Pineapple canning industry is one of the contributors of solidwaste accumulation in Malaysia (Jusoh et al., 2014). It was reported about 40-50% of the wastes generated from pineapple canning industry are from solid wastes, where it was comprises of residual pulp, peels, core, stems and leaves (Buckle, 1989; Abdullah and Mat, 2008). Sometimes, the pineapple wastes are used by dairy farmers to feed cattle (Sruamsiri, 2007). In some places, the pineapple‘s peat is reutilized by burning process (Ahmed et al., 2004). However, it needs extra work in controlling the burning peat and in the worst condition, it generates lots of ash that may cause haze to occur. According to Ahmed and his co-workers (1999), 1.31 mg per hectare (ha -1 ) of ashes has been released after burning 4.34 Mg per hectare (ha -1 ) of pineapple leaves per cropping season (Ahmed et al., 2004). At present, dumping pineapplewaste into the environment involves a considerable cost due to the handling process and transportation (Dacera and Babel, 2008). The solidpineapple wastes are usually left accumulated or disposed on the soil as waste, causing environmental pollution. Therefore, research on the utilization of solidpineapplewaste into a value added product is one of the best solutions in managing pineapplewaste, especially in Johor.
The waste produced from the pineapple canned industry can be divided into two main states, which are the liquid and the solidwaste. The solidpineapplewaste mainly consists of four major components which are the core, crown and skin. The pineapple wastes produced are prone to microbial infection (Sonja et al. 2009). This is due to the content of high amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the solidpineapplewaste. This constitutes from 40% to 80% of the pineapple fruit (Ban-Koffi and Han, 1990).
In the pineapple canning industry, almost forty percent of pineapple portion is rejected during the production process. Most of the rejected portion is used as ruminant and for alcohol production. In the present study, the untreated solidpineapplewaste (SPW) was used to adsorb selenite ion (Se(IV)) from aqueous solution. The Se(IV) loaded and unloaded SPW were characterized using proximate analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Various parameters that affect the adsorption such as initial pH, contact time, temperature, mass of adsorbent and concentration of adsorbate were investigated to determine the optimum adsorption conditions. Kinetics of the adsorption was investigated by pseudo first- order and pseudo second-order models. Equilibrium studies were carried out by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Thermodynamic studies of the adsorption were performed using van’t Hoff equation. Desorption studies of the Se(IV) loaded SPW were carried out under various conditions such as initial pH, desorption time, ratio mass of loaded SPW to reaction volume and concentrations of humic acid and competing ions such as chloride, phosphate and sulphate ions. Under the optimum adsorption conditions the Se(IV) content of SPW could be increased by 100 folds from less than 10 µg/g to nearly 1000 µg/g. The adsorption optimum conditions were at pH 6, adsorption duration t = 60 min, initial concentration of Se(IV) aqueous solution C 0 = 10 mg/L, SPW weight was 3 g in 50 mL of reaction
The most important issue regarding natural pigment is the price of final product which is more expensive than cheap synthesized dye. In this research possibility of using cheap growth media (agricultural wastes) such as SolidPineappleWaste (SPW) and Brown Sugar (BS) which leads to inexpensive and competitive product, have been studied.
In the Kenyan situation, there are commendable efforts by the Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural Resources: the municipalities and city councils and various NGOs are also involved in sustaining a clean surrounding. However, no initiative exists in equipping the public with the information that can help them adapt an environmentally sound decision on how to manage their refuse. The existing situation is to enable households to dispose of their refuse without value addition. In this case, a lot more costs are incurred as much more waste is produced as demographic rise.
