solar collector performance enhancement

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Performance Enhancement In Solar Flat Plate Collector

Performance Enhancement In Solar Flat Plate Collector

The operation of the collector with TIM at a small flow rate has more advantage. Ralph Eismann.[2] proposed for the expense and productivity improvement of level plate gatherers a precise diagnostic model and the transmission coefficient, spread plate, the absorptance, ingestion plate, of the safeguard covering and the transformation factor, g0, of the exact model. In this manner the vulnerability of the steady, C, was impressively diminished. The gatherer model was approved against exact information of 22 level plate authorities which were tried by the European standard EN 12975-2 (CEN, 2006). The vulnerability of the upgraded authority model lies well inside the vulnerability of experimental test outcomes. F. Giovannetti et al. [3] recommended a gatherer with New glass coatings with high sun powered transmittance and low emissivity dependent on straightforward conductive oxides (TCO) empower imaginative authority plans. His examines the aftereffects of our examinations on revealed, single-, and twofold coated level plate authorities. Based on the optical information of recently created covered glass, we examine its potential in contrast with ordinary spreads. The outcomes show that a huge increment in effectiveness is available both in single-coated gatherers with low or non-particular safeguards and in twofold coated authorities with profoundly specific safeguards. M.E. Zayed et al. [4] survey on the utilization of nanofluids for improving the fiery presentation of sun oriented Upstarting the FPSC with carbon nanostructure, copper oxide and aluminum oxide nanofluids, on similar conditions with point by point monetary investigation, along these lines, a significant examination might be acquired. Contemplating the presentation of the FPSC with half breed nanofluids for example a mix of at least two different nanoparticles scattered in the basic liquid as it is viewed as a promising HTF inside the sun powered FPCs. Xianli Lia et al. [5] examined the impact of changes in emissivity of safeguard plate on the authority execution and An extensive stretch presentation of safeguard plate to outside condition shows that the exhibition corrupts generally with dust collection except if the surface is cleaned by human activity. In any case, the outlet temperature and the proficiency don't diminish carefully, mostly because of that the uncovered sunlight based radiation force isn't indistinguishable which importantly affects the presentation corruption. Mirza Muneer Baig et al. [6] built up a sun powered FPC by utilizing mellow steel as a safeguard plate rather than aluminum we are getting effectiveness as ______________________
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Performance enhancement of solar flat 
		plate collector with aluminium foil reflectors and trapezoidal glass 
		cover

Performance enhancement of solar flat plate collector with aluminium foil reflectors and trapezoidal glass cover

Sivakumar et al [8] changed the design parameters for solar flat plate collectors. They changed number of riser tubes and their arrangements. Zigzag arrangement in the riser tube provided higher efficiency compared to straight arrangement. Shekhar et al. [9] conducted theoretical and experimental analysis on the solar flat collector with single glass cover and showed the significance of emissivity of absorber plate on the performance of collector. They systematically calculated loss co-efficient and effect of emissivity on top loss co- efficient.
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Heat Transfer Enhancement Analysis of Solar Parabolic Trough Collector Tube with Pin Fins

Heat Transfer Enhancement Analysis of Solar Parabolic Trough Collector Tube with Pin Fins

of the receiver results in a large temperature gradient. Heat transfer enhancement methods were used to reduce the temperature gradient across the tube. This study deals with the numerical simulation of turbulent flow with heat transfer in Parabolic Trough Collector receiver tubes with staggered pin fin arrangement. It was found that addition of the fins resulted in better performance than the plain tube. The effect of varying the height of the fin was also investigated. Increase in the height of the fins resulted in increase in heat transfer as well as the pressure drop. Combining the effect of increase in both the parameters the finned receiver tube with fin height equal to 12 mm showed the best performance.
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A Retrospect on Thermal Enhancement of Flat Plate Solar Collector with Nanofluid

