Energy plays a pivotal role in our daily activities. The degree of development and civilization of a country is measured by the amount of utilization of energy by human beings. The increase in energy demand is linearly proportional to the increase in population, urbanization and industrialization. Due to the depletion of fossil fuel on worldwide bases, the increase in energy consumption outstrips the energy supply leading to what is called the “energy crisis”. The desirability and usefulness of electrical energy to the world cannot be overemphasized. Electrical energy is useful in industries, commercial and residential establishments. The availability and sustainability of electrical power in any country enhances the economy of such nation. Nigeria faces serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants which are basically dilapidated, obsolete, and unreliable and in appalling state of disrepair, reflecting the poor maintenance culture in the country and gross inefficiency of the public utility provider . This scenario to a very large extent epitomizes what is obtainable in other parts of Africa.
Residentialbuildings in few towns in northern Greece can be connected in two grids including the electric grid, with the net-metering regulations, and the mu- nicipal district heating grid fuelled by industrial waste heat. The connection of the building with the two grids allows it to generate electricity with photovoltaic panels and to inject it into the grid. It can also generate heat with solar thermal systems installed on its roof and injected into the district heating network when it is not needed in the house. Therefore the building could behave like a pro-sumer producing and consuming electric and thermal energy. Use of solar thermal energy for domestic hot water production and local biomass resources for space heating in residentialbuildings is very common in Northern Greece due to the availability of renewable energies and to their low cost compared with fossil fuels. Biomass use is more cost effective in rural areas compared to urban areas due to lower transportation costs. Additionally farmers could utilize bio- mass residues from their own farms at a very low cost. Apart from using solid biomass and waste heat in the residential building another alternative for its space heating is the use of high efficiency heat pumps, a reliable and cost effec- tive technology. However heat pumps use electricity and their initial cost is high. If they will be used though the solar-PV system required would be of higher ca- pacity in order to generate additional electricity consumed by them. The use of energy saving techniques and technologies, for reducing its overall energy con- sumption, has not been considered so far and emphasis has been given only in zeroing fossil fuels use and CO 2 emissions. Reducing though the energy con-
Actually, electricity is strongly subsidized by the Libyan government, where the current electricity tariff for the residential sector in Libya is about 2 Libyan cents per kWh whereas the real price is 30 cents per kWh (GECOL, 2010). One of the main obstacles for shifting towards renewable energy measures is the extremely low price for oil and gas that are highly subsidized. These subsidies create some issues to the county, such environmental problems, and the over-usage of energy. Such views are substantiated by the International Energy Agency, which believes that solarenergy resources have massive potential as a credible source of sustainable energy in Saharan Africa.
Life cycle costing (LCC) is a methodology used first time by the Department of Defense of United State, it’s an economic calculation of all costs propagated during the life span of any technical system. For Renewable Energy (RE) systems, LCC is a good methodology, which shows the cost-effectiveness of using RE as an alternative source compared to conventional power generations. A LCC model was introduced for PV generation system. Data collection was done through four different cost data sources. The results shows that the average module price is $0.56/Wp and the capital investment cost is $1.184/Wp. For a 20 years PV project life-time, the operation and maintenance cost forms 27% of the total LCC of the system.
 R. Joshua, V. Vasu et al, Finding solutions for the “Energy-demand” is the great challenge forsocial scientist,Engineers, Entrepreneurs and Industrialist of our country. According to them, applications of non conventional energy is the only alternate solution for conventional energy demand. Now-a-days the concept and technology employing this non-conventional energy becomes very popular for all kinds of development activities. One of the major area, which finds number applications are in agriculture sectors. Solar enery plays an important role in drying agriculture products and for irrigation purpose for pumping the well water in remote villages without electricity.
This study was carried out only in the small part of mass housing areas of Bingöl province. The results of this study revealed that in the current project the sun input data didn’t take into account. It was found that in the determined study area, there is excess volumetric construction of 30% in total. In the same parcel, four different general layout plan propositions were realized to demonstrate the built potential of the site according the sun data. All the proposal buildings produced with the solar envelope method will not create shadows to surrounding buildings. As a result of these proposals, differences appeared in the density value of the total constructible area. In the proposal study, it is possible to see clearly that the floor area ratio (FAR) values decreases as the number of the mass increases. In the first proposal, the result appears as a single mass, FAR value is higher than the current situation. But in this case problems may arise in the internal architectural solutions. Dark places may occur due to the deep interiors. To remedy this situation; in some places in the mass, voids can be designed so the light penetrates in the internal spaces. Another solution for this first proposal with the highest constructible area among the others, architects may recommend terraced house typology. In the second, third and fourth proposals FAR values were below the current situation. Floor area reductions appears on the upper floors. This situation requires bringing new perspectives to design. Generally, the method gives pyramidal volume. Different residential solutions are necessary especially on the higher floors. Reductions occurring in the upper floors can be assessed by solutions like Penthouses or duplex apartments.