The methods and approaches to solidwaste management have evolved over the centuries. Reasons for such evolution generally have to do with the cost of usage of an approach, the convenience of usage of an approach, technology availability and environmental friendliness of the approach. It is worth noting that, over the period waste management and how it was approached until recently was reactive. Waste will be collected and disposed only when it has brought noticeably environmental damages. According to , the current waste management practice, which focuses on short-term impacts and end-of-pipe solutions, is reactive in nature and inadequate to promote sustainability within urban systems, across jurisdictions, and across generations. The developed world particularly the United States, took lead in engineering landfill sites, intensified recycling to cover wood waste and clothes. In US for instance, recycling and composting have received increasing application compared to decades ago. However, the national recycling rates experienced little growth in the past decade. In 2009, the latest data available indicated that 34% of MSW was recycled, compared to 29% in 2000 . Based on the environmental impact assessment of each waste management method the U.S. EPA suggests a solidwaste management hierarchy in which landfilling and incineration are the least preferred method, and source reduction and reuse are the most preferred method. In practice however, the least preferred methods of landfill disposal and energy recovery by combusting the waste have been the destination for 66% of the total waste stream in the U.S. .
If the liquid pineapplewaste could be transformed into products that would be beneficial to human lives as sugars and organic acid, this would definitely be advantageous towards sustainable technology. Thus, to overcome this problem, glucose in the liquid pineapplewaste will be optimized so that it could be beneficial in many ways. Hence, with the help of immobilized invertase in PVA-alginate-sulfate beads, the conversion of sucrose into glucose and fructose can be achieved via hydrolysis process. Glucose is then optimized to serve as a useful product to human lives, environment and be advantageous towards sustainable technology.
The infiltration of rainfall into landfill, together with the biochemical and chemical breakdown of the wastes, produces a leachate which is high in suspended solids and of varying organic and inorganic content. All household and most industrial wastes will produce leachate. If the leachate enters surface or groundwater before sufficient dilution has occurred, serious pollution incidents can occur. In surface waters, leachate high in organic material and reduced metals will cause severe oxygen depletion and result in fish-kills. Leachate high in non biodegradable synthetic organic compounds is a particular threat, through bioaccumulation, concentrations of these substances may increase to toxic levels and endanger animal and human life. The decomposition of solid wastes in landfill results in the production of carbon dioxide and methane (landfill gas), both important greenhouse gases 5 . Seven % of methane generated by man's activities is estimated to be coming from landfill. Operation of incinerators can cause nuisance and atmospheric pollution from the emission of particulates, acidic gases, unburnt waste material, heavy metals, and trace quantities of organic compounds.
Cities in developing countries, being among the fast growing cities in the world are faced with the problem of solidwaste generation. The implication is serious when a country is growing rapidly and the wastes are not efficiently managed. Waste generation scenario in Zalingy has been of great concern both globally and locally. Of the different categories of wastes being generated, solid wastes had posed a hydra-headed problem beyond the cope of various solidwaste management systems (Geoffrey, 2005)
Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) are major fruit crops, cultivated in India. Peels represent between 50 to 65 % of total weight of the fruits and remain as the primary byproduct. Orange and pineapple fruits are majorly used for juice extraction in industrial leads to cause huge amounts of residues. If these residues are not processed further, it becomes waste and produce serious environmental pollution. The present study was aimed to extract the metabolites from waste peels, using ethanol and methanol solvent system and checked for the presence of various biomolecules and secondary metabolites like carbohydrates, proteins, steroid, lavonoid, alkaloids, tannins, saponines and tritepinoids. The ethanol solvent was showing most of the positive test as compared to methanol solvent in both the samples. Further, the antimicrobial properties of orange and pineapple peels were checked against pathogenic bacterial strains. The antimicrobial activity was performed, using agar well diffusion method against pathogenic bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumonia K2044 , Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC4676 , Bacillus subtillis Py79 and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum LMG859 ). From the results, it was clearly observed that both orange and pineapple peel sample dissolved in ethanol, showing ma ximum zone of inhibition, a gainst all the test pathogens. Metha nol extra ct of both the samples, showing lower zone of inhibition in all the test pathogen as compared to ethanol extract samples. When both the samples, ethanol and methanol extracts were combined in equal amount and test against the pathogenic bacteria, they were showing maximum or equal zone of inhibition as the individual samples zone of inhibition. Finally, we can conclude that orange and pineapple fruits can be used as a antimicrobial agents for the protection from selected plant and animal pa thogens, but the u se of a standard method for investiga tion is essentia l. Simila rly, the concentrations or dilutions used, must be appropriate with proper information about its safety.
