In this project we have developed the model of Smart solid and liquidwastemanagement system using wireless technology with the help of ARDUINO MEGA microcontroller connected to it. Moreover that wastemanagement is another sector need to be maintained properly. So monitoring the use of sensors. It’s a possible way to monitor and clean the dustbin and more efficient system than the current existing. The watages bin worked smartly as expected. The solid and liquid are connected to UART is transfer to the GSM module to execute the message for control unit. Than cleaning the wastages are cleaners need to take. Than providing a smart technology for wastemanagement system, by this reducing human time and effort. This system has a lot of advantages such as simple structure, low power consumption, low cost and stable and healthy environment system to design the wastage bins. The designed system is very portable so as to make it easy to access, configure, run and maintain. By smart wastemanagement system biggest challenges of wastemanagement security for smart cities can be solved. REFERENCES
The present study assessed the current status on solid and liquidwastemanagement at household level in small towns of Misungwi, Magu and Lamadi in the shores of Lake Victoria, Northwestern Tanzania. A sample size of 417 was used in this study. The study used both primary and secondary data of quantitative and qualitative nature, collected through questionnaire survey, key informant interviews, observation and documentary review. Survey data were analyzed for descriptive statistics such as frequencies and means. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis technique. The study found that most of households in all towns did not store their solidwaste, but rather did open burning, throw away or put in a pit ready for burning by 85% in Misungwi and Lamadi and 75% in Magu. . About 17% of the respondents in Magu, 12% in Misungwi and 6% in Lamadi used containers to store their waste. Few respondents, mainly in Lamadi (6%) and Magu (5%) used plastic bags. With regard to how households dispose solidwaste generated in their homes, the findings show that 75%, 72% and 58% in Magu, Misungwi and Lamadi, respectively, practiced open burning of solid wastes. Most of the respondents disposed waste in open spaces around their homesteads, as reported by 76%, 81% and 80% of the respondents in Misungwi, Magu and Lamadi, respectively. None of the study towns had sewerage system. The findings further show that majority of respondents in Lamadi (84%) managed faecal sludge by digging holes and burying compared to 61% in Magu and 38% in Misungwi which used this method. This practice is, however, unhygienic and environmentally unfriendly as faecal sludge can spill over and cross contaminate water sources and the environment. This shows poor handling of household solidwaste in most of the surveyed households. . It is, therefore, recommended that awareness creation on proper solidwastemanagement practices be intensified so that the community can change their mind set with regard to management of solid wastes. Moreover, in all satellite towns solidwaste collection points and dumping sites should be established. Collection points are very crucial to enable solid wastes from households, schools and other public institutions to be gathered before are transported to the dumping sites as it is unhealthy for household members to carry their wastes to the dumping sites individually.
In the last few years in many areas of Ethiopia urban population growth is increasing. Although urban sanitation facility figures generally are exceeding rural, it is widely known that the poor, unplanned, densely populated areas are underserved. This density therefore poses a greater risk of contamination than thinly populated rural areas. Limited sanitation options and high demand are compounded by poverty and limited space, creating a major challenge unmet waste disposal needs of the urban poor who resort to high- risk disposal practices Urban areas are among the worst in both solid and liquidwastemanagement. Much of these wastes are caused by lack of adequate excreta disposal facilities and inadequate solidwaste collection [8, 9].
is generally collected weekly in residential areas and daily in business sections. Solidwaste includes any garbage, refuse and any discarded materials including solid, semi-solid, liquid or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, , mining and agricultural operations, and from Solidwaste has become a global common problem to all countries; whether these countries are advanced or developing. The situation in Sudan is not much different from that in other countries with similar Knowing the sources and types of solid wastes, along with data on the composition and rates of generation, is basic to design and operation of the functional elements associated with the management of solid wastes. The materials that are collected under the term solid wastes include many different substances from vary types of sources. The different types and sources of solidwaste are shown in the table 1.1 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH
According to Municipal solidwaste (management and handling rule) 2013 "municipal solidwaste" includes the commercial and residential waste generated in municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous waste; e-waste and including treated bio-medical waste. Solidwaste are all the waste arising from human and animal activities that are normally and that are discarded as useless or unwanted (Peavy et al.1985). The German Waste Act (1972) defined waste as ‘‘portable objects that have been abandoned by their owner(s)’’ or ‘‘requiring orderly disposal to protect the public welfare’’ (Bilitewski et al. 1997). The USA defined waste in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976), as ‘‘any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities’’. There are many
management practices and services of the town together with households’ solidwastemanagement activities. After preparation, around 20 questionnaires were randomly distributed as pretest in order to correct unclear and misleading questions. In this way all questioners were administered and distributed to samples through which data were generated. Moreover, the data were also collected with the help of semi structured interviews with municipality workers, kebele leaders and extension workers. To know the average amount of solidwaste, a plastic container was given to each sample households to collect the total amounts of wastes generated for ten consecutive days and then taken to one place for weighing.
