Recent collapses such as Enron, HIH and other international businesses have resulted in a tightening of legislation, as well as reforms to corporate governance. Justice Owen (2003) believed that the effect of corporate governance reform should be based more on personal integrity, honesty and truthfulness rather than tougher legislation and corporate governance rules. Educational institutions have a vital role to play in shaping the new reforms and creating a more ethical business environment. Multiple innovations and global communications throughout the world will have an effect on business ethics. Multinational corporations are more likely to be at risk due to ethical issues that result from cultural diversity of local staff in host countries. Salter et al. (2001) discussed this issue and recommended two solutions to overcome the cultural constraints that global audit firms are facing as they are dependent on the judgment, norms and standards of their staff in each country. One is to accept the local standards of the staff. While such a solution may have been acceptable in the past it is unlikely to be acceptable now. A high and consistent standard of auditing is incompatible with audit and ethical standards that fluctuate nationally. The second solution is to train auditors to achieve common standards of ethical behaviour. While training is an alternative solution, it has a root in culture. Salter et al. (2001) provide evidence on cultural motivations in ethical training and examine how training can affect ethical attitudes of college students as future professionals and managers. They have examined the attitudes of accounting students in the UK and in the US that are similar in terms of training. However, these two countries have distinct cultures. This study examines attitudes towards a variety of cheating scenarios in academic and business environments. The sample consisted of students who study in the same classroom but come from different cultural backgrounds. This research will make a significant contribution to evaluating cultural differences with respect to ethical dispositions. Specifically this research addresses the degree of differences in the ethical orientations of a potential pool of future accountants/auditors in Australia, South Asia and East Asia.
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Although I greatly admire McGee’s writings, and his influence on urban studies in South-east Asia and beyond, I come down firmly on the side of Dick and Rimmer. They take Jakarta as their key case study, and show that the development of “bundled” cities on its outskirts is an element of globalisation, and that the study of cities in South-east Asia must be “informed by knowledge of urban processes, especially in the United States” (p. 50). Like Webster (1995), I would argue that in this context, Los Angeles might be a more apt model for the way South-east Asian mega-urban regions are developing than the “desa-kota’ paradigm. Incidentally, the suburbanisation of Jakarta has been fuelled partly by the Indonesian government’s long-standing, unsustainable fuel subsidy, reduced (though certainly not eliminated) in 2013, which brought the costs of commuting from far-flung “new towns” surrounding Jakarta within the reach of the middle class and lower middle class to an extent that would not have been possible had the price of fuel reflected its true cost. When the fuel price is finally raised to market rates, this is likely to work to some extent against the urban sprawl that has characterised Jabodetabek’s recent development.
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The influence of culture on the treatment seeking behavior was evident in our study. Accordingly, the prac- tice of head and neck massage and the use of medicated oil, a common tradition of South East Asia [27, 28] were widely practiced by our study participants. Interestingly, the treatment seeking behavior did not differ between the young and the elderly patients, probably reflecting the underlying concepts, cultural factors and traditional atti- tudes to the illness. Head-massaging was used more by our patients with tension-type headache.
Ports in South East Asia, one of the world’s most vibrant economic regions, have grown tremendously in terms of capacity to support tremendous growth in cargo throughput emanating from the boom in regional and global trade. This paper outlines the issues and challenges faced by the region’s ports in the face of projected growth of seaborne trade between ASEAN nations and their trading partners. It argues that to capitalize on booming regional and global maritime trade, the regional ports need to expand their capacity and increase their level of competitiveness amidst intense competition to lure shipping lines and to facilitate the handling of greater volume of cargo.
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The macroeconomics performance is the indication of how a country or an economy or a region effectively executes their policies to reach the goals. The above Table 1 presents the current macroeconomic scenario of South Asia and South East Asia. 6,500 billon people live in South East Asia and it is one of the fastest growing regions in the world. Now it faces several hindrances to the growth in 2018. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) report proposes that Southeast Asia could not imagine descending correction will bring slight improvement in its success, the estimates which will remain at 4.8 percent in 2019 and 4.9 percent in 2020. Although Southeast Asian economies have stayed flexible despite facing economic difficulties, the region needs to remain cautious on the off chance that needs to work effectively with the association of trade and value circle. In all, fortifying residential interest will offset more vulnerable fare development and solid utilization prodded by rising salaries, repressed expansion, and hearty settlements should help economic movement in Southeast Asia (The ASEAN, 2019).
