Solarcellresearch is characterized by a blend of basic and applied research as well as technology 1 . Solarcell technology draws on knowledge from several established fields including physics, chemistry, electrochemistry, physical chemistry and material science. This requires an enhanced understanding pertaining to knowledge interactions in science-based innovation progression, particularly those seeking sustainable energy solutions. Studies on research collaboration in the renewable energy technology field are scarce 2 . This is more so in case of solarcellresearch in India. A few studies are reported in literature that have dealt with solarcellresearch in India but touched upon the research collaboration aspect only peripherally. However, a few studies dealing with scientific research collaboration are available in literature. These studies deal with the research collaboration in the entire gamut of science in India 3-7 and specific fields in science 8-14 . However, there is no study on collaboration on solarcellresearch in India. This study aims to fill that gap.
they are positively ionized during normal solarcell operation and this positive charge can lead to a breakdown of the internal electrical ﬁeld and of drift-assisted collection within the i-layer; thereby the red and near-infrared response is signiﬁcantly reduced as illustrated in Fig. 11b) . The detrimental effect of oxygen on collection in the intrinsic (i)-layer of a mc-Si:H pin-type solarcell certainly depends on the way oxygen is incorporated into the silicon crystallites. In a recent publication by the Tsukuba group , the authors report on manufacturing mc-Si:H solar cells at lower temperatures and claim excellent performance (Z ¼ 8:9%) for cells deposited with relatively high oxygen content in the i-layer (2 10 19 atoms/cm 3 , as measured by SIMS). The authors propose that the oxygen atoms are largely ‘‘passivated’’ by hydrogen, and, thus, do not act as donors. This proposition is yet to be substantiated by comparing spectral response curves. The authors attribute the passivation effect (so far not seen elsewhere), to the relatively low deposition temperatures used by them(around 1401 instead of 2001C or more, as for most other work). It remains to be seen whether this is feasible in the industrial context, where entire modules with tandem cells have to be fabricated and other process steps may impose higher temperatures.
The light from the Sun is a non-vanishing renewable source of energy which is free from environ- mental pollution and noise. It can easily compensate the energy drawn from the non-renewable sources of energy such as fossil fuels and petroleum deposits inside the earth. The fabrication of solar cells has passed through a large number of improvement steps from one generation to another. Silicon based solar cells were the first generation solar cells grown on Si wafers, mainly single crystals. Further development to thin films, dye sensitized solar cells and organic solar cells enhanced the cell efficiency. The development is basically hindered by the cost and efficiency. In order to choose the right solarcell for a specific geographic location, we are required to under- stand fundamental mechanisms and functions of several solar technologies that are widely stu- died. In this article, we have reviewed a progressive development in the solarcellresearch from one generation to other, and discussed about their future trends and aspects. The article also tries to emphasize the various practices and methods to promote the benefits of solar energy.
the solar energy conversion of PV systems. Almost all the small, point of use photovoltaic power system that are in use today incorporate an energy storage element to provide during periods of inclement weather and at night. Storage via secondary batteries provides a simple system having minimal environmental impact and needing little maintenance. The main technical factors over the past decade that have led to improved PV system performance.
The sponsorship is a meaningful way to contribute towards social responsibility and will help advance the promotion of renewable energy sources and environmental research. So far fifteen organisations and individuals have answered our call and became sponsors. These include Medochemie, RCB Bank, Alpha Bank, Bank of Cyprus, CDB Bank,Hellenic Bank, IBM Cyprus, Royal Crown Insurance, Muskita Aluminium Industries,Vestafin Construction& Development Ltd, Chr. Mavromatis pumps, NUAOVA STEIM Italy, Μedcon Constructions Ltd, George and Androulla Vassiliou, Edmee Leventis in memory of Dinos Leventis, Crown Plaza Limassol.