This vacuum apparatus would be used to remove the clear supernate liquid from the top of the Experiment Three settling test, and, afterward, the solid precipitate would be filtered from the dregs, leaving a brilliant yellow, partially titrated wash solution, now containing no iron. This solution would be put in a new beaker and further titrated with 8% NaOH, to a pH of 11-12, to form the solid SDU precipitate. An electronic pH sensor was to be used to record the pH during this titration, and a reading would be taken at regular intervals to form a titration curve. After the pH reached about 12, the magnetic stirrer would be stopped and initial settling observations would be made. After these observations had been made, the stirrer would be started again, a temperature sensor would be lowered into the solution, and the hot plate would be turned on. The solution was then to be heated to 35-40°C, and allowed to stir slowly for two hours, to see if heat and a digestion period increase particle size and speed precipitate settling. After the two hour digestion time passed, the hot plate and stirrer would be turned off and Experiment Five would immediately begin.
1) Insufficient Fund Allocation To Processing And Disposal: Open dumping of waste is the easiest way to dispose waste. Before the MSW (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 were in force, ULBs were under no pressure to adopt scientific disposal practices. However, despite the introduction of the MSW rules, the practice of ‘open dumping’ is still rampant in the country, with only a handful of ULBs having sanitary landfill facilities in place. The problems encountered in the C&T segment of MSW management are reflected in the P&D segment as well. Collection of un-segregated waste from source makes extraction of value costly or economically unfeasible in most cases. The Supreme Court Committee on Municipal solidwaste in 1999 noted that around 70-75% of the total expenditure on waste is spent on street sweeping; 2025% on collection and only 0-5% on disposal of wastes by the ULBs.
New technologies for treating refuse have not been widely in use in the country, but there are measures which are taking place to boost treating of waste. There are however some industries which collect recovered materials like papers, polythenes, plastics, glasses, scrap metals, used oil, e-waste and tires that can be recycled. This is however limited due to little public awareness of the particular industries with many of them not having gained full operations. There are also very few composite sites majority of which are located at horticultural farms. Incinerators and Cement Kilns that use heat treatment are predominantly used, but most of them don't comply with the requirements of the Kenyan regulations stipulated in the Third Schedule of the refuse treatment regulations act of 2006.
The study utilized both quantitative and qualitative primary data. Household surveys (face-to-face interviews), key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and field observations were conducted to collect the required data for this study. For household surveys, well-structured questionnaires were employed which had both open and close-ended questions. Head departments, staff members from the city municipality, and micro and small enterprise leaders were incorporated as a key informant interviewee to generate better information regarding solidwastemanagement practices as well as its challenges. Focus group discussion is another method of gathering qualitative primary data. As a result, ten focus group discussions were made, each having 8-12 homogeneous members, to gather nuanced information about solidwastemanagement system of Bahir Dar City as well as households' experience in relation to waste disposal practices. Field observations, with regard to the method of solidwaste accumulation sites (open spaces, road sides, gullies, drainage channels, collection containers, etc.) were conducted too, in order to support the findings of this study. Finally, the collected data were analyzed, using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, and graphs. On the other hand, qualitative data were utilized in narrative form.
To anticipate expensive fuel, gas is hard to come by, and sometimes expensive, if we can not live without the use of fuel oil. It was not so. energy source alternatives would have been found as a substitute for fuel, one of which is Biogas. Biogas technology is not something new. Various countries have applied this technology since many years ago as farmers in the United Kingdom, Russia and the United States. Meanwhile in the continent of Asia, India is the pioneer and biogas users since 1900 when she was colonized by the British. The country has a special institution that examines the utilization of manure waste, called Agricultural Research institute and source Gas Research Station, in 1980 the Institute has been able to build as many as 36,000 units of biogas installations. In addition to the above-mentioned countries, Taiwan, China, Korea also have made use of manure as a raw material for biogas. If we continue to rely on fuel oil (BBM) and Gas as a primary energy without looking for other alternatives would then live load will be heavier, especially small rural communities when alternatives to easy to create biogas from manure. It is time for the government to allocate a portion of the fuel subsidy reduction for developing biogas from livestock manure to all rural areas. It is time we also think and try to develop creativity to develop energy alternatives would of livestock manure, as are many scientific studies successfully. The activities we have to do now is to apply the results of these studies for the benefit of society. This effort should be supported by changing the mindsets of the people to accept the presence of new technologies (2) Potential manufacture of biogas as an alternative energy in Kanagarian Kasang quite nice. This is because the average farmer rice cultivators have 2 cows. Increased farming activities will certainly have a positive impact and negative. The positive impact of increased farmer incomes, expansion employment opportunities, and increase food availability. However, if not managed properly will have disastrous environmental problems, namely in the form of solidwaste, air and liquid, such as feces, urine, food waste, and air. According to the UN Food and Agriculture __________________________
