The RE-SW will work as part of a team of AWC ecologists and land managers based at AWC’s four sanctuaries in southwestAustralia: Karakamia and Paruna in the Perth hills; Faure Island in Shark Bay; and Mt Gibson in the Avon Wheatbelt - Yalgoo.
The primary responsibilities of AWC’s science team in south-west Australia are to: Measure the ecological health of AWC’s wildlife sanctuaries;
characterizing PBL development and surface energy fluxes as a function of land cover and season, along with numer- ical modeling analysis is used to show that in southwestAustralia: (1) the west coast trough (WCT), which often forces summertime convection, is impacted by LCC causing cloud fields to preferentially terminate along the rabbit ‐ proof fence; (2) enhanced PBL heights over the native vegetation increase the probability of cloud formation by allowing surface air to reach the LCL; (3) the LCC also impacts the WCT during the winter season and the tendency for higher PBLs over native vegetation persists during this period; and (4) while the most visible effect of LCC on regional climate is the cloud fields that terminate along the fence, the primary cause for rainfall decrease in this region is due to changes in low ‐level convergence, caused by alteration of both WCT dynamics and aerodynamic rough- ness. This study identifies some of the processes through which landscape influences weather and climate. It suggests that the impact of LCC on atmospheric processes should be a consideration for land management policies in the regions around the globe where significant land clearing for agri- culture purposes is occurring.
The drier parts of the Mediterranean biome of southwestAustralia contain the larg- est remaining Mediterranean woodlands and shrublands on Earth. Despite this, there has been no formal, comprehensive assessment of their biodiversity. The region abuts the southwest Australian floristic region which has received much scientific attention. The aim of this paper is to provide the first general overview of the biodiversity of part of this intact, yet relatively unknown, Mediterranean ecosystem. We do this by synthesizing data from State Government agencies and published research. We found that, like other parts of southwestAustralia, the region has globally significant levels of plant species diversity. More than 2400 plant species, including 291 species considered threatened, have been recorded, representing one-sixth of all Australia’s vascular plant species. Eleven of Australia’s 23 major vegetation groups are represented even though the region covers less than 1% of continental Australia. We documented 170 vertebrate species, including 31 threatened species, with a particularly high richness of reptile species (n = 46). We highlight how little is known about this region. For example, 116 vertebrate species not recorded in the region probably occur there based on their habitat requirements and known distributions. An examination of plant and vertebrate diversity in the region, using a half degree latitude and longitude grid cells, showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of species richness and vulnerability, with a general de- cline in species richness from southwest to northeast. Conservation strategies that rely on capturing the highest levels of biodiversity in a series of protected areas are unlikely to guarantee protection for all species given these high levels of heterogeneity. Instead, a region-wide conservation plan should involve targeted ecological research, considera- tion of ecological processes and stakeholder consultation.
lying between latitude 26 – 36S and longitude 114 – 124E, in SouthwestAustralia. Figure 1b shows Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS5) visible channel imagery for this region on 3 January 1999. Note the presence of large, relatively homogeneous tracts of land, with native vegetation to the east and a wheat belt to the west of a sharp transition almost 750 km long called the bunny or vermin fence. The vermin fence was erected for protecting the wheat and barley crops from rabbits, and it marks the eastern boundary of the areas cleared for agricultural use. Figure 1c shows a collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) channel 1 (0.65 mm) image of this area, with the locations of the six Advanced Space- borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images used in this study. Table 1 lists the dates and times that the ASTER data were acquired. Figure 1d shows the high-resolution channel 1 (0.56 mm) image of the subregion 2 outlined in Figure 1c. The ASTER image shows that the actual boundary between the vegetation types projects into each other and is not as sharply demarcated as indicated in Figures 1a, 1b, and 1c.
Opportunities for adaptation in the SCR are greater than in many adjacent areas of southwest Australia’s biodiversity hotspot. The SCR has a range of rainfall, temperature, and land use. In comparison to the internally draining wheat belt region to the north, there is substantial native vegetation remaining and more opportunities to reduce the effects of salinity in vegetatively restored catchments. Coastal vegetation is almost continuous with the majority protected in conservation areas (Wilkins et al. 2006). A relatively high proportion of the cooler, high rainfall zone is protected in reserves or forest managed for conservation or timber production but interspersed with cleared farming areas. At least until 2050, under current climate models and markets, agriculture is likely to continue as the main land use. Predictions are for increasing crop yields in the higher rainfall zone because of less waterlogging, and areas of reduced yield in the lower rainfall zone, depending on soil type (van Gool and Vernon 2005). Agriculture in the SCR has been highly adaptive as farmers coped with highly erosive, infertile sandplain soils and dry seasons. Many farmers continued to manage profitable enterprises in the face of decreasing terms of trade, although there has been significant restructuring and farm amalgamation (Tonts 1996). Changing environmental conditions may also provide the opportunity for transforming agricultural systems. Increasing perennial agriculture is important in reducing salinity and adapting to changes in rainfall patterns. For example, opportunities to successfully use native flora in profitable enterprises are being explored (Woodall and Robinson 2003). Enabling farmers to adapt to drier autumns and winters, and a potential increase in spring and summer rain, could thereby improve conservation outcomes. In the longer term one type of land use likely to increase is carbon-offset plantings. There is an opportunity to align carbon storage and conservation objectives by using local, rapidly- growing species rather than species from outside the region. Measuring the carbon storage and growth rates of a wide range of regional species and developing local agroforestry will be, therefore, an important strategy.
