Despite the importance of bounce-diving as a foraging behaviour, considerable differences in depth use were noted among size classes, which appeared to be reflected in the periodicity, frequency and depth of bounce-diving behaviour. Small I. indica were the only size class observed to undertake bounce-diving during the night. This was further highlighted by the small size class being the only one that exhibited a greater surface affinity during the day than at night. The repetitive-diving behaviour of small I. indica was often only to depths of 50–70 m, suggesting that if prey distribution is driving bounce-diving depth, then these smaller sized animals are likely to be targeting different prey sources than larger marlin. Gut content analysis of juvenile I. indica caught in the southwestern Pacific supports this theory, with small pelagic baitfishes (Amblygaster sirm and Sardinella gibbosa) identified as the dominant prey species of juveniles 10–40 kg . Both A. sirm and S. gibbosa occupy neritic waters (less than 40 m deep), suggesting that differences in diurnal patterns and depth use may well reflect an ontogenetic diet shift .
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The importance of the Southern Hemisphere in the narra- tives of global plate tectonics and oceanography is well es- tablished, but understudied. This is in large part due to the vastness of the eastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific Ocean, and the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean. This is an ideal region to address many of the 14 sci- ence challenges in the 2013–2023 IODP science plan. The Australian and Indian continents have undergone the largest and most rapid paleo-latitudinal shifts of any continents glob- ally since 150 Ma. The region boasts the following: (i) ar- guably the greatest diversity of subduction zones from fully seismically coupled to uncoupled; (ii) extensive shallow ma- rine seas and submerged continents (e.g., Zealandia) with ex- traordinary and unstudied stratigraphic records; and (iii) the largest suite of plume-related products and the largest man- tle cold spot. Sampling of plateaus, ridges, and their asso- ciated sedimentary strata will provide an enormous wealth of information about their origin and address fundamental paleoceanographic and paleoclimate questions. Drilling of the Antarctic margin in the Indian Ocean and South Pa- cific sectors will increase our understanding of the Antarctic cryosphere and global climate evolution and past land and sea ice extent from the Cretaceous through the Cenozoic. Ge- omicrobiological questions can be addressed on a number of expeditions, including targeted expeditions to study the deep biosphere in a variety of tectonic settings. Petrological and geochemical studies of oceanic, back-arc and arc crust, as well as uplifted mantle remain a high priority, as do those of geological hazards.
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Onychatrium gen. nov. is described, with five included species: Onychatrium forceps sp. nov., the type species and Ony- chatrium torosus sp. nov., both from the Great Barrier Reef; Onychatrium entale (Nordenstam, 1946) comb. nov., from Tapateuen (= Tabiteue Island), Gilbert Islands; Onychatrium thomasi (Bolstad & Kensley, 1999) comb. nov., from Mad- ang, Papua New Guinea; and Onychatrium echiurum (Nobili, 1906) comb. nov., and species inquirenda from the Tumaotu Islands, Eastern French Polynesia. The primary distinguishing characters for Onychatrium gen. nov. are a trapezoid pseu- dosrostrum, the male pereopod 1 with elongate dactylus (4.7–7.3 as long as proximal width), propodus with strongly pro- duced and acute lobe, carpus with a distally acute, flat, ventrally directed process (except O. torosus sp. nov., which has a short and truncate process) and the merus with a distally directed inferodistal lobe. The genus is known only from the southern Pacific, from the Tuamotus (eastern French Polynesia) to the Great Barrier Reef and northern Papua New Guinea.
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While the hypothesis formulated by Belkin to explain the absence of Ae. albopictus in the south Pacific region might have held true fifty years ago, the situation has dramatically changed with an increase in urbanisation and international trade at levels certainly not predictable at that time. In Fiji and now in Tonga, the presence of local Stegomyia species clearly did not prevent Ae. albo- pictus from establishing. Undoubtedly, the intensified trade at international and regional level means that many Pacific island countries most likely have encoun- tered Ae. albopictus on multiple occasions. The reason why Ae. albopictus has not established in these islands is not clear. The factors driving the success or failure of the establishment of Ae. albopictus in Pacific island set- tings are not well understood. The study of Ae. albopic- tus on islands where it coexists with local Stegomyia species would shed some light on how these species co- habit. The discovery of Ae. albopictus in new PICTs is of great concern as it may be indicative of a slow but in- eluctable trend of invasion through the Pacific region like in other areas of the world.