153 The radiations are received from the sun, without change of direction is called direct or beam radiation, with change of the direction is called diffuse radiation. The diffuse solar radiation is defined as the difference between total solar radiation and direct radiation [1, 2]. From figure-1  the upper graph shows that under most favourable atmospheric conditions, the maximum intensity observed at noon on an oriented surface at sea level is 1 kW/m 2 . At an altitude of 1000 meters, the value rises to about 1.05 kW/m 2 . And in higher mountains value slightly above 1.1 kW/m 2 are obtained, compared with 1.353 kW/m 2 (the solar constant) in outer space. The later value sometimes called air mass O[1,2]. The upper curve applies at the outer limit of the atmosphere (AMO) . The other lower curve applies to the earth’s surface during clear days for a sea level location, for AM1. Dotted curve is for a black body at 5900K. The lower two curves are applying for diffuse components for some haze and clear sky conditions respectively .
A topic of this paper is that, “The power generation is the biggest need of the present world. But it should not be harmful to the environment also with the good efficiency. For this, Renewable energy sources are the best option. But still we are not using those sources! For that major affecting factor is material. We are conventionally using silicon from last 30 years as solarcell material, which is costly material with low efficiency also having low power generating rate per area. So it is the time to use Nano science and technology in the field of solar energy. So question arise that, what kind of materials we can use as replacement of the silicon and what will be the effect of it?”
In the photovoltaic fabrication line, the aim of the encapsula- tion step is to interconnect solar cells by soldering and pack- aging them into a weatherproof glass faced structure known as module. The cells are interconnected in series or paral- lel to give the appropriate current and voltage levels provid- ing useful power. The packaging consists of a glass/polymer resin/back face protection which allows to solar cells circuit electrical isolation and protection from environmental dam- age in which they operate such as moisture, rain, snow, dust, and mechanical shock. This protection must insure to the modules a lifetime of twenty years.
Abstract. This paper is mainly about using the length changes of the shadows to determine the location while the length of the object is unknown. Using the solar elevation as a bridge, we build function models between solar declination, geographic latitude of the observing place, hour angle and the length of shadow, and then use Stephenson accelerate iterative method to help solve latitude positioning model, finally realize the shadow positioning.
461 | P a g e visible and ultraviolet to X-rays and gamma rays. However, 99 percent of the energy of solar radiation is contained in the wavelength band from 0.15 to 4µm, comprising the near ultraviolet, visible and near infrared regions of the solar spectrum, with a maximum at about 0.5µm.
The doping concentration and the thickness of different layers in the Hetero-junction with Intrinsic Thin layers solar cells (HIT) strongly influence their performances. We simulated, using AFORS-HET simulation software, the following layers structure: ZnO/a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p)/a-Si:H(p)/Ag. We optimized the thicknesses and doping concentration of the emitter, buffer, absorber and the BSF layers.
The monolithic nature of a multijunction solarcell limits its efficiency because of both a lattice-matching and current-matching constraint. To obtain the highest qual- ity photovoltaic material with a minimum of defects, the different materials in the structure must have similar lattice constants. With this lattice-matching constraint, the limited choice of materials may lead to non-optimal band gap selection or the material quality may suffer, either of which reduces the efficiency . Additionally, as all the cells are connected in series, the current produced by each cell in the mono- lithic stack must match, or power will be lost. This affects the choice of bandgaps, leading to bandgap selections that would be non-optimal in the independently con- nected case, where the currents need not match [97, 98]. Furthermore, over the course of the day and the year the spectrum will shift so that the cell is no longer current matched, leading to significant losses in annual power production [102, 103]. Both the current matching and lattice matching constraint limit the number of bandgaps, with the current world record for triple junction cells . This in turn limits ultimate efficiency and power that may be achieved with multijunctions. Thus, if very high efficiencies are desired, new approaches must be considered. While there has been significant work on hot carrier, intermediate band, and other “third generation” tech- nologies in an attempt to provide alternatives to multijunctions, many fundamental materials science issues must be overcome before these can be practically realized with high efficiency [96, 104-107].