Electric energy occupies the top grade in energy hierarchy and per capita electricity consumption acts as an index of standard of living. The entire world concentrate on the electric energy sector to enhance the process of development. Fossil fuel based power plant or thermal electric power plants are the major contributors of electricity generation and recently, importance is shifted to the renewable energy sector, e.g. hydroelectricity, wind power generation, PV technologies etc. Electricity generation increases all over the world at a faster rate through the penetration of different technologies. It grew at a rate of 2.5% in 2013, which is ahead of the growth of primary energy (2.4%). This Growth was slightly better than 2012 (2.2%) but remained below the last ten year trend (3.3%). The electric energy scenario for OECD countries declined, whereas Non-OECD countries showing promising and better growth of electricity for the last 10 years (6.3%). China and the US remain the largest and second largest electricity generators, following by India, Japan and Russia respectively .
It produces no net energy though it may net energy yield ratio and those highest investments in terms of energy. Insulation is an example for this source. Coal, Natural gas, Oil and Nuclear energy using Breeder reactor are net energy yielder and are primary sources of energy. Secondary sources like solarenergy, Wind energy, Water energy etc. Solarenergy can be used through plants, solar cells and solar heaters. Solar tower is another emerging technology. Solar drying and solar heating are economical applications when passive methods are used. Because of dilute nature of solarenergy it is difficult to classify the sources as primary one. Better sources are wind. Tidal, wave and hydroelectric application, Geo thermal and ocean thermal are other sources, which may well prove worthwhile. It may be necessary in future to develop the secondary sources like solar, wind etc. Energy is an important input in all sectors of any country economy. The standard of an given country can be directly related to per capital energy consumption. Energy crisis is due to two reasons first the increase of population and the second is the standard of living of human being has increased. The supply of oil will fail to meet the increasing demand before the year 2020 even if energy crisis rise 50% above current levels in real terms. Additional constraints on oil production will hasten this shortage, thereby reducing the time available for action on alternatives. Electricity from nuclear power is capable of making an important contribution to the global energy supply although worldwide acceptance of it, on a sufficiently large scales yet to be established. Fusion power will not be sufficient before the end of 2020.
Fossil fuel depletes and costly increases with the time, furthermore it causes environmental problems such as global warming. Therefore, solar cells must be oriented and distributed effectively depending on time in the year and depending on the building size. The savings of electricity can be enhanced by altering the daily time of wa- keup and sleep. The daylight hours may help in utilizing the natural sunlight instead of electricity . The im- plementation of Daylight Saving Time (DST) creates an additional hour of higher outdoor air temperature and solar radiation during the primary cooling times of the evening . California Energy Commission   conducted a simulation-based study to examine the effects of DST on statewide electricity consumption. Con- sequently, by concise management, collecting sun irradiation and fitting the daily man activities to sunshine will compensate large part of electricity for residential building.
energy for their cooking and heating purposes as other energy sources like natural gas is unavailable to them. Biomass can be converted to modernenergy carriers that are clean, convenient to use, and have little orno associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Bangladesh is a major country which produces a great deal of rice which is 35,000,000 MT of Paddy per Year on an average . If gasification technique is applied and if 20% can be made useful, by using a generator which efficiency is approximately 50%, total biomass energy can be calculated from the following formula :
The buildings south facade good illumination condition. Take advantage of the window sill wall design of the solar collector and the wall of the south facade combination. The essence of the flat-plate collector as part of the facade wall, solar equipment at the same time meets their also fulfil certain structural and architectural features. The solar collector wall from outside to inside by translucent insulation coating, photo thermal conversion layer , wall support and thermal conductivity layer, collector tube, foam insulation layer, interior wall supporting layer, interior wall smear layer section composition. When the sun along an angle of incident to the wall, the press effective projected cross-section to obtain the effective light energy through the transparent insulation coating, incident to the light-heat conversion layer, the photo-thermal conversion layer is completely or selectively converted into heat. In this design, the solar collector to become a part of the wall, it should be so that the solar collector device has a certain strength, and to satisfy the wall insulation and aesthetics, Figure-10.
