The prospects of sparklingwineproduction by the ‘Champenoise’ method using alginate-immobilised yeast cells were examined. Grape varieties dominant in quantity were selected within the group of recommended and permitted varieties of Kutjevo vineyards, located in the eastern part of continental Croatia. Research revealed that there are no influential variations in the principal physicochemical and sensory characteristics between sparkling wines obtained through immobilised yeast and traditional sparkling method. The analysis of aroma compounds showed minor dif- ferences between samples. Observed oenological parameters assessed in the final products did not show any relevant oenological differences, with the exception of alcohol content, which was slightly higher in sparkling wines made with yeast cells immobilised with calcium alginate beads. According to this research, the sensory properties of the produced sparkling wines, compared to sparklingwine produced with free yeast, did not show any significant differences. On the full-scale obtained results indicate that some of the selected varieties can be sorted as suitable for the production of sparklingwine using immobilised yeast cells.
( Vigentini et al., 2014 ), though the influence of the environmental microorganisms is hardly recognizable. In recent years, many researches have been focused on the selection of indigenous strains to be used as a starter in particular style of wine or in specific regions, with the aim of providing sensory characteristics attributable to the territory of belonging ( Capece et al., 2010; Settanni et al., 2012; Suzzi et al., 2012; Tristezza et al., 2012; Rodríguez-Palero et al., 2013; Furdikova et al., 2014; Ilieva et al., 2017 ). This goal is not easy to carry on for sparklingwineproduction by traditional method because of the following reasons: first, the starting material is often a mixture of wines and additives (liqueur de tirage), formulated by an oenologist according to the cellar style ( Pozo-Bayón et al., 2009; Torresi et al., 2011 ). Besides, the final addition of liqueur de dosage can strongly affect the sensory traits ( Kemp et al., 2014 ). Second, several winemakers are convinced that the yeast role in the prise de mousse step is only useful for generating the over pressure into the bottle, without significantly influencing the aromatic features. Third, the strain selection for the second fermentation requires long times of testing to verify the effect on characteristics of the sparkling wines and the interactions among environmental and technological factors are difficult to be elucidated ( Borrull et al., 2015, 2016 ).
has had such a serious influence on the Italian sparklingwine scene. Originally