The ongoing SolidWaste Management problem is a very acute in nature. At this point of time even its effects are so hazardous that we cannot afford to ignore it anymore. As discussed before, the waste accumulated at various parts of our country would not only directly affect the nearby population but will also have a major role in climate change which could in turn give way for some very contagious and harmful diseases. Management of solidwaste is essentially the duty & responsibility of municipal committees & corporations on India but management of solidwaste has been in low on priority of list of municipal authorities & seldom funded adequately. Rules are made for prohibition or prevention of these wastes but however, no provision is made for any kind of imprisonments for their violations. These rules provide only guidelines for obtaining licenses & authorizations, rather than providing any deterrents against defaulters. That is why accidents occur frequently, & hazardous
Physical and chemical characteristics o f municipal solidwaste are useful in the design o f a fluidized bed combustion system. For example, information on the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen content o f the municipal solidwaste or simulated municipal solidwaste enables the calculation o f air requirement for the complete combustion, excess air combustion or even starved air combustion (gasification). Furthermore, enables o f estimation o f air compressor power and costing. Physical characteristic on the other hand provides information o f the waste itself such as the density o f the waste which gives an indication o f the mixing o f the waste in the fluidized bed, whether the waste float on the sand or penetrate inside the sand bed. The amount o f water in the waste gives an indication o f the burning profile in the sand bed. It shows the sustainability o f the waste combustion inside the sand bed. Volatile matter for example gives information whether the combustion is on the freeboard (region above the surface o f the sand bed) or bed combustion. Therefore, knowledge o f the municipal solidwaste characterization, physical and chemical compositions are crucial as data gathered are useful for the formulation o f the simulated municipal solidwaste, design and operation o f the fluidized bed.
Inception Report for the Development of Five-Year Waste Management Plan for Kanifing Municipal Council, 2015 stated that, the weak financial muscle of the municipality hindered the management operations on solidwaste management as result waste management continuous to be the main challenge for this city. It was also reported that, 45% of the vehicle fleet of the municipality used in the collection and transportation of waste were road worthy. Under these circumstances the choice of using a trailer or skip is guided by availability, volume of refuse generated and the existence of door to door services. Despite the efforts of the KMC and other operators, solidwaste management in the Kanifing Municipality is inadequate as visually evidenced by the existence of uncollected refuse at various locations within the municipality. There are no sanitary landfills and waste is dumped at official designated dumpsite at Bakoteh. This dumpsite as commonly known as “Bakoteh Dumpsite” is the official dumping ground for all the waste generated within this municipality. However, this site to certain extent pose significant health threat to the residents and the environment as a whole. In general, the Gambia as a country does not have proper infrastructure to deal with the solidwaste issues since the colonial era and as such waste is dumped indiscriminately and haphazardly with minimal or no proper management which resort to open burning thus resulting in air pollution.