Below are the results of extensive simulation studies. First, the energy performance of designing solar heating and cooling systems for the hotel building under various climatic conditions was studied. then a more accurate analysis was done for a web site (Malta). here, initial savings were made in energy and cost with a conventional system using fossil fuels for heating and producing domestic hot water and a conventional steam compression machine for cooling. The following control strategies have been implemented for solar heating and cooling systems in all simulations: since heating requires the lowest temperature (44 C) as compared to domestic hot water (55 C) and thermal conductivity cooling (80 C), the first priority was to heat the storage from to the system. The second priority is internal hot water and the third priority is given to thermal conduction cooling drives.
system expand significant energy. The principle target for this paper is to control and monitor the greenhouse system, for this purpose we have choose the set points for day and night for controlling the inside parameters of the greenhouse, and these set points are vary depending upon the type of plants inside the greenhouse. Smart grid is use to manage energy source, in this application smart grid is use to control and monitor three different types of energy sources. Given energy sources are wind energy, solarenergy and regular energy from electricity board. In smart grid algorithm each energy source has priority to serve consumer. Solarenergy have top most priority, wind energy have lowest priority than solarenergy and higher than paid energy from electricity board and the proposed system is used to regulate the operation of greenhouse with respect to Smart Grid, which include Energy Management System and Automated Control System. The system can be extended to detect fungicides of various plants in the greenhouse for future use also the automated sprinklers of pesticides can be implemented for future work.
ABSTRACT: The major application in the solar greenhouses effect is to provide proper environment under adverse climatic conditions for growth and production of crops, vegetables and flower plants. The increase in environmental pollution and the varied variety of climatic conditions destroys the growth of crops. With the extensive improvement in the renewable source of energy(solarenergy), helps to improve the quality and quantity of the production. The greenhouses receive necessary sunlight from the sun required for photosynthesis and also supplementary heat during cold months. In tropical countries the solar insolation and ambient temperatures are quite high and therefore, summer greenhouses can be designed in such a way that the inside temperature remains low and the plants receive sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis. Some solar greenhouses are also designed to conserve water resources. Plant growth depends on light intensity, temperature, humidity, air movement, watering and nutrients which will be properly provided in solar greenhouses. The parameters like orientation and tilt or considered for greenhouse design. Glass or plastic greenhouses are preferred. This scheme was found to be beneficial all over the world in all climatic conditions by the sun as it is renewable source of solarenergy.
He energy prices are rising continuously in most countries all over the world. Currently the targets are to consume less energy and produce more green energy. The building sector is responsible for approximately 40% consumption from total countries energy balances in EU and USA. In devel- oping countries the value is around 20%. A comprehensive research conclusion is presented in 2007 . The biggest consumers of non-domestic buildings sector are supermar- kets, hospitals, restaurants. The research of urban energy consumption distribution in USA  shows the variety of residential, public and industrial buildingsenergy consump- tion. Also energy balances for residential and public build- ings are presented. The electrical energy consumption in public buildings is a concern. London public buildings have been researched [3,4]—the office buildings specific energy consumption values range is wide. In addition, a scenario of energy consumption in London until 2050 is presented. Similar scenarios could be suggested also to other countries. Statistical analysis of Chinese buildings has been carried out in some extent [5,6]. The dispersion diagrams are presented (offices, hotels, governmental buildings). The Malaysian office buildings are compared with other countries . Also the results of electrical motor variable speed drives eco- nomical calculation are carried out and the solution can be suggested. The calculated energy consumptions and real measurement result differ 1.2 - 1.5 times in lots of cases [8,9]. The calculation methods must be revised. To have
Steel industry is growing rapidly in almost all the parts of the world. The use of steel structures is not only economical but also Eco-friendly at the time when there is a threat of global warming. Here, “economical” word is stated considering time and cost. Time being the most important aspect, steel structures (Pre-fabricated) is built in very short period and one such example is Pre Engineered Buildings (PEB). Pre-engineered buildings are nothing but steel buildings in which excess steel is avoided by tapering the sections as per the bending moment’s requirement. One may think about its possibility, but it’s a fact many people are not aware about Pre Engineered Buildings. If we go for regular steel structures, time frame will be more, and also cost will be more, and both together i.e. time and cost, makes it uneconomical. Thus in pre-engineered buildings, the total design is done in the factory, and as per the design, members are pre-fabricated and then transported to the site where they are erected in a time less than 6 to 8 weeks. The structural performance of these buildings is well understood and, for the most part, adequate code provisions are currently in place to ensure satisfactory behavior in high winds. Steel structures also have much better strength-to-weight ratios than RCC and they also can be easily dismantled. Pre Engineered Buildings have bolted connections and hence can also be reused after dismantling. Thus, pre-engineered buildings can be shifted and/or expanded as per the requirements in future. Presently, large column free area is the utmost requirement for any type of industry and with the advent of computer software’s it is now easily possible. With the improvement in technology, computer software’s have contributed immensely to the enhancement of quality of life through new researches. Pre-engineered building (PEB) is one of such revolution. "Pre-engineered buildings" are fully fabricated in the factory after designing, then transported to the site in completely knocked down (CKD) condition and all components are assembled and erected with nut-bolts, thereby reducing the time of completion.
In this paper we explore hybrid power sources which uses solar, wind and sea- water batteries that are not only instructive, but which can be used to drive low-power devices. It is considered only to be placed near sea- shore area as the concept involves the basic way of producing energy and converts that into electrical energy by burning metals and gets electricity (or electrical energy) by a condition for oxidation which by itself is the same as slow burning and stored in a battery storage system to provide continuous power supply when combined with hybrid power sources(solar and wind). This paper explores the electrochemistry behind an air battery using copper cathode, aluminum anode, and saltwater. If we have exact solution of saltwater and some metals we were able to generate small voltage. This on a higher generation of voltage will give another non-conventional source of energy for generation of power. This system proposes a new idea to generate hybrid power more effectively with sea water activated battery which injects an uninterrupted power supply for the load demand under all necessary conditions. The advantages, disadvantages, biological impacts and applications are also presented.
businesses. Suffice it to say that some commercial and industrial premises have completely cut off the grid supply to solely depend on these fossil fuels power generating systems. However, the past few years has witnessed a growing trend in the adoption of renewable technologies to either serve as backup systems or outright replacement of the poor supply from the grid. This is occasioned by a number of driving issues which include; the need to reduce environmental degradation from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sustainability of energy supplies . Moreover, lack of investment in natural gas and security challenges on the gas pipeline facility which have placed additional limitations on the ability of gas powered plant to deliver their available capacity . Furthermore,
and light weight between the two columns. The life and capacity of the secondary batteries depend on several factors e.g., charge mode, maintenance, temperature and age. Among these factors, the charge mode has a great impact on battery life and capacity. The secondary batteries should be charged with current and voltage levels with low ripple. Therefore, a high- performance battery charger is necessary in a battery energy storage system. In addition, the basic requirements of battery chargers with switching regulators are small sized and high efficiency. High switching frequency is necessary to achieve a small size. However, the switching loss will increase as the switching frequency is increased. This condition, in turn, decreases the efficiency of the battery chargers. To solve this problem, some kinds of soft-switching techniques need to be used to operate switching frequency. One simple solution to a soft- switching converter is loaded under high resonant converters. By adopting these topologies, either voltage or current is zero during switching transition, which largely reduce the switching loss and also increase the reliability for the battery chargers. To minimize the power losses, it is essential not to waste energy in the conversion process. In relation to the power electronics and associated control schemes, the main requirement is to guarantee that the charging system is efficient. Therefore, topologies with high frequencies and soft- switching technique are used to reduce the charging current ripple and extend battery life. Among these existing soft-switching converters, Resonant converters are the most popular ones because of their simplicity of circuit configuration, low switching losses, and high flexibility for charging current regulation. Resonant converters
Average annual energy use for households is also tabulated in Table 6. It was noted that House E had much lower total energy use than the other houses. A further investigation of the electrical appliance within the household and the energy usage of house revealed that the electricity meter for the particular house might have malfunctioned for a long time (e.g. four years). The analysis of electricityenergy bills showed that there are four houses use electric domestic hot water system, while other may use gas or solarenergy for hot water. To be consistent in the comparison, the results of removing the large energy use by electric hot water systems are also presented in the Table 6. The estimated 50 years operational energy for the studied houses is shown in Figure 3.