A Retrospect on Thermal Enhancement of Flat Plate Solar Collector with Nanofluid

Filled ratio is the fraction (by volume) of the heat pipe which is initially filled with the liquid. There is two operational filled ratio limits. At 0% filled ratio ,a heat pipe structure with only bare tubes and no working fluid, is pure conduction mode heat transfer device with a very high undesirable thermal resistance. A 100% fully filled heat pipe is identical in operation to a single phase thermosyphon. The thermosyphon action is maximum for a vertical heat pipe and stops for a horizontal heat pipe and heat transfer takes place purely by axial conduction. When the charge amount was smaller, there was more space to accommodate vapour and make the pressure inside heat pipe become relatively lower. It helped nanofluid undergo vaporization and enhance its heat transfer performance. The heat transfer performance of an OHP was apparently improved after the addition of alumina nanoparticles in the working fluid. Compared with the pure water, the maximal decrease of thermal resistance was 0.14 °C/W (or 32.5%) which occurred at 70% filling ratio and 0.9% mass fraction when the power input was 58.8 W .In PHP, considerably high filled ratio will hinder the pulsation of the bubble and the efficiency of the heat transfer will not be favourable enough. The low filled ratio will get pulsation of the bubble easily, but it is extremely easy to dry out. So the most proper filled ratio is between40% and 60%.The optimum filling ratio of charged fluid in the tested heat pipe was about 0.45 to 0.50 for both pure water and Al2O3-water based the nanofluid, respectively.
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Evaluation of the Thermal Performance of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Solar Collector with Copper oxide as Nanofluid

Evaluation of the Thermal Performance of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Solar Collector with Copper oxide as Nanofluid

Figure 2 shows that variation of average efficiency with respect to coolant rate for collector tilt angle 31.5° and 50°. The graph shows that efficiency variation is same in nature for both angle of inclination. Efficiency of solar collector is minimum at coolant rate 2kg/hr. and it increase with increase in coolant rate and comes to steady at coolant rate 8kg/hr. Large enhancement was observed when coolant rate increase to 4 kg/hr. from 2 kg/hr. It happens because high coolant rate draws large heat from condenser section and avoids raising pressure inside the pipe which reduces its working temperature and then reduces loss which raises the efficiency of collector. From the above result it was conform that 4kg/hr. were lower limit and 8 kg/hr. were the higher limit of coolant rate. So these limits are used for further experimentation
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Efficiency and Performance Improvement by New Development in Solar Liquid Flat Plate Solar Collector

Efficiency and Performance Improvement by New Development in Solar Liquid Flat Plate Solar Collector

From extensive review on research literature, it has been observed that influence the performance of a flat plate collector such as changing the absorber tube, selective coatings, numbers of covers, spacing between covers and absorber plate, working fluid etc. This report highlights the advancements in design configurations and component material investigation to enhance efficiency and performance of flat plate collector. It has been found that flat plate collector enhancement widely investigated both analytically and experimentally. Advancement like modify V-groove, dimples type absorber surface, circular and rectangular absorber fins in a tube, pocket type absorber plate, absorber with fins, absorber plate having concavities, sandwich type absorber plate, semi-circular absorber tube, double glazing polymer films, selective coatings, use of Nano-material, packed bed material and fluids provide improvement in flat plate collector performance lead to increase the solar flat plate collector application worldwide. The basic idea of all the research is to increase the efficiency of the Flat-Plate Solar Collector and also reducing the heat losses occurring in the particular device. Analysis given in this paper will help to create the best design and operational conditions with the best economic characteristics for solar flat plate collectors.
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Model Development and Performance Enhancement of Solar Pavement Energy Collector

Model Development and Performance Enhancement of Solar Pavement Energy Collector

The pavement surface temperature will rise up to 60°C in summer days with an enhancement in air temperature which is commonly called the heat island effect. By implementing the cooling system to the pavements we can reduce the surface temperature up to 7 °C in summer days. And we can use the heat energy for heating purpose of the same pavements in the winter season with the help of a efficient heat storage system. In winter season there have significant safety risks due to snow fall and ice on pavements. Which leads slippery road conditions and causes accidents.