This is final functional element in solidwaste management system. Disposal activities are associated with final dumping of solid wastes directly to a landfill site. Nowadays disposal of wastes by land filling or land spreading is commonly adopted by municipal agencies. But, in most developed countries this method is banned allowing only sanitary landfill for final disposal. since sanitary landfill is an engineered facility used for disposing of solid wastes on land without occurrence of nuisances or hazards to public health and environment” “Though it is the most common technology utilized over the world, conventional and environmental unfriendly methods such as open-burning, open-dumping, and non-sanitary landfill can still be used as disposal method” (Solomon Cheru, 2011) Generally data of Waste disposal is very difficult to collect. Several countries don’t collect such data at the national level, making comparisons across income levels and regions difficult. Furthermore, where such data is available, the methodology of how disposal is calculated is not finalized. For example, some countries only give the percentage of waste that is dumped or sent to a landfill, the rest comes under ‘other’ disposal. Sometimes, recyclable & compostable material is separated before the waste reaches the disposal site and is not included in waste disposal statistics. (Daniel Hoornweg and PerinazBhada- Tata, 2012)
importance of converting waste to wealth by solidwaste recycling and waste water treatment using the most economically feasible methods have become so important and necessary. Solidwaste especially those from house hold could be regarded as a source of renewable energy because it contains a high proportion of biomass materials which could be degraded catalytically  or thermally in absence of air (pyrolysis) or limited air (Gasification) to produce a mixture of combustible and non-combustible gases as well as pyroligneous liquid of high heat value. This liquid when further processed could be utilised as liquid fuel for burning in a boiler or as a substitute for diesel in reciprocating engines . Waste generation cannot be totally eliminated hence the option of waste treatment has become so distinctively relevant because a lots is being expended in its management. In trying to reduce the cost of waste treatment by method cost reduction, numerous solar energy based applications were proffered as solution for both waste water and solidwaste management. The objective of this study is to review the solar energy applications in waste treatment as a way forward in terms of waste management, renewable energy utilization, waste-to- energy conversion, climate change mitigation and most importantly environmental protection.
G. Waste Water Treatment and SolidWaste Management Solidwaste management and waste water treatment are big issues in a planned urban development. In both the new development authorities are trying to get these jobs done by PPP (Public Private Partnership) initiatives. Uttara 3rd phase the waste water will be treated in sector 18, also a 10 acre area is designated for recycling of solidwaste in sector 18. In Purbachal New Town the proposed light industrial areas will have their own industrial waste water treatment plant and the treated water will be disposed in adjacent lakes. The solidwaste dumping station and central compositing plant is situated at block H-4. At present solidwaste management is an alarming issue for the residents of Dhaka city. Rapid and unplanned urbanization makes Dhaka one of the top ranked high-risk cities in the world . In According to Hasan and Chowdhury , 50% of the daily generated waste remains uncollected in the city. Disposing of waste in open dumps is the most common method used for final disposal of urban solidwaste. The only one sanitary landfill site located at Matuail has an area of 40 hectares . Presently an
Provision of adequate sanitation and water facilities in urban areas is an important means of ensuring health and well-being of the people living in cities, as well as protection of the environment. Solidwaste management has remained an intractable environmental sanitation problem in Nigeria. This problem has manifested in form of piles of indiscriminately disposed heaps of uncovered waste and illegal dumpsites along major roads and at street corners in cities and urban areas. This problem is compounded by the rapid urbanization and population growth without commensurate waste management facility which has led to generation of enormous quantities of solidwaste which are often discarded by open dumping. In Nigeria, Waste disposal remains a contentious issue, and with no end in sight, refuse is dumped on roadways, pedestrian work ways or even dropped in drainages or streams and rivers. The situation is more alarming during the rainy season as water no longer flows freely along the gutters; it remains stagnant, creating the conditions for mosquito to breed and also the spread of vector borne diseases like malaria. The rapid rate of urbanization witnessed in most Nigeria cities contributed to high increase in waste generation which has outgrown the capacity to evacuate them. Onibokun and Kumuyi (1999) confirm that whenever urbanization gets out of control, it poses a big challenge to urban management and government, with waste management inclusive. The problem of urban waste management in Nigeria persists due to many factors which include the rapid rate of uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization of majority of our states. According to Onibokun and Kumuyi (1999) the government, at all levels have created various agencies to look into the problems associated with waste management practices but most of these agencies have been less functional. The local government, saddled with the responsibility of managing sewage and solidwaste disposal (FGN, 1979) are often ill-equipped to perform due to inadequacy of funds. Private participation in waste management as also suffered a setback due to lack of manpower, funds and technical support.