tests). We recorded differences between sites in the magni- tude of interannual variability, and DO levels in 2011 were not consistently lower than in previous years. Post-hoc tests showed that at site CS9, DO levels during 2011 were signifi- cantly lower than those recorded during all 9 previous years, whereas at sites CS4 and WS4 they were statistically lower in 2011 compared with 4 previous years (2002–2005, inclu- sive), while at site CS11 they were lower in 2011 than 2 pre- vious years (2004 and 2005). Although DO trends during the event were less defined than temperature trends, they were still atypically low, especially at the Cockburn Sound sites, where DO concentrations decreased to about 2 mg l −1 lower than the norm in March. A range of factors influence wa- ter mixing and oxygen diffusion in Cockburn Sound, includ- ing bathymetry, seawater temperature, water density differ- ences, local currents, surface winds, biological and sedimen- tary oxygen demand and phytoplankton activity (Rabalais and Turner, 2001). The coastal waters off Western Australia are typically oligotrophic, but due to historical influences, the Cockburn Sound system is considered mesotrophic with healthy oxygen levels (CSMC, 2009). As such, extensive hy- poxic “dead zones” generally do not persist in the region, although episodic, localised hypoxia following algal blooms do occasionally occur (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008). The low DO levels observed in early 2011 were most likely a con- sequence of increased stratification (driven by minimal sur- face mixing), perhaps in conjunction with increased biologi- cal activity during the warming period (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008).
physical activity and is independently associated with many health benefits. 2,3 It has unique potential to sup-
port an active lifestyle through recreational cycling and through active transport, when it could be integrated into daily travel routines. In Australia, cycling is the 4th most popular leisure time physical activity but its actual practice is low; in 2005 the yearly prevalence of cycling for leisure among adults was 10.3% and only 2.1% cycled at least once a week. 4 Only 1% of Sydney’s
A high resolution (5 km), single initialisation, 30 year (1970-1999) Weather Research and Forecast regional climate model (RCM) ensemble for south- west Western Australia (SWWA) is evaluated. The paper focuses on the abil- ity of the RCM to simulate winter cold fronts, which are the main source of rainfall for the region, and assesses the spatial and temporal characteristics of climate extremes within the region’s cereal crop growing season. To explore uncertainty, a 4-member ensemble was run, using lateral boundary conditions from general circulation models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercompar- ison Project Phase 3; ECHAM5, MIROC 3.2, CCSM3 and CSIRO mk3.5. Simulations are evaluated against gridded observations of temperature and precipitation and atmospheric conditions are compared to a simulation using ERA-Interim reanalysis boundary conditions, which is used as a surrogate truth. Results show that generally, the RCM simulations were able to repre- sent the climatology of SWWA well however differences in the positioning of the subtropical high pressure belt were apparent which influenced the number of fronts traversing the region and hence winter precipitation biases. Sys- tematic temperature biases were present in some ensemble members and the RCM was found to be colder than the driving GCM in all simulations. Biases impacted model skill in representing temperature extremes and this was par- ticularly apparent in the MIROC forced simulation, which was the worst per- forming RCM for both temperature and precipitation. The dynamical causes of the biases are explored and findings show that nonetheless, the RCM pro- vides added value, particularly in the spatio-temporal representation of wet season rainfall.
Southwest your voices will be heard! We are honored to have representation by our president Misti Reed and our regional director Lesley Pinckard. Please take time to discuss with them any items you would like to be presented at the conference. Ther e wi l l be much di scussi on r egar di ng NAI FA’ s 21 st Century Strategic Plan Report along with several proposed by law changes. If you have not taken time to review the report, please do so.
TRINITY SOUTHWEST UNIVERSITY
Ø ON-CAMPUS & SPECIAL OPPORTUNITIES: FACT SHEET #13
USE ON-CAMPUS & SPECIAL OPPORTUNITIES AS COURSE MODULES…
As you’re moving through your TSU degree program, you may want to take advantage of the many learning opportunities taking place at the Trinity Southwest University campus in Albuquerque. If you already live in the greater Albuquerque area, then you can participate with ease. If you live at a distance from Albuquerque, in another state or in another country, you can still take advantage of on-campus opportunities by making a trip to Albuquerque (it’s easy to get to from just about anywhere). The weather is usually fantastic, and it’s a great vacation destination, too, with breathtaking vistas, and Santa Fe (The City Different) only a short drive away. And everything we offer is available to be taken as course credit or modular credit! Here are some of the kinds of opportunities that await you…
admired companies deserves a top quality in-flight publica- tion. Southwest: The Magazine’s mission is to be at the heart of the Southwest Airlines brand, upholding their tradition with impassioned storytelling about real places and real people. Our award-winning editorial dives into business, travel and life- style, artfully blending quick- hit content with long-form fea- tures to create a well-rounded, appealing package for upscale consumers.
This Handbook is designed to provide information that will make it easier for you to develop and maintain successful relationships as a member of the Southwest Mississippi Community College staff. It provides a general view of the College’s employee benefits, your responsibilities as an employee, and work rules at the College. The Handbook should also help you answer the most commonly asked questions about employment at the College. It is impossible to write policies that will cover every possible situation and it is also highly unlikely that existing policies will not require some modification over time. Consequently, the College reserves the right to interpret, modify or make exceptions to its policies and procedures at any time, and to terminate existing policies or add new ones as necessary.
State Regulation of Aeronautics in the Southwest SMU Law Review Volume 7 | Issue 2 Article 8 1953 State Regulation of Aeronautics in the Southwest William J Davis Follow this and additional works at h[.]