Since, Mysore is the second most populous city in Karnataka after Bangalore.  Moreover, it is considered as one of the fast growing cities in Karnataka, densely populated with more than one million populations.  Mysore is housed with wide and spacious streets with cleanliness and obtained ‘clean city’ status three times from Union Government of India.  Further, Mysore is a tourist’s hub, floating population is very high and thousands of people visiting Mysore every day from different parts of Karnataka, India and world also. As a result, more demand for different types of instant food supply is created. To address this issue, many food supplying centers (FSC’s) are established at various public places in Mysore. Various FSCs such as hotels, restaurants, cool drink shops, food selling street vendors, chat centers, ice cream shops, convention halls and recreation halls are serving to the people around the clock at various public places. FSCs are playing a pivotal role by supplying different type of food to the floating population and tourists every day. Accordingly, more garbage/solidwaste is produced from these centers and it is not properly disposed instead thrown on the streets and nearby public places. This has led to the increase in municipal waste both garbage and sewage generation.  This has created nuisance and bad smell that becomes hazardous to man and his surrounding environment. Despite its clean city status, presently, Mysore is facing problem for its waste disposal due to various reasons. Several researchers have reported the solidwaste and its management in Mysore. [33-36] Although, these researchers have provided the information on solidwaste and its management in Mysore city, published reports specifically on FSCs in Mysore is poor. [38-39] Moreover, reports on the FSCs and their solidwaste production and disposal are required to maintain cleanliness and hygiene at public places. To retain the clean city status in Mysore, in depth studies are required to know the source and types of waste produced at public places. Information on type waste produced, disposal practices followed by the FSCs should be generated so as to help undertake proper
In general terms, a model is a representation of reality. A model represents only those factors that are important to our work flow and creates a simplified, manageable view of the real world.In ArcGIS, a model is displayed as a model diagram. Building a model helps us to manage and automate our geo processing work flow. Managing processes and their supporting data can be difficult without the aid of a model. A sophisticated model contains a number of interrelated processes. At any time, we may add new processes, delete existing processes, or change the relationships between processes. We may also change assumptions or parameter values; for example, replace old datasets with newer ones, or consider alternative scenarios in which input factors are prioritized differently.The Model Builder window is the interface used to create models in Arc GIS. A model builder window is displayed immediately when we create a new model. The model builder window consists of a display window in which we build a diagram of our model, a Main menu, and a toolbar that we can use to interact with elements in our model diagram.By using the model builder we obtain the zonation map and suitable site for solidwaste disposal is found.The site selected should be,20 Km away from town,20 Km away from drinking water, tank, reservoir,10 Km away from park (or) bird sanctuary,5 Km away from schools, temples, monuments.
Abstract— Environmental pollution is the major problem associated with rapid industrialization, urbanization and rise in living standards of people. Efforts has to be made for controlling pollution arising out of the disposal of wastes by conversion of these unwanted wastes into utilizable raw materials for various beneficial uses. The problems relating to disposal of industrial solid wastes are associated with lack of infrastructural facilities and negligence of industries to take proper safeguards. The solidwastemanagement practices among medium scale and small scale industries located in South India are compared in this paper. The data on various solidwastemanagement elements from the concerned industries were collected and analyzed to identify the type of industries adopting satisfactory solidwastemanagement practices.
Improving the quality of life is a goal we all dream for, which can be achieved by not using only natural resources, it also requires reuse of material which can be replenishable. SWM concept includes smart approach for the reuse of wastage, it saves our resources and help us for minimising reuse. The use waste is an efficient modality for implementing sustainable development, due to the multiple possibilities of recovering material at the same time for reducing energy consumption, which ensures of Environmental protection. SWM concept emphasizes in to improving health and wealth of the society. It helps for creating job, value of resources used, increase energy efficient way and adds financial benefit for the society. SWM is a future need of a country and it leads us towards the healthier and wealthier environment.
If the liquid pineapple waste could be transformed into products that would be beneficial to human lives as sugars and organic acid, this would definitely be advantageous towards sustainable technology. Thus, to overcome this problem, glucose in the liquid pineapple waste will be optimized so that it could be beneficial in many ways. Hence, with the help of immobilized invertase in PVA-alginate-sulfate beads, the conversion of sucrose into glucose and fructose can be achieved via hydrolysis process. Glucose is then optimized to serve as a useful product to human lives, environment and be advantageous towards sustainable technology.
There is one stage between the collection and disposal of solidwaste, that is, resource recovery or segregation of degradable and recyclable materials in the garbage and actual recycling. In no Indian city is the separation of garbage between degradable and non-degradable items and recycling taken up at the municipal level. This is so, not only because it is uneconomical since only 13 to 20 % of municipal waste is recyclable the remaining 80-85% is compost able/inert, but is also extremely labour intensive. In most cases however, secondary waste collection is not being done adequately. On an average, 20 to 30 percent of the total waste generated remains uncollected, creating environmental hazards in urban settlements.