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United Nations Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Africa: Achievements, Opportunities, Challenges, and the Future

United Nations Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Africa: Achievements, Opportunities, Challenges, and the Future

Abstract Capacity building in Space Science and Technology as well as enhancement and retention of existing capacity, are critical for developing competencies to efficiently respond to societal challenges and addressing sustainable development. Following the UN General Assembly resolutions 37/90 of 10th December 1982 (UNISPACE), and 45/72 of 11 December, 1990 (UN-COPUOS), the UN-OOSA established the Regional Centers for Space Science and Technology Education in 1995. To date six (6) Regional Centers have been established with the main aim to build a high quality capacity and critical mass of indigenous Space Scientists/Educators in developing countries for the development and application of Space Science & Technology for Sustainable National & Regional Development. African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education has been established in Africa since 1998. This paper describes the achievements of the Centre since inception through their Postgraduate and Outreach programs. It is, however, observed that Member States have not optimally worked together to maximally utilize the opportunities that this Regional Centre present. By highlighting the capabilities of the Centre, the future plans for harnessing the human potential available for the next generation in Africa are discussed. Argument was made for the need for integrated space technology and applications to be domesticated at the UN regional Centers for ease of access to best practice and fast-track sustainable developments and regional collaborations. In conclusion, the challenges of the Centre, which in turn impact on the local space workforce, are mentioned and recommendations are made to this effect.

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United Nations Education Program in Space Science and Technology 1988 2018

United Nations Education Program in Space Science and Technology 1988 2018

come highly interactive; the World Wide Web and other information technolo- gies have become useful tools in education programs at all levels. The incorpora- tion of elements of space science and technology into university-level science curricula can serve a dual purpose for countries. It can enable all countries to take advantage of the benefits inherent in the new technologies, which, in many cases, are spin-offs from space science and technology. It can revitalize the edu- cational system, introduce the concepts of high technology in a non-esoteric fa- shion and help create national capacities in science and technology in general. In that regard, Pyenson and Sheets-Pyenson (Pyenson & Sheets-Pyenson, 1999) emphasized in his work entitled “Servants of Nature” that:

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Space Law Space Communication Space Engineering Remote Sensing Space Science Space Education

Space Law Space Communication Space Engineering Remote Sensing Space Science Space Education

The ability to predict the resonant frequency of the microstrip antenna is highly desirable. With the empirical formula, the resonant frequency of the microstrip antenna can be determined before the antenna is fabricated to ensure minimum waste of physical resources. Plus, there is an ease of fabrication as the procedure to fabricate this antenna is using the same technology like the printed circuit board (Garg, 2001). Due to its highly configurable nature, various researches had been carried out to propose unique formulae to their own designs (Jose, 2015), (Rahim, 2005). These researches focused on more complex parameters such as the curved and angled edges and the number of modes. The curve and angled edges are slightly more prone to errors as their edges may not be fully covered by the ADS meshes upon simulation. The I – shaped antenna is a simple yet effective solution to this problem as discrepancies upon simulation and measurement is reduced but it will not account for errors caused by external factors such as soldering techniques and quality of the cable used. While the number of modes may be important to investigate other antenna parameters, it is not required to present an accurate empirical formula for the resonant frequency. This paper presents an accurate empirical formula by accounting only the physical properties of the antenna such as the dielectric substrate, thickness of the substrate and the resonating dimensions to predict the resonant frequency. This is a better solution as these parameters can be easily measured with instruments such as callipers and rulers. The presented antenna is single banded with the resonant frequency of 5GHz.

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ESF Statement on the Green Paper on European Space Policy

ESF Statement on the Green Paper on European Space Policy

Progress requires a sequence of research investments aimed at acquiring knowledge, maturing technology and developing applications. The time required for the development of this sequence however can be very long, particularly in the space sector, and this delay hides the links between research and progress, and weakens the consensus on the recognition of the need, both for research and for a long-term planning, that is consistent among its components (knowledge, technology and applications). In addition, applications do not usually stem straightforwardly from well-identified research perspectives. Rather they are often the result of an essentially unpredictable process, although adequate accompanying funding mechanisms, carefully identified steps and due involvement of the users, can help to ease this uncertainty. An important requisite for the construction of an efficient European space strategy is thus to create the conditions for the development of a balanced and long-term planning of the activities.

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Science and Technology in Ireland

Science and Technology in Ireland

Since its formation in 2000, SFI has awarded (following competitive international peer review) over €320 million to support more than 750 outstanding researchers and their teams in creating the knowledge and driving the discoveries to underpin future competitiveness in key industries. SFI has commenced investment of €67 million, over five years, in five new Centres for Science, Engineering and Technology (CSETs). These investments will create a set of research partnerships, connecting Irish universities with their counterparts from world-leading research corporations and some of Ireland’s most promising biotechnology and ICT companies.

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Significant contribution of chemistry in ancient Indian science and technology

Significant contribution of chemistry in ancient Indian science and technology

Ancient India, an important role in the development of chemistry was made by Ayurveda which used a variety of minerals. Science and technology in ancient and medieval India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities. In any, early civilization, metallurgy has remained an activity central to all civilizations from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, to all other civilizations that followed. The Indus valley civilization was the earliest society, the story of early chemistry in India begins from here. Traces of cement had been ford in the era of Mohanjodaro. According to RigVeda, tanning of leather and dyeing of cotton was practiced during this period. After Vedas classical texts which give valuable information about the chemical activities of this period. The major chemical products of this period were glass, paper, soap, dyeing, cosmetics and perfumes, alcoholic lacquers, pharmaceuticals, gun powder and saltpeter. Nagarjuna (metallurgist) and Kanada were chemist of ancient period. Indian and Persian army used arrows tipped with iron. In the Gupta age metallurgical operations were found. Nataraja statue the god of dance is made of five metals Pancha Dhatu and Iron Pillar, Delhi is as a silent witness to assert the striking metallurgical skill of the Hindus. Paintings found on walls of Ajanta and Ellora also testify to the high level of chemical science achieved in ancient India.

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Introduction to Technology in Science

Introduction to Technology in Science

As in all organizations dealing with sophisticated technology, new tools can only be used effectively if they are properly integrated into the entire business strategy and operation. To do this properly requires not only the necessary investments in hardware and software, but also in the retraining and/or hiring of personnel to utilize the new technology in the proper organizational context. Failure to implement your GIS without regard for a proper organizational commitment will result in an unsuccessful system . It is simply not sufficient for an organization to purchase a computer with some GIS software, hire some enthusiastic individuals and expect instant success.

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“Philosophical Treatises on Life and Death”:Newspaper Coverage of a Controversial Brain Death Case

“Philosophical Treatises on Life and Death”:Newspaper Coverage of a Controversial Brain Death Case

Working on this thesis has been an extraordinary experience, and so many people have been part of it. I am very grateful to my family and the friends I have come to know. They have supported me on this phase of my academic journey, and I could not have done this without their love and prayers. I am also appreciative of my time at the United States Space and Rocket Center, which is where I drew most of this material. They have a lovely and enthusiastic team of curators, archivists, educators, and museum specialists who answered all of my questions about the various papers, rockets, and other materials at the Space and Rocket Center. Also to thank are the wonderful reference librarians, archivists, and subject specialists in the Manuscript Division at the Library of Congress. They let me come in on Saturdays and look through materials for this research, and they also provided me with much needed advice about the history and library/information science professions today. Lastly, I greatly appreciate my committee, my colleagues, and all other faculty members who helped me work through a myriad of ideas. Thank you for reading every draft, for listening to every idea, and for reminding me that history is always relevant.

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A Review: Forgery Image Detection in Forensics

A Review: Forgery Image Detection in Forensics

In proposed system, it separate illuminant maps, as a possible picture changed space that catch, to some degree, the lighting information in a scene and that underline deserted in the midst of the extortion system. To catch such properties, we researched picture descriptors that dismember shading, surface and shape signals. The shading descriptors perceive if practically identical parts of the question are shaded in the IM similarly. The surface descriptors depict the transport of tones through IMs in a given zone. Finally, shape descriptors incorporate properties related to the dissent edges in such IMs. In this work, it showed an improved approach to manage recognizing composites of people that explore correlative information for depicting pictures. In any case, as opposed to just stockpiling innumerable descriptors, we need to effectively find the most legitimate ones for the task. For that, we proposed a customized strategy for selecting and combining the best picture descriptors with their appropriate shading spaces and IMs.

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Challenges and Emerging Technology in 5G

Challenges and Emerging Technology in 5G

Certain approaches are already appearing in the context of 4G systems and are likely to evolve into 5G also Advanced Carrier Aggregation LTE will include the facility to combine disparate LTE carriers, which may or may not be in the same frequency band, to increase the peak user data rate and capacity of a network. The aim is to support up to five LTE carriers, each up to 20MHz bandwidth. Radio resource coordination between cells Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) feature of LTE-Advanced, which turns the OFDMA scheme to advantage by deliberately sending and receiving data between a mobile device and multiple LTE-Advanced base stations. Network architectures will interplay between cells of different sizes, between licensed and unlicensed spectrum, between Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) connections, and between LTE-Advanced and WiFi . Key Technology

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Some Modulus and Normal Structure in Banach Space

Some Modulus and Normal Structure in Banach Space

We present some sufficient conditions for which a Banach space X has normal structure in terms of the modulus of U-convexity, modulus of W ∗ -convexity, and the coe ffi cient R 1, X , which generalized some well-known results. Furthermore the relationship between modulus of convexity, modulus of smoothness, and Gao’s constant is considered, meanwhile the exact value of Milman modulus has been obtained for some Banach space.

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Science-Driven Scenario for Space Exploration

Science-Driven Scenario for Space Exploration

Recent evaluations conducted with international partners are pointing towards the possibility of imple- menting a ‘caching’ system for future Mars landers, to be retrieved by MSR missions. Such a caching sys- tem could then be developed by Europe for ExoMars, which would then include samples obtained by drill- ing. This approach could both increase the science return from future Mars landers and also, spread over several missions and a longer period of time the technological risk attached to potential multiple point failures of a single mission. Hence one possible op- tion would be for Europe to develop such a caching system for ExoMars. This option must be weighted, however, against the added complexity of the mission which could easily generate unacceptable delays and/ or budget increase.

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18MAB203T-U1-Week1.pdf

18MAB203T-U1-Week1.pdf

Definition 1.0.1 (Random Variable). Consider a random experiment with sample space S or Ω. Let ω be a sample point in Ω. We are interested in assigning a real number to each ω ∈ Ω. A random variable, X(ω), is a single-valued real function that assigns a real number, called the value of X(ω), to each sample point ω ∈ Ω. That is, it is a mapping of the sample space onto the real line. Generally a random variable is represented by a single letter X instead of the function X(ω). Therefore, in the remainder of the book we use X to denote a random variable. The sample space Ω is called the domain of the random variable X . Also, the collection of all numbers that are values of X is called the range of the random variable X.

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A Coefficient Related to Some Geometric Properties of a Banach Space

A Coefficient Related to Some Geometric Properties of a Banach Space

A Banach space X is called uniformly nonsquare see 7 if there exists δ > 0, such that xy/2 ≤ 1−δ or x−y/2 ≤ 1−δ wherever x, y ∈ SX. The number rA inf{sup{x−y : y ∈ A} : x ∈ A} is called Chebyshev radius of A. The number diamA sup{x−y : x, y ∈ A} is called diameter of A. A Banach space X is said to have the normal structure provided rA < diamA for every bounded closed convex subset A of X with diamA > 0.

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An Efficient Algorithm for Approximate String Matching

An Efficient Algorithm for Approximate String Matching

3) Hunt-Szymanski Algorithm: The Hunt-Szymanski algorithm solves the LCS problem in O ((r + n) log(n)) time and in O(r + n) space, where r denotes the number of match points. When the number of match points is small, the algorithm is very efficient. The algorithm is a represent ant of row-by-row paradigm presented previously. It tries to optimize the number of comparison by remembering where a contour line crosses the X axis vertically. Hunt-Szymanski developed an array called the THRESHOLD where stores indices of contours crossing the axis and speed up the computation by decreasing the number of cell comparisons.

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Introduction: Gender, Space and Technology

Introduction: Gender, Space and Technology

discipline’s enthusiasm for this topic can be seen with the publication of Geography and Technology, a twenty-five essay compendium published by the Association of American Geographers in honor of the organization’s centennial celebration in 2004 (Brunn et al., 2004). Though a full review of geography’s engagement with issues relating to information technology (IT) is not the purpose of this Introduction, some of the main themes to have emerged in this literature are the ways in which the information economy has changed urban space and social opportunity (Graham and Marvin, 2001; Wheeler, Aoyama and Warf, 2000); how new information technologies have re-shaped our daily routes through space and time (Adams, 1999; Kwan, 2002b); the social politics of geographic information systems (Curry, 1998; Schuurman, 2002; Kwan, 2002a; Kwan, 2002c); and the way in which information technology and the information economy shape and are shaped by social relations of gender, race and class (Boyer, 2004; Downey, 2002; Miewald, 2001; Moss and Kwan, 2004; Smith, 2003). While this last vein represents an especially vibrant and rapidly expanding field of scholarship – addressing questions of gender and mobility in socio-technical systems (Boyer, 2004; Downey, 2002); technology and the body (Moss and Kwan, 2004); and instances of women in marginalized communities using IT as a tool for advocacy and cultural preservation (Miewald, 2001; Smith, 2003) – we feel that as a whole this research has been under-emphasized in the discipline. It is the intention of this section to begin to correct this.