Active layers of CIGS/CdS solar cells can be grown on cheap large area of various substrates including flexible ones and starting from metal foil, non-silicon substrates such as glass, polymer and stainless steel. Typically the most common material used for the back contact is molybdenum (Mo) (especially for soda lime glass substrates) and forms a non-blocking contact with CIGS, also other materials like tungsten (W), tantalum (Ta), manganese (Mn), titanium (Ti), have been used as back contact (Ramanathan et al.,1998; Benmir and Aida, 2013). Variety of deposition techniques used to fabricate CIGS/CdS solar cells such as three stag process method (Ramanathan et al., 1998), thermal evaporation (Benmir and Aida, 2013), vacuum co-evaporation (Singh and Patra, 2010; Gloeckler, 2005), sputtering/selenization, (Urbaniak et al., 2016; Kumari and Verma, 2014), co-sputtering method (Li et al., 2012), i PLD method (Park et al., 2014), chemical bath deposition with efficiencies exceeding 18% (Dong-Sheng et al., 2013; Dhas et al., 2017), electrodeposition (Zhao et al., 2016; Saji et al., 2011),
In this study, we demonstrate hybrid Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells based on periodic Si nanocones (SiNCs) with different periodicities that range from 400 to 800 nm. The SiNCs are fabricated by dry etching of a Si substrate using assembled monolayer polystyrene (PS) nanospheres as a mask. Compared with SiNWs, SiNCs are mechanically more robust due to the larger base. Besides, their structure presents a more gradual change in the effective refractive index and thus is expected to possess better antireflective property . The hybrid SiNC/PEDOT:PSS solarcell also exhibits improved optical properties and short-circuit current density ( J sc ) as compared to planar Si hybrid cells
The efficiency of solar cells has increased from 4-5 percent, when it was discovered in 1954, to 38-40 percent due to the use of solarcell concentrators. These concentrators could bring down the total cost of solar cells, thus making solar technology cheaper and more affordable. The Sun has been producing energy for billions of years. Solar energy, which is a renewable source of energy, is the solar radiation that reaches the Earth. The Earth receives 2.9X1015 kW of energy every day in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which is about one hundred times the total energy consumption of the world in a year. The solar energy falling on earth has been quantified as „Sun‟ and is approximately equal to 100 watts/ft2 or 1000 watts/m2. It can be converted to electricity by means of solar or photovoltaic (PV) cells.
on p-type c-Si wafers of (100) and (111) orientations using electrochemical etching (ECE) process were prepared under similar parameters. Nanopores with an average diameter of 5.7 nm were formed in the n-PS (100) layer. These nanopores increased the porosity of the material to 91% compared with those of the samples with different orientation and Si type. A greater blue shift luminescence was observed in the n-PS (100) layer compared with those of the other samples. The lowest effective reflectance was obtained with the n-PS (100) layer that exhibited excellent light-trapping at wavelengths ranging from 400 to 1000 nm. Solar cells were fabricated based on the PS anti-reflection coating (ARC) layers. The current-voltage characteristics of the solar cells were examined under 100 mW/cm 2 illumination. A highly efficient (15.5%) solarcell was obtained with n-PS (100) ARC layer compared with those solar cells with other layer types. In the present paper, the effect of the porosity of the PS ARC layers on the solarcell efficiency based on the n- and p-type regions with (100) and (111) orientations was investigated.
was dipped into the Curcumin dye solution 10 -3 M for 19 hour in a dark place. The substrate was rinsed with organic solvent like acetone. Thereafter they were left to dry and immediately used in mounted cells. This method is repeated with changing the concentration of dye. By illuminating the cells with a light source, the current, voltage, power conversion efficiency across each individual cell can be measured. The power conversion efficiency (η) of the solarcell devices were calculated by using the values of open circuit photovoltage (V oc ), short circuits