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Even after accounting for the economic fundamentals (i.e. domestic market size, political stability, rate of return, etc.), East Asia seems to enjoy a locational advantage vis-à-vis South Asia as a destination of FDI. This region is home to several high-performing and newly industrialized economies that have outperformed the South Asian economies in recent years. Furthermore, a range of unique factors, such as geographical proximity to Hong Kong and Taiwan, “round-tripping” of domestic capital via Hong Kong, steady economic reforms coupled with the iron-fist control of government over the political system, etc. have enhanced the locational advantage of China. Finally, prevalence of the Confucian culture, which emphasizes discipline, harmony, submission to hierarchy, and other unique cultural traits, may have also created a less confrontational business environment in East Asia that is conducive to foreign investment.
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The objectives of this project were to determine the extent of the vasectomy surgical techniques currently used in some Asian countries and to evaluate the feasibility of introducing and assessing the use of cautery and FI to occlude the vas in these countries. It was not possible within the limits of the project to do an exhaustive survey of all vasectomy techniques performed in South and South East Asia. However, we included two strategies that we believe were sufficient to achieve our objectives and to provide a sound basis for planning future operational research addressing the issues. First, in each country key- informants from various levels of the health care system related with male sterilization program were interviewed. To the exception of Thailand, this included the national authorities who are responsible for the vasectomy pro- gram, and who could provide an overview of the global situation in each country. Second, a convenience sample of 21 urban and rural vasectomy centers from various Asian countries was visited, including participation in daily clinical activities in most centers. Although these centers may not be fully representative of all vasectomy centers in Asia, there were very strong national standards regarding how family planning services must be provided in the countries visited. We thus expect much less varia- tions in techniques used in the countries visited than in North American or European countries.
The differences between the two countries also provide some interest- ing pointers for future research. Could it be, for example, that the observed advantage for Filipino children of migrant fathers cared for by their moth- ers is related to the longer history of international labor migration from the Philippines, compared with Vietnam? Governmental and civil society support for overseas foreign workers is well developed in the Philippines and it is possible that better employment conditions combined with lower levels of debt allow migrant fathers to contribute more to the well-being of their children. In contrast, migrant parents from Vietnam may be less well placed in global employment markets and face a more restricted choice of destinations where personal and geographical ties are able to facilitate their temporary settlement. Whatever the reason, and with the possible exception of children of migrant mothers left in the care of their (better educated) fathers, our findings indicate no difference in the risk of stunt- ing between children living in transnational and non-migrant households in Vietnam. This calls into question the presumed nutritional benefits for children of migrant parents, as well as the desirability of overseas employ- ment as a family livelihood strategy. Further, the lack of similar relation- ships between living in a transnational household and the risk of stunting in middle childhood in the Philippines and Vietnam illustrates the dangers of generalizing across national and cultural groups (see also Graham and Jordan, 2011). Critically, this highlights that, while the Philippines may be the prototype of a labor-exporting nation and the most studied country in South-East Asia, its experiences of transnational migration should not be generalized to other countries in the region.
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Russian and Indonesian companies interact in the innovation sphere. It is about creating an early warning system and monitoring system 200-mile exclusive economic zone of the Republic of Indonesia, the Republic of startup of Indonesia operator of satellite broadcasting technology-based and operated by the Russian holding GS Group, as well as a system for informing and alerting the public about emergency situations on the basis of satellite Broadcasting Technologies. In South-East Asia, there are two countries, the potential of which for various reasons has been underestimated - Myanmar and Brunei. Brunei has considerable oil and gas reserves, which is another advantage for the implementation of new joint projects in the field of extraction and processing of natural resources, taking into account Russian experience in this area. Myanmar is the country interesting for Russian business, especially with regard to the exploration and production of oil and gas, creating objects of hydro and thermal power. The only obstacle to the full cooperation is the unstable political situation in the country.
