounding was done by excavator and created mounds on top of the peat consisting of mineral soil. During the summer 2013 seven different short-rotation energy tree species were either sown or planted onto the mounded or ash-fertilized areas as a split-plot study (Figure 2). Also one uncul- tivated control treatment was included into the study (Figure 2).
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ABSTRACT: The reﬂection of soil properties in the health condition of forest stands is connected with synergy of stressors that inﬂuence the forest existence. In the Krušné hory Mts. (Czech Republic, Europe) methods of full-area site mechanized preparation before reforestation were applied on existing ecotopes of the air polluted clear-cut area and the uniform relief of windrows was established. The hypothesis whether the soil in the windrows could be directly used for local cultivations as a substrate suitable for forest tree species growth was examined. The inﬂuence of three machines (digger, bulldozer and cultivator) used for the windrow cultivation was monitored in relation to soil properties. The state of the properties of prepared sites was compared with retained windrows and control plots with scariﬁcation. The eﬀects of mechanized soil preparation before reforestation were diﬀerent according to the concrete ecological factors of the given sites. The inﬂuences of individual means of mechanization on concrete soil properties were determined as locally diﬀerentiated. The windrow cultivation led to an increase in cation exchange capacity (CEC) especially due to an increase in Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ content. Locally it led to the stabilization of N-NH
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of soil preparation operations including ploughing. These operations are considered as a variable that impacts the net margin. In contrary to the expecta- tions the net margin decreases by almost 50% which is mainly due to the use of expensive machinery set for combined seedbed preparation and seeding op- erations. Even the expensive operation as the deep ploughing did not disadvantage the first technology. The second technology can further be constrained by lower yield, which could push the net margin more down.
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preparation (I) did not show any eﬀect on weed infestation of the soil surface (Table 2). Through- out the growing season, tall grassy and herbaceous weed of nearly 100% cover occurred on these plots. On the other hand, soil preparation on open plots (II´, III´) markedly reduced the emergence of weed – particularly of grassy weed (as against Plot I´ free of soil preparation). Thus, results of LÖF et al. (1998) have been corroborated. The authors recommend soil preparation as a suitable method to eliminate emergence of weed. The restriction of herbaceous weed on the plots was, however, only of short-term character being balanced with other plots during the growing season. Thus, eﬀects of soil preparation are of less than one-year duration. In case of grassy weed, however, restrictive eﬀects of the prepara- tion on its growth remain minimally one growing season.
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the soil fertilizer UG- max on zinc, copper and manganese contents in potato tubers. A three – year field experiment was carried out on soil which belonged to a very good rye complex. The experiment was established according to randomized split-plot method, in three repli- cations. The following factors were examined: factor I: edible potato varieties (Satina and Typhoon), and factor II: doses and timing of UGmax application. As a result of conducted research, significantly smaller copper content in potato tubers was found, after usage of the soil preparation UGmax, in comparison with a control object, while zinc and manganese content continued to show only a downward trend. The influence of weather conditions and potato varieties on the copper cumulation in the dry mass of potato tuber was proved. An important influence of the factors of the experiment on the uptake of researched macroelements with the potato tuber yield was also shown. Keywords: potato, soil fertilizer, copper, zinc, manganese
“Mini” Jet Erosion Test. Finally, the comparisons between the erodibility coefficient and dispersion ratio (DR, %) values of soils, as estimated by a portable turbidity meter and by the gravimetric method. The results showed that all stabilizers can markedly improve the stability of soil. In general, good correlations were found between the turbidity (NTU) and suspended solids (mg/l) of the stabilized soils (R= 0.99, 0.96 and 0.97) for bitumen, lime and cement respectively. The turbidity DR (%) appears to have a high correlation with the stabilizers percentages and with k d of soils. This study proved that the turbidity DR (%) is a cost-effective
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The samples were prepared using the air pluviation method as described by Cavarretta (2009). This technique consists of filling the throat of the funnel at each deposition step while keeping it in contact with the top surface of the soil. The throat is then raised and the soil is deposited without excessive impact or agitation. Tapping on the sides of the container was applied to produce the denser samples and a slight tapping was also used at the end of the pluviation process in order to create a flat surface; this is particularly important for the accuracy of the void ratio measurements. A height over diameter ratio (H/D) of approximately 1·2 was used for all samples.