Overall, data presented here supports the hypothesis that New Zealand northern neritic habitats provide a transitional developmental habitat for immature green turtles at the edge of their range in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. Genetic analysis reveals this aggregation is unique when compared to other regional foraging grounds, exhibiting links to discrete genetic stocks from across the Pacific Ocean. In addition, the cause of the exponential increase in records observed over time remains unclear, therefore warrants further research and monitoring of this endangered marine reptile; particularly in light of climate-mediated environmental change presently experienced in the region.
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S outh Pacific thermocline waters are transported in the westward flow- ing South Equatorial Current from the subtropical gyre center toward the southwestern Pacific Ocean—a major circulation pathway that re- distributes water from the subtropics to the equator and to the southern ocean. The transit in the Coral Sea is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO; glossary of acronyms at the end of the document) cycle and thereby produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. The southern fate of thermo- cline waters is, comparably, of major influence on Australia and New Zealand’s climate; its seasonal and interannual evolution influences air-sea heat flux and atmospheric conditions, and it participates in the combined south Indian and Pacific Ocean “supergyre.” Substantial changes of this circulation have been observed over the past 50 years, and are continuing in global climate projec- tions. The subtropical gyre has been spinning up in recent years with possible consequences for ENSO modulation and for the East Australian Current (EAC), whose influence has moved south, dramatically affecting the climate and bio- diversity of Tasmania.
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Chinese voyages were massive undertakings: The treasury ships measured each about 120 meters in length and 50 meters wide. The 1405 expedition consisted of 62 ships with a crew of 30,000 men. In the hulls they carried live animals, large water supplies and nurseries producing soybean sprouts to protect sailors against scurvy. Pilots navigated using star charts, maps with landmarks and sailing instructions and primitive magnetic compasses. When the emperor Hong Le died, his grandson continued these activities but after the death of Zheng He in 1433 during the seventh and last Chinese expedition the fleets were dismantled. China and Japan officially disengaged from maritime activities which ‘allowed a maritime power vacuum to develop in the western Pacific’ (p. 45).
132 Drugs, alcohol and cigarettes are vices that most young people indulge in to help them relax and for pleasure. Most of the participants commented that young people take drugs or drink heavily because they are depressed or stressed. Sometimes drugs and alcohol is not enough, participants describe young people trying more extreme methods such as committing suicide to escape their problems. The mental health of Pacific Island young people is an important health issue because drug and alcohol usage and cigarette smoking usage among Pacific Island young people is increasing (Alcohol Public Health Research Unit, 2002; Scragg & Laugesen, 2001; Scragg, 2001). Similarly, since 1998 there have been eight Pacific Island successful suicide attempts (Ministry of Health, 2000b). These trends and behaviour patterns represent the struggle Pacific Island young people undergo in coping with changes such as physical transformations. Participants added Pacific Island young people are very sensitive and can become upset quite easily when someone close to them (parent) picks on them and makes them feel worthless. Pacific Island young people are also likely to be depressed or stressed over being rejected or feeling unwanted. Access to cigarettes, drugs, and alcohol would be physically and mentally destructive.
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behaviour and sampling time frame. Shifts in the length compo- sition to smaller sizes due to length-selective fishing mortality have been attributed to the exploitation of a range of shark species (Ricker 1969; Jennings and Kaiser 1998; Walker et al. 1998; Stevens et al. 2000). Length-selective fishing mortality occurs when larger, older individuals are removed from the population, resulting in a smaller maximum size and younger maximum age (Thorson and Simpfendorfer 2009). C. longimanus was one of the main eight species in the WCPO shark longline fishery, but it is now considered overfished and well below maximum sustainable yields (Clarke 2011; Rice and Harley 2012). The largest observed specimen of C. longimanus was 350 cm TL in the North Atlantic Ocean in the 1940s (Bigelow and Schroeder 1948). However, no individual was caught at such length either in the present study in PNG (largest 240 cm TL male) or in previous studies in the North Pacific Ocean (largest 272 cm TL female; Seki et al. 1998), north-western Pacific (largest 268 cm TL male; Joung et al. 2016) and south-west Atlantic Ocean (largest 250 cm TL female; Lessa et al. 1999). The median size of C. longimanus was observed to be decreasing significantly, until samples became too scarce in the Pacific Ocean, based on long-term catch data (Clarke 2011). Thus, the rarity of individuals larger than 270 cm TL in the present study and in catches obtained worldwide imply the length composition of this species has been significantly altered, and median length and maximum size have been reduced (Lessa et al. 1999). The decrease in size can affect the parameters of the growth models (Pilling et al. 2002) and may explain the lack of a distinct asymptote in the growth model. It is also possible that the growth rates of the species have changed over time as a result of length-selective fishing mortality (Walker et al. 1998). Compensatory (density-dependent) growth has been demonstrated for carcharinid shark populations that have been fished to low population sizes (Sminkey and Musick 1995).