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Undoubtedly modern South-‐East Asia has been shaped by its interaction with the European colonial powers. While the colonial legacy is not as marked as it has been in Africa and Latin America it has nevertheless had a profound impact in several aspects. For one thing it led to clearly demarcated national boundaries. The Indo-‐China countries of Cambodia and Laos owe their very existence to French involvement, though Osborne (1987, pp.67-‐8) has suggested that Vietnam was shaped more by geography than the French. French cultural and gastronomic influence is still strongly felt. It was Spanish, and later American, control of the Philippines that led to the creation of a country out of a disparate archipelago and led to the dominant place of Roman Catholicism though the cultural influence of the USA is probably just as strong. Thailand managed to maintain its independence, and secure its borders, by the astuteness of the Thai kings, especially king Chukalongkorn, in playing off the French and British colonial authorities (Wyatt, 1984). Nevertheless British influence on the early development of the Thai education system in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was considerable (Watson, 1980). Since the Second World War, however, American cultural influence has profoundly touched Thai society, especially in metropolitan Bangkok.
Methods: Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001) and each resident’s country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident’s physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity of participants from each of the 13 regions compared to the Australian-born population. Results: There was a greater prevalence of physical inactivity for female immigrants from most regions compared to male immigrants from a like region. Immigrants from South East Asia (OR 2.04% 95% CI 1.63, 2.56), Other Asia (OR 1.53 95% CI 1.10, 2.13), Other Oceania (1.81 95% CI 1.11, 2.95), the Middle East (OR 1.42 95% CI 0.97, 2.06 [note: border line significance]) and Southern & Eastern Europe are at a significantly higher risk of being physically inactive compared to those born in Australian. In contrast, immigrants from New Zealand (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.62, 0.94), the UK & Ireland (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.73, 0.92), and other Africa (OR 0.69 95% CI 0.51, 0.94) are at a significantly lower risk of being physically inactive compared to the Australian born population.
The beginning of the twentieth century was a turning point in contemporary history. It was the moment of imperialist wars that redrew the boundaries of the Third World, a moment of popular upsurges against colonialism and capitalism that challenged the Empires of the time. Today the issues that were centre-stage before and during the World Wars are back again. The mandate territories, the Balkans, Ukraine and Russia are once again in turmoil, arms build up proceeds in South, South-East and East Asia as it did one hundred years ago and economic depression and social polarisation has once again thrown up movements for social justice across the world. Social movements a hundred years ago intervened in those cataclysmic events in particular ways. Their interventions had profound ramifications for the world order that was instituted at the end of the World Wars.
In contrast to the Middle East, the technical barriers to proliferation in East Asia are low – given the advanced nuclear capabilities in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan – but the political barriers remain relatively high, including public attitudes (especially in Japan) and the security ties between the US and its East Asian allies, which reduce the security rational for acquiring nuclear weapons. In the long term, however, an unchecked North Korean nuclear weapons programme could pressure East Asian state to hedge their bets or even withdraw from the NPT, especially if US security relations in the region are weakened. In addition, should North Korea choose to sell surplus nuclear material or provide nuclear assistance, it could dramatically accelerate the pace of proliferation in regions such as the Middle East where the political desire for weapons is great, even if technical capabilities are weak.