year (0.28 kg/capita/day), in the urban and rural areas, respectively (SEDD, 2019). As a consequence, suitable solidwaste management remains a priority concern for the Moroccan government (UNEP, 2014). Thus, it commit- ted to developing waste management regu- lations with the solidwaste law “28.00” run since 2006, and the implementation of the na- tional plan for household waste management (PNDM) to reclaim all landfills and to recycle over 20% of the annual rate produced waste by 2020 (Naimi et al., 2017).The household waste produced in Morocco is largely dominated by Organic Mater (OM) (60–80%), with over 75% of water content, which are at higher levels compared to countries in the same environmen- tal context as Morocco and fully industrialized countries (Zouir, 2011). Until now, these MSW have generally undergone landfilling treatment with only 10% of recycling (SEDD, 2019).
components of the above stated solidwaste treatment processes using the factors as shown in above table, it is found that the treatment process with recycling, energy from waste (EfW) and composting gives the off-set advantage to a maximum and is recommended to be adopted by Municipal Corporation. The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation has retained a private agency to utilise the components of the above process to produce energy. Likewise other Corporations can retain this type of agency to produce energy. This will help in producing energy. (2) EU Landfill Directive The European Commission introduced the Waste Landfill Directive to reduce greenhouse gases and risk to human health. According to Williams (2005, pp174), “The European Commission regards landfilling of waste as the least favourable option, due to the fact that land filling does not make use of waste as a resource and may result in substantial negative impacts on the environment”. “The European Commission have identified ‟emissions of hazardous substances to soil and groundwater, emissions of methane into the atmosphere, dust, noise, explosion risks and deterioration of land‟ as potential significant environmental impacts from the land filling of waste (Williams 2005,pp174).” Consequently, to reduce pollution from landfill which may have effects on the environment, such as surface water, soil and air quality, all of which will affect humans. Strict requirements for waste landfill were presented by the Waste Landfill Directive (1999) (Williams 2005). Williams (2005, pp174) also states that; “The European Community has a strategy, in relation to international climate change agreements to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases”. Therefore, a reduction of the amount of biodegradable waste sent to landfill to 75% of the 1995 levels by 2016 was established as an objective by the Waste Landfill Directive in order that methane and carbon dioxide emissions produced from landfill sites are reduced(Williams 2005). This directive is recommended for adopting in Municcipal Corporations of this country.
Furthermore, in improving the energy efficiency and energy accessibility for sustainable energy for all platforms set by the United Nations, small-scale power technology is seen as an efficient way in achieving this goal. Clean energy from biomass can be realized ranging from small-scale processing plant to an industrial scale. Decentralization of energy distribution via small-scale set ups have several merits which include positive impact on rural development, ease of operation, high economic incentives, reduction of energy loss via transmission, encourages green economy and energy independence, etc. Compared to many other renewable energy options, biomass has the advantage of dispatchability, implying it is controllable and available when needed, similar to fossil fuel electric generation systems . There are several methods to generate energy from biomass and these include thermal, physical, biological and chemical methods. These methods could convert biomass to heat, electricity, liquid fuels (such as bio-oils, ethanol and methanol) and gaseous fuels (such as hydrogen and syngas), respectively . Thermal technologies used to recover energy from solidwaste are generally classified as either conventional combustion or advanced thermal technologies . Conventional combustion includes grate-fired and fluidized bed technologies. Despite the fact that fluidized bed technology is commonly applied, grate-fired technology is preferred when it comes to small-scale application, handling of solid fuels that have varying or even higher moisture content and it does not require extensive pre- processing of the fuels. Energy recovery is achieved through the production of steam in boiler super- heater tubes. The steam may be utilized to generate electricity in a steam turbine generator or sold directly for commercial or process heat purposes. The heat content of steam exiting the steam turbine generators can also be used for district heating purposes.