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The Cost of Clean Space- A Study of the Additional Fuel Costs of Launching Above Low Earth Orbit

The Cost of Clean Space- A Study of the Additional Fuel Costs of Launching Above Low Earth Orbit

cooperation among spacefaring nations through the creation of the Inter-Agency Debris Coordination Group. This group has already received endorsement from the United Nations Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and had outlined preliminary mitigation efforts in London in 2002. The severity and awareness of space debris has only grown since then, so it’s safe to assume that a similar spirit of cooperation exists today. The fact that the number of space- capable agencies, national and private, is still relatively small and that the field is made of technical experts means that cooperation for mutual benefit is not so far-fetched a goal. The highly focused and technical nature of the topic means that space debris is an issue that, for the moment, seems literally and figuratively above political polarization. Given the technical nature of the problem, the possibility of a successful clean space initiative among spacefaring nations is fairly high (McCormick, 2013). The remaining question then is not if international regulation of space is passed, but rather what types of precedents it sets. Passing policies now would fall to the 20 or so most wealthy nations of the world but would technically apply unilaterally, even to nations and corporations that have plans to move into space but are not yet spacefaring.

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Analysis of science, technology, and innovation policy and its challenges in ethiopia; an emphasis on the role of heis

Analysis of science, technology, and innovation policy and its challenges in ethiopia; an emphasis on the role of heis

The volume of financial resources earmarked by the government to support STI activities has been steadily increasing. However, the amount still remains scant. The following measures could be worth considering as a result: (1) the government should channel the scarce resources to focus on strategic STI areas; (2) the government should develop various funding instruments and modalities to allocate annual budget specifically devoted to science, innovation and technology. The government can introduce new methods of financing such as customized performance-based research funding systems (PRFS) to fit into the existing situation of the country; (3) universities may also use their internal revenues, and aggressively look for endowment funds from the private sector, non-profit organizations to fund R&D activities. Universities should also go extra miles to convince the private sector of the mutual benefits of R&D and technology transfer. Besides, provision of incentives to those private sector actors who are engaged in R&D through tax reliefs, allowing duty free importation of R&D facilities could further bolster their commitment to the system.

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Composition operator from weighted Bergman space to q Bloch space in politics

Composition operator from weighted Bergman space to q Bloch space in politics

When q = 1, B 1 = B is the classical Bloch space. Let ϕ ϕ = ( , 1 L , ϕ n ) be a holomorphic self-map of D n . The composition operator C ϕ is defined by C f ϕ = f o ϕ , f ∈ H D ( n ) .Composition operators acting on Bergman space and Bloch space have been well understood (see [1-5]). Recently several authors have studied composition operator on different spaces of analytic functions. When Bloch spaces ere characterized in [6]. Tang and Hu [7] have got the characterization of bounded or compact composition operators between weighted Bergman space and q-Bloch space on the unit disk D . For the higher-dimensional case, zhang [8] characterized the boundedness or compactness of the composition type operator from Bergman space to µ -Bloch type space in the unit ball. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the conditions for which C ϕ is a bounded operator or compact operator from weighted Bergman to q-Bloch space on the polydiscs.

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Effective role of Newspapers in Health and Environment Communication in Himalayan Terrain A case study of six newspapers published from Uttarakhand

Effective role of Newspapers in Health and Environment Communication in Himalayan Terrain A case study of six newspapers published from Uttarakhand

Generally all the newspapers take science news from the agencies. It means most of them are of national or international interest. So it becomes difficult for the common man to correlate this information with his own environment or surroundings. If these news items have any relevancy to them, then only readers do read those otherwise most of the science news goes down the drain. Whenever local science issues are covered by these newspapers, people read them carefully, whether they are health based, environmental or any other type.

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