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Re-desiging and Fabrication of the Contact Area of a Solar Milk Pasteurizer

Re-desiging and Fabrication of the Contact Area of a Solar Milk Pasteurizer

quality milk readily available and affordable through indigenous research and technology to safeguard the health condition of the citizens (Bako, 2015). The available solar pasteurizers use the immersion method where the milk vat is completely immersed in a water jacket. Therefore, this paper seeks to redesign the area of contact with the milk vat where the heat exchange process (pasteurization) takes place for improved performance.

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An Overview of Solar Thermal Power Generation Systems

An Overview of Solar Thermal Power Generation Systems

ETCs use liquid-vapor phase change materials (PCMs) to transfer heat at a high efficiency. These collectors include a heat pipe which is a highly efficient thermal conductor placed inside a vacuum-sealed tube. The pipe has been attached to a black copper fin that fills the tube. Top of each tube has a metal tip attached to the sealed pipe. The heat pipe contains a small amount of fluid that undergoes an evaporating-condensing cycle. During this cycle, solar heat evaporates the liquid, and the vapor travels to the heat sink region where it condenses and releases its latent heat. The condensed fluid turns back to the heat pipe and the process will be continued (Fig. 4). HTF flows through the manifold and picks up the heat from the tubes. The heated liquid circulates through another heat exchanger and gives off its heat to a process which can then be stored in a solar storage tank [6].
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Performance analysis of al2o3 / sic coating on absorber tube of  solar parabolic trough collector

Performance analysis of al2o3 / sic coating on absorber tube of solar parabolic trough collector

A solar thermal collector collects heat by absorbing sunlight. A collector is a device for capturing solar radiation. Solar radiation is energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the infrared to the ultraviolet wavelengths. The quantity of solar energy striking the Earth's surface averages about 1,000 watts per square meter under clear skies, depending upon weather conditions, location and orientation. The term "solar collector" commonly refers to solar hot water panels, refer to installations such as solar parabolic troughs and solar towers; or basic installations such as solar air heaters. Solar power plants usually use the more complex collectors to generate electricity by heating a fluid to drive a turbine an electrical generator. Simple collectors are typically used in residential and commercial buildings for space heating. Solar collectors are broadly classified into two concentrating type solar or concentrating solar collector.
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Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Evacuated Tube Solar Collector with Heat Pipe

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Evacuated Tube Solar Collector with Heat Pipe

[4] In this paper the author investigated the heat transfer analysis of the Heat pipe Evacuated Tube Solar Collector made of borosilicate glass with length of 1.8m and 0.058m and 0.049m diameter of outside and inside tubes respectively. The heat pipe is made up of copper with length of 1.7m and 0.015m and 0.012m diameter of outside and inside tubes. The thermal losses and useful thermal energy is calculated numerically to investigate the performance of the collector and results show that maximum the solar radiation there will be a increase in outlet temperature and useful thermal energy. The thermal losses are calculated using the thermal resistances. The optical efficiency of the borosilicate glass tube is 72%. . The experimentation was started at the December month and solar radiation recorded as 680 w/m 2 . The maximum temperature was recorded 43 ○ C at the ambient temperature of 21 ○ C and the collector efficiency was 72 % with the low solar radiation. The results obtained from this paper show that heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector is more efficient than ETSC without heat pipe and flat plate collectors. [6]In this paper the author has developed a mathematical model according to the thermal energy and exergy analysis to analyse the performance of the collector and it is tested experimentally.The trend of water temperature changes was increasing when time passes with an increase in solar radiation. In this system the optimum number of collector used is 15 for the domestic water heating system and the maximum temperature was 64 ○ C which occurs at the maximum solar radiation in a day. The effect of mass flow rates on the outer fluid temperature is low at the beginning and at the end of the day. From this analysis the increase in heat pipe collectors increase the temperature and effect of mass flow rates with respect to solar radiation is found. The flow rate with lowest producing more temperature than other flow rates. The numerical and experimental values differ by 8.4 %.
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Exergy Analysis of a Solar Absorption Refrigeration System in Ngaoundere

Exergy Analysis of a Solar Absorption Refrigeration System in Ngaoundere

(absorption system coupled to an evacuated tube solar collector) for cooling purpose are calculated from the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids under weather conditions of Ngaoundere city, Cameroon. The calcula- tions were done on the basis of a half hourly analysis from 6:30 AM to 6:30 PM. The results were compared and they show that the exergy destruction highly occurs in the generator and the solar collector. The simulation results can be used for the thermodynamics optimization of solar absorption refrige- ration systems.

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Simulation of Solar Collector Performance under Different Operating Conditions

Simulation of Solar Collector Performance under Different Operating Conditions

Finally, we obtain experimentally the range between Summer and Winter is ±20 from latitude (Mohamed et al., 2015) the performance of the Solar Water Heating system (SWH) depends on the absorber in the solar collector. Where it found that in countries that have unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors is preferred with utilizing a solar simulator halogen lamps for an heat source. It is operated with three variables of solar irradiation of 400, 550 and 700 W/m 2 with utilizing

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Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Elliptical Heat Pipe Flat Plate Solar Collector

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Elliptical Heat Pipe Flat Plate Solar Collector

solar collector and the heat pipe solar collector is investigated theoretically and experimentally, and the optimum ratio of evaporator length and condenser length is also discussed. Hussein [5-6] studied theoretical and experimental investigation of wickless at pipes flat plate solar collector and optimum cooling water mass flow rate and number of heat pipes. Thermal behavior of flat plate heat pipe solar collectors was studied by various researchers [7-12]. Abdul-Jabber [13] studied the performance of locally made flat plate collectors used as part of a domestic hot water system. They found the temperature distribution along the flow direction and the thermo siphon mass flow rate. Kulkarni et al. [14] observed that there exists a minimum as well as a maximum storage volume for a given solar fraction and collector area. Akhtar [15] studied the computation of glass cover temperatures and obtain the glass cover temperatures. Maatouk knoukhi [16] studied the theoretical approach of flat plat solar collector taking into account the absorption and emission within glass cover layer and the thermal behavior and head loss from the solar collator. Elshazly et al [17] studied the heat transfer by free vertical and inclined elliptical tube. For the elliptical tube a constant heat flux and with different orientation angles has been used. In the present study an elliptical heat pipe solar collector was designed constructed and investigated theoretically and experimentally under different water mass flow rates and inlet cooling water temperature. Also the effect of ratio of evaporator length to condenser length also discussed.
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Effect of heating time of adsorber-collector on the performance of a solar adsorption refrigerator

Effect of heating time of adsorber-collector on the performance of a solar adsorption refrigerator

The ordinary refrigerating machines, even those that are operated by electricity, are indirect consumer devices of petroleum energy, so a system that must be replaced in the future by an equipment belonging to solar power system technology. In the refrigeration machines powered by the electricity, the compressor is the driving force of the thermodynamic cycle of the system, while in refriger- ation machines powered by the sun, the phenomenon of desorption by solar heating can be an alternative to the compression phase. This phenomenon takes place in the adsorber-collector of the solar machine; the more the desorption is important, the more the cold produc- tion is high.
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METHOD OF ENHANCING THE PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR STILL: A REVIEW

METHOD OF ENHANCING THE PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR STILL: A REVIEW

The cloth is extended into a feed through along the upper edge of each plate. Feed water in the through is then drawn onto the plate surface by capillary. Excess water moves down the plate and is conducted out of the still. The last plate is cooled by air or water. The authors found that, the distillation output increases slightly when the plate number is over 5, and it increased by about 34% and 15% when the evaporating plate numbers are 1 and 6, respectively. Collector area of 1.4m 2 , Collector angle of 15 0 .The numbers of evaporative plates are optimized as 5for the water flow rate is 50 kg/h. Only few researches have been reported and concluded that. The average distillate water production of 5 kg/m 2 day was obtained by using 5 numbers of evaporative plates.
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Investigation Of Heat Transfer Enhancement In The Flat Plate Solar Collector Using Nano Fluid

Investigation Of Heat Transfer Enhancement In The Flat Plate Solar Collector Using Nano Fluid

Nanofluids demote to a solid-liquid mixture or suspensions produced by dispersing tiny metallic or nonmetallic solid Nano particles in liquids. Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer sized materials (Nano-particles, Nano-fibers, Nano-tubes, Nano-wires and Nano-rods) in base fluids. The size of nanoparticles (usually less than 100nm) in liquids mixture gives them the ability to interact with liquids at the molecular level and so conduct heat better than today’s heat transfer fluids depending on Nano particles. Nanofluids can display enhanced heat transfer because of the combination of convection & conduction and also an additional energy transfer through γ-particles dynamics and collisions. Metallic nanofluids have been found to possess enhanced thermo physical properties such as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, viscosity and convective heat transfer coefficients compared to those of base fluids like oil or water. In current years, nanofluids established greater potential in many fields like solar collector and solar thermal storage. Even though some review articles involving the progress of nanofluids investigations were published in the past several years [14, 15], most of the reviews are concerned with the experimental and theoretical studies of the thermo physical properties or the convective heat transfer of nanofluids.
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Thermal Characterization of A Solar Parabolic Trough Collector Foradsorption Refrigeration Application System

Thermal Characterization of A Solar Parabolic Trough Collector Foradsorption Refrigeration Application System

Headley et al. [1] used a compound parabolic concentrating solar collector of concentration ratio 3.9 and aperture area 2m 2 to power an intermittent solid adsorption refrigerator and ice maker using activated charcoal (carbon) as the solid adsorption refrigerator and ice maker using activated charcoal (carbon) as the adsorbing medium and methanol as the working fluid. Up to 1 kg of ice at an evaporator temperature of -6ºC was produced, with the net solar coefficient of performance being of the order 0.02. Maximum receiver/adsorbent temperature recorder was 154ºC on a day when the insolation was 26.8 MJ/m 2 . The temperatures in excess of 150ºC are undesirable since they favour the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether, a non-condensable gas inhibits both condensation and adsorption. The major advantage of this system is its ability to produce ice even on overcast days (insolation – 10MJ/m 2 ).There was excessive heating capacity in the system, and only 2% of the incident solar radiation was converted to the refrigeration effect. The system as it stands is therefore not economically viable. However, the cost of heating using CPC is about half as expensive as the cost of heating using electrical power. The CPC is therefore a natural candidate for industrial process heat generation in temperature region 80ºC to 200ºC.
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Efficient Designing and Qualitative Analysis of Solar Thermal Cooling System Using Transol

Efficient Designing and Qualitative Analysis of Solar Thermal Cooling System Using Transol

This paper covers the performance analysis of solar thermal cooling system for a computer lab situated in Government Engineering College Bharatpur using Flat Plate Collector, Evacuated Tube Collector and Compound Parabolic Collector. The computer lab has the floor and roof area 198.55 m 2 .The peak cooling load is calculated and it is 34.940 kW, accordingly 10TR vapor absorption cooling system was adopted. The 10 TR vapour absorption system was operated by a field of collector area varying from 80-120 m 2 . . The other parameters like hot storage tank, cold storage tank, pump, cooling tower etc are used. The simulation was carried out on TRANSOL Program for Bharatpur city situated in east of Rajasthan (INDIA). It can be conclude that solar thermal cooling system is technically feasible because it offers good solar fraction in the range of 0.52-0.75 in the considered city and collector areas. The primary energy savings reaches up to 52%.
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Comparative studies on thermal efficiency of single and double glazed 
		flat plate solar water heater

Comparative studies on thermal efficiency of single and double glazed flat plate solar water heater

Figures 5 to 8 shows that the thermal efficiency is found to be higher on DGFPSWH than SGFPSWH with the different mass flow rate (0.0041kg/s, 0.0083 and 0.0125kg/s). It is evident from fig 9 to 10 shows that water out let temperature gained by water is more at experimental conditions with DGFPSWH compared to SGFPSWH. As the mass flow rate of water increases the thermal efficiency and heat gained by the water also increases. Hence both are directly proportional to each other. Figure-11 shows that time vs. absorber plate temperature for 0.0041 kg/s. Figure-12 shows that time vs. ambient temperature for three different dates. Figure-13 shows that solar intensity for three different dates.
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