Another critical factor for optimum results with the stale seed bed technique is a smooth even seed bed. Both flame weeders and herbicides approved for certified organic systems are less effective where the seed bed surface is rough or cloddy as the soil lumps ‘shadow’ emerging seedlings protecting them. Drilling often disturbs what was a smooth seed bed and a light smooth roll post drilling is recommended. To ensure a timely weed kill, when using stale seed beds, several small areas of crop should encouraged to germinate early to give clear warning when to flame weed. This can be achieved using a sheet of glass raised slightly off the soil by a couple of centimetres, frost cloth (crop covers), or a cloche. Glass sheets must not be left in direct contact with the soil as this will cause the soil to over heat and kill the seeds or emerging seedlings. Which ever technique is used to speed up germination, it needs to be put in place immediately after drilling to ensure the greatest effect. Also several areas of the crop should be tested in different locations in the field, in case some areas germinate faster than others. An alternative is to sow at a slightly higher rate and wait till the first crop seedlings emerge and then kill both them and the weeds allowing the rest of the crop to emerge. This method is considerably more risky as the time between realising that flaming is required and it being to late to flame is shorter. It is not advised for quick germinating crops. In all cases the crop should be checked at least daily for signs of emergence. The key to which technique to use depends on the amount of weed seed in the germination zone, its propensity to innate dormancy and the type and value of the crop. Stale seed beds are generally more expensive due to the use of flame weeders, or organic approved herbicides, so these are generally reserved for high value crops. High levels of weed seed, seeds that have innate dormancy, slow germinating crops or uncompetitive crops will benefit from one or more false seed beds followed by a stale seed bed. Where there are fewer weeds, lower value and/or more competitive crops, a false seed bed alone should be sufficient.
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In this research the water quality in the Dutch province Fryslân is examined. This is done by extrapolating from six polders to the control area of Wetterskip Fryslân (Figure 2). The polders are divided into areas with three soil types. The soil of Dongeradiel and Schalsum consist of clay, De Lits and De Linde consists of sand and Fjouwer and Echten consist of peat. In the area, water quality is currently insufficient. Nitrogen is troubling in most of the lakes (Figure 3), while phosphorus is a problem in most rivers (Figure 4). The cause is assumed to be agricultural, blaming cattle in specific. The biggest use of soil in the area is agriculture, with an occupation range of 73-92% in the polders (Schipper & van Boekel, 2016).
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Similarly like in the artificial regeneration, in the case of spontaneous succession and seeding some distinct differences were found between the plots sit- uated in the middle of the wind-thrown area (PRP 3 and 4) and the plots situated on the perimeter (PRP 1 and 6). The lower success of regeneration on PRP 5 was likely due to a greater flying range from the sur- rounding trees and hence the potential import of seeds on the plot with more extreme climatic condi- tions. The failure of seeding on PRP 6 is attributed to site conditions (lower soil depth), which were com- pletely different from those in the other parts of the area (Martiník unpublished).
In order to be able to use the proposed model to assess the load-carrying capacity of soil, we first identify the factors controlling the phenomenon and classify them then digitize them by the degree of impact of each factor. Relying on quantitative data, to assess the load-carrying capacity of soil, we used a Weight Somme Model (WSM) where the rank of weights and values are in Table 3.
River Sand is widely used for concrete as Fine Aggregate. No one can give assurance how far it can be available due to scarcity and cost of river sand. Engineering Research and Development department are amazing in the search of new material for replacement of fine aggregate. Unlimited quarrying of sand are now available which are used as fine aggregate in the preparation of cement mortar resulted in lowering of water table, soil erosion etc., in this study, an attempt has been made to find the suitability of quarry dust as fine aggregate. Cost of construction can be effectively reduced if quarry dust is available near the site. Even there is scope for using quarry dust in the preparing of mortar for plastering purpose after conducting proper investigation.
because they were easily established and considered more productive on such sites, although subsequent analyses are changing that perception (Shoulders 1990). Consequently, there are few studies of site preparation for the artificial regeneration of longleaf pine. Those that do exist tend to have been conducted on well-drained sites, primarily on the Gulf coastal plain, and confirm that controlling competition is critical for longleaf pine plantation establishment (Sheer and Woods 1959, Boyer 1988). In numerous studies, the effects of site preparation methods used to artificially regenerate other pines on poorly drained coastal plain sites have been have compared the effects of site preparation (Reviewed in USDA FS 1989). Experimental treatments within individual studies often include both single method treatments (e.g. a single prescribed fire) and combinations of operations (for example, chopping followed by bedding). However, comparing studies is complicated because experimental treatments, species, and site conditions vary among studies.