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behind. Japan has implemented several major programs to boost its internationalization efforts; however, for political and economic reasons these plans did not succeed. Additionally, Japan is competing with other countries in the region that are economically strong and have also improved in the area of internationalization. For instance, China and South Korea are doing quite well politically, economically and educationally among other nations in the Asia-Pacific. Nevertheless, the recent Collective Action for Mobility Program of University Students (CAMPUS) Asia initiative may put Japan back on the map as it tries to initiate collaborations with China and Korea, two of Asia’s most financially powerful countries.
Abstract. Expedition 341 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) retrieved sediment cores spanning the time interval between the Pleistocene and Miocene from the southern Gulf of Alaska. Onboard Pleistocene radiolarian biostratigraphy is hereby refined by increasing the sampling resolution. The 178 core samples from the upper 190 m CCSF-B (Composite Core Depth Scale F-B) of Site U1417 contained faunal elements simi- lar to the northwestern Pacific; for example, the three biozones in the northwestern Pacific (i.e., Eucyrtidium matuyamai, Stylatractus universus and Botryostrobus aquilonaris) were also recognized in the Gulf of Alaska, spanning 1.80–1.13 Ma, 1.13–0.45 Ma, and the last 0.45 Myr, respectively. Based on the age model that we used in this study and the shipboard paleomagnetic reversal events, the first occurrences (FOs) of Amphimelissa setosa and Schizodiscus japonicus in the northeastern Pacific were preliminarily determined to be 1.48 and 1.30 Ma, respectively. The last occurrence (LO) of Eucyrtidium matuyamai and the FO of Lychnocanoma sakaii, both well-established bioevents in the northwestern Pacific, were dated at 0.80 and 1.13 Ma, respectively. The LO of E. matuyamai is a synchronous event at 1.05 ± 0.1 Ma in the North Pacific, while the FOs of A. setosa and S. japonicus at 1.48 and 1.30 Ma, respectively, are significantly older than what has been found elsewhere.
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This qualitative study employed both Western and Pacific methodologies to collect and analyse data and used the talanoa method to engage the insights and experiences of five couples. Social constructionism and Bronfenbrenner’s (2005) ecological systems theory provided a framework to explain the dynamics of social interactions and external conditions that influence the constructs of peoples’ lived realities. This study found that families, peers, and schools influence interactions that shift and impact the cultural identity development and resiliency of children with mixed Pacific ethnicities. In addition to this, societal perceptions, racism, and stereotypes are external environmental conditions that further impact cultural identity development and resiliency.
structural characteristics of the food web and are usually related to the concept of keystone species (Solé & Montoya, 2001; Dunne, Williams & Martinez, 2002). This suggests a large number of trophic links and participation in energy flows, which is reflected in a significant contribution to the structure and function of the ecosystem (Albert, Jeon & Barabási, 2000). Our results showed that the key elements of the SGC ecosystem were the lower trophic level groups, such as Detritus, Phytoplankton, Macrophytes, Zooplankton, the Pacific anchovy, Porifera, and high-level predators in the SGC such as Coryphaenidae and Lutjanidae. A large number of links in the lower trophic level groups and primary consumers suggests a bottom-up control energy flow in the food web (Vasas, Lancelot, Rousseau & Jordán, 2007). This type of control possibly occurs in the SGC, although an ecosystem can be managed by more than one type of control depending on its status, diversity and integrity (Cury, Shannon & Shin, 2001). In addition, this type of control in the ecosystem may change depending on the environmental variability which controls the abundance and distribution of marine population (Cury et al. 2001). The indicators D i , CC i and BC i will allow management measures to
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The vent sites at E2 lie just south of the segment axial high (called the Mermaid’s Purse ), between 56 u 5.29 and 56 u 5.49 S and between 30u 199 and 30u 19.359W at ,2,600 m depth (Figure 1B). Prominent north–south structural fabric to the seafloor defines a series of staircased, terraced features that are divided by west-facing scarps (Figure 1C and 1D). A major steep- sided fissure runs north–south through the centre of the site, between longitude 30 u 19.109W and 30 u 19.159W (Figure 1D). The fissure is filled in places by lobes of pillow basalts, and the main hydrothermal vents are located at the intersection between this main fissure and a west–east striking fault or scarp, consistent with the expected location of active venting on back-arc spreading ridges. Relict (extinct) and actively venting chimneys are resolvable in the high-resolution multibeam bathymetry obtained by the ROV Isis, clustered in a band running approximately northwest–southeast. Numerous volcanic cones and small volcanic craters are also apparent around the vent field. Chimneys of variable morphology were up to 15 m tall and venting clear fluid with a maximum measured temperature of 352.6uC, which formed focused black smokers on contact with cold seawater (Figure 2A). Some of the chimneys have expanded tops with hot vent fluid (.300 u C) emanating from the underside (Figure 2B), similar to the flanges found at North East Pacific vents . Diffuse vent flow was observed at a variety of locations, with temperatures varying from 3.5 to 19.9uC, compared with a background temperature of ,0.0uC. Around the periphery of the active high-temperature vents and diffuse flow sites are microbial mats that form a halo around the venting area at E2 (Figure 2C).
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T here is a symbiotic relationship between the state and the private sector everywhere. Any government that hopes to promote prosperity for its citizens must encourage private sector activity. Similarly, the private sector looks to the government to provide the appropriate enabling environment for its development. The overarching theme of this report is that a private sector strategy for government is not about fostering specific companies or sectors. Rather, it is about ensuring that the environment and conditions that affect business and entrepreneurship promote productivity and growth. As a result, private sector issues encompass almost every area of every economy. Policies that encourage and promote private sector development cannot be imposed—the government and the private sector must play a central role in identifying and agreeing on the problems and priorities for the effective formulation and implementation of private sector policy. Moreover, in this process, both the government and the private sector have obligations: the government neither to erect barriers to business and commercial activities nor to give preferences to individual sectors; and the private sector not to expect preferences, handouts, and special support from the government. The mutual understanding and cooperation necessary for effective implementation of private sector-friendly policies can only come about through contact, discussion, and feedback. Currently, there appears to be little of this in the Pacific. Often there appears to be an attitude of misunderstanding and mistrust between government and the private sector. On the part of the government, private businesses are viewed with suspicion, while on the part of the private sector, government is viewed as unresponsive and unwilling to listen. On a positive note, however, there is an increasing awareness by governments of the importance of private sector activity and a desire to reverse the neglect and suspicion that many officials acknowledge. Furthermore, most private businesses maintain a strong willingness to cooperate with government to improve the
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The current study approaches the sugarcane culture expansion in Southwestern Goiás, especially in Mineiros, Quirinópolis and Rio Verde counties, which represent different times and responses to this process. The current logistics structure and future prospects for sugarcane and its deriva- tives transportation are studied at national level with emphasis to the aforementioned micro-re- gion. Maps showing land use and land cover in three different years were generated from Landsat TM-5 satellite images and they were used to analyze the dynamics of changes in land use and in land cover. The region is marked by strong and rapid growth in the agricultural sector and its sugar-energy industry has been expanding in recent years, although with different aspects among its counties. Since it is a promising region in this sector, due to the favorable soil and weather con- ditions to the crop, the region requires more investment and planning in logistics to ensure pro- duction flow and to make it stronger within domestic and foreign markets.
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To test the robustness of the observed offset of the maximum absorption from the peak of the continuum emission, we produced continuum images with similar properties to the absorption data set. The first test we undertook was to take the final clean model of the continuum data set and subtract 98 per cent of each clean component from the uv-data. The result is a data set with 2 per cent of the original continuum emission, which is equivalent to the peak absorption depth observed and has similar noise characteristics. We then selected 23 consecutive spectral channels and imaged the emission, using the same procedure as applied to the absorption imaging, and measured the location of the peak of the southwestern continuum component. This process was repeated a further 24 times (25 iterations in total) and the RMS offset of the southwestern con- tinuum peak from the position determined from the best continuum image was measured to be 0.71 mas. As a second test, we created an additional uv-data set with 2 per cent of the total continuum flux density. Rather than reducing all clean components by the same fraction, we selected a clean component at random, reduced its am- plitude by a random amount that varied between 1 and 3 per cent and repeated this process until the total flux density summed over all clean components was 98 per cent of the original total flux den- sity. This model was then subtracted from the uv-data resulting in a data set with 2 per cent of the original continuum emission. We then repeated the first test by imaging 25 different combinations of 23 consecutive spectral channels and determining the location of the peak of the continuum emission for the southwestern com- ponent. The RMS offset measured for this second test was 0.77 mas. If we take the average of these two tests as representative of the uncertainty in the position measured in the absorption image (0.74 mas), then the absorption is offset from the continuum peak by 2.7σ . Since the strength of the absorption depends on the gas column density in the lensing galaxy along the line of sight to the southwestern (or northeastern) component and this is expected to have structure on scales of 1–10 pc (corresponding to angular scales of 0.1–1 mas), it is more likely than not that the strongest absorption will be offset from the strongest emission. Our relative astrometric uncertainty does not allow us to definitively demonstrate this, but it is consistent with there being an offset.
Abstract Climate change and related sea-level rise has caused fears that many people in the Pacific Islands might become homeless. However it is difficult to say who is more afraid: politicians of countries that are potential destinations of environmental refugees or affected people, who realize that it is not at all a pleasure to lose the home, and that it might be even a bigger nightmare to become a refugee. While in low-lying Pacific Island countries (PICs) debates and discourses about people’s future flare up the fear of becoming homeless and refugees is worrying many. It seems that governments whose countries could become preferred destinations of climate change refugees are concerned how to keep them away from reaching safe harbors. In 2001 the Australian Government started its Pacific Solution, a policy that should prevent aliens arriving by boat in Australia to seek the status of refugees. The Australian Government has established detention centers on the Pacific Islands of Manus (PNG) and Nauru to process asylum seekers outside Australian territory. In 2013 a new element was added to the Pacific Solution: refugees arriving on boats will be processed and settled in PNG or Nauru (or countries other than Australia), if found to be genuine refugees. Others can be detained for unspecified time. Migrants’ well-being is not only based on material conditions, but also reflects on emotional ones. The inhumane treatment of refugees increases angst amongst those who are threatened to lose their homes as a result of climate change and depend on support from other countries.
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In this chapter we identify two methods of measuring economic rent; i) Bio- economic modelling or statistical approach that seeks an estimate of willingness to pay for the rights of access, however this is not applicable to tuna fisheries of the South Pacific. The procedure relies on the availability of time series data so that current willingness to pay can be statistically inferred from past observations; ii) Budgeting technique which requires estimates of the expected revenues and cost involving in fishing operations. Assuming that the rent between estimated receipts and estimated opportunity costs is available, it is then possible to estimate rent by forecasting the likely levels of receipts and costs. The result of the models used in the Pacific region indicated two sides of the story, where some are successful and others are not. The literature however indicates that there is need to conduct individual studies for each respective country, because of the differences in the economic structure, infrastructure level and other issues that are affecting the fisheries development. There is particular need to investigate the economic benefit of the tuna industry in Kiribati as limited has been done for the case of Kiribati.
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The HDV prevalence has been reported in various parts of the world. In Africa, the anti-HDV antibody prevalence in HBsAg carriers was reported only in Cameroon (17.6 %) and Gabon (15.6 % to 70.6 %) [13, 15, 16]. Re- cently, HDV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa was esti- mated from 1.3 % to 50 % . Although HBV is endemic in Nigeria, data on HDV seroprevalence are limited. A previous study showed that HDV antigen was detectable in 6.5 % of patients with chronic hepatitis B in Southwest Nigeria . In addition, another study reported an anti- HDV prevalence of 12.5 % in 96 HBsAg positive patients . Moreover, a recent study showed that HDV1 prevails with 53.3 % in Southwestern Nigeria followed by the HDV5 (33.3 %) and HDV6 (13.3 %), which were more re- stricted to the northern part of Nigeria .