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iv) The technology transfer between Jiangsu Province and the countries along the “Belt and Road” is mainly distributed in West Asia, South Asia, CIS, Eastern Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, lack of technology transfer and exchange with East Asia and Central Asia, which is related to Jiangsu Province and the “Belt and Road” The distribution of patent applications in the seven major regions is the same, with the difference being that Jiangsu Province focuses on technology transfer with Central and Eastern European countries, and the cooperation patents with the Belt and Road countries focus on ASEAN.
populations. In most resource poor countries however, the required anthropometric data from purpose- designed growth surveys are not readily available. We propose a practical method for estimating regional (multi-country) age-conditional weight distributions based on existing survey data from different countries. We developed a two-step method by which one is able to model data with widely different age ranges and sample sizes. The method produces references both at the country level and at the regional (multi-country) level. The first step models country-specific centile curves by BCT and BCPE distributions implemented in GAMLSS through a common model. Individual countries may vary in location and spread. The second step defines the regional reference from a finite mixture of the country distributions, weighted by population size. To demonstrate the method we fitted the weight-for- age distribution in twelve countries in South East Asia and the Western Pacific, based on 273,270 observations. We modelled both the raw body weight and the corresponding Z score, and obtained a good fit between the final models and the original data for both solutions. We briefly discuss an
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In large parts of the world mite and cockroach sensitization are typically strong predictors of asthma [24-28], On the contrary, we found no association with physician-diagnosed asthma or the majority of symptoms common in asthma, except recurrent wheeze and asthma attacks. Moreover, the majority of asthma symptoms were equally common in non-sensitized subjects as in subjects with multiple positive SPT reactions, whereas in Western populations, the risk of asthma is typically increased in subjects with multiple sensitizations . However, we identified a moderate positive association of multiple sensitizations with bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Our findings are in line with previous studies in South-East Asia, which generally have found only weak or no associa- tions of allergic sensitization with indices of asthma [2,29]. The reasons for this discrepancy are incompletely known, however the association with hyper-responsiveness but not asthma could to some extent implicate under-diagnosis and poor recognition of asthma symptoms in the general adult population in the study area. This is supported by the relatively low prevalence of reported physician- diagnosed asthma in this area . However, among children in the same area, higher prevalence of asthma has been reported .
Here, and as shown in the previous table, the initial conditions variable is still statistically significant and has a negative correlation with the dependent variable, for all the regions included as well as for the full sample. When looking at the correlation between relative losses and relative growth, the coefficients have the expected signs (that is they are negative). Nevertheless, they are found to be statistically insignificant for three geographical regions, including East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. In the cases of Latin America and The Caribbean and for the Middle East and North African economies the corresponding coefficients remain significant.
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The EU’s growing experience in civilian and humanitarian crisis management may prove beneficial in evolving common strategies with India or China towards addressing humanitarian crises-like situations with regional implications. Any direct EU involvement on the ground may also introduce a multilateral dimension to any regional humanitarian crisis management operation and help in ameliorating the fears and distrust among smaller nations, especially in the context of South Asia. In recent years, the emerging political relations between the EU and India have also shown greater signs of maturity with the two sides increasingly exhibiting a greater understanding of each other’s approach to the erstwhile difficult issues on such questions as related to terrorism and human rights.
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As has been mentioned, there is an interest amongst some Think Tank members, e.g. in the Central America and Caribbean region, in integrating ecosystem services into DRR, for which there are governance implications. They have pointed out that often even when there are laws in place to protect ecosystems such that they can support the reduc- tion of vulnerability to natural hazards, enforcement is often weak. Without enforcement, policy makers are left with only half the possible management tools to choose from: incen- tives, carrots, but no sticks (a problem noted by the Think Tank members of the East and West Africa region as well). Capacity development should also focus on supporting insti- tutional and organisational development to improve enforce- ment capabilities at the national and local level.
Findings suggest Pakistan has trade linkages with multiple countries, across various regions, however, the volume of exports is significantly low than potential, as well as, than the volume of imports—resulting in trade deficit. The major import partners are China, UAE, Singapore, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, while major export-partners of Pakistan are United States of America, China, Afghanistan, United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates and Germany. Pakistan needs to capitalize on less-expensive young population (rising in skills), low cost (indigenous) raw material, basic industrial infrastructure and agricultural and natural resources, etc. to achieve higher economic growth and exports. Policy makers need to encourage exports in less focused regions including Centrel Asia, Middle East, Africa, Australia and South America. To the best of author’s knowledge, this is first ever effort to present a comprehensive analysis of international trade of Pakistan and suggest measures to improve the state of affairs, in recent years.
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