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Soil erodability (K) factor: It is depends upon organic matter, soil texture and soil structure. The total volume of potassium dichromate used to oxidize the organic matter in the soil and the volume of organic matter present in the oven dried sample is determined. Soil erodability (K) of the study area was calculated using the relationship between soil texture class and organic matter content proposed by stone and hillborn  and also Wischmeier et al. . Soil texture class and K-factor values relation is given in the Table 3 for this study area. K- Factor map is shown in the Figure 2 (K-factor).
considered a part of the solid fraction in the void solid matrix of the soil. The content of the waste plastic fibre is defined herein as the ratio of weight of waste plastic fibres to the weight of dry sand. The tests were conducted at various waste plastic fibre contents of 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 6%. In the absence of standards for testing waste plastic fibres, the standard used for wide width tensile strength test (ASTM D 4885) for geo-synthetics were used. The tensile strength of 100mm long waste plastic fibre was determined at a deformation rate of 10mm/min in a computer controlled House field machine. The average ultimate tensile strength of this waste plastic fibre was 0.36kN and percent elongation at failure was 23%. The plastic waste used for the experiments is the leftover of processed plastic waste and cannot be recycled. The test was carried on the basis of various content of the waste plastic fibres in percentage then the conclusions were done as per the test.
In this article, the optimum pyrolysis conditions of biochar preparation have been studied. The prepared biochar will be used for soil amendment at Huay Sai Royal Development Study Center located in Cha-am District, Petchaburi Province, Thailand where they have faced sandy soil problems. Acacia wood; the tree growing sparsely at Huay Sai Royal Development Center area, was used as raw material of biochar preparation.
seeds before planting, preparation of pits, selection of soil, method of irrigation, nourishment, fertilizers and treatment of plant diseases. Hence there is a need to standardize all these ancient techniques on a global platform Today it becomes evident that chemical inputs show dramatic short term benefits whereas in the longer run they adversely impact the soil, water and perhaps the nutritional quality of the plant which also prove hazardous to human body. Cancer is one of the serious side effect of chemical fertilizer can be seen on human body, it destroys the basal line cells of the body. Thus it is evident that there is great scope to integrate traditional practices for be ter productivity of quality planting material. All
Summary abundances over treatment appear to show four overall groupings. Strain 213.6 has the highest abundance across all nodule treatments. Even though 36.1 appeared to have an initial advantage in being the most abundant in the inoculation treatment, both strains 213.6 and 36.1 are the most abundant in culture mix only treatments. Although 213.6 had higher abundance in these samples, this cannot be confidently assigned given the large error bars from working with a relatively low amount of reads. Strain 213.6 was the most abundant not only in nodules, but also in soil+culture samples.
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Agricultural Practice - Nitrogen". But Indian farmers use many times the amount recommended by scientists or according to multiple studies by Indian agricultural experts resulting in throwing off the chemistry of the soil. The impact of urea on soil fauna diversity especially on earthworms has become an issue of great concern. Urea is applied in the environment to fulfil a specific purpose, but at the same time may cause damage to earthworms, decreasing its diversity, growth or reproduction, and consequently organic matter decomposition and soil fertility. Earthworms are considered as important bioindicators of chemical toxicity in the soil ecosystem. Studies on this aspect are important because earthworms are the common prey of many terrestrial vertebrate species such as birds and small mammals, and thus they play a key role in the biomagnification process of several soil pollutants. Therefore, there is an increasing need for appropriate methods to assess the side effects of urea on earthworms. Usually, the effects on soil organisms have been assessed based on the results of single species laboratory tests using artificial soils as a simplified and adjustable tool to disentangle soil processes and test ecological theories on earthworms. Ecotoxicological studies are normally carried out in artificial substrate proposed by OECD and ISO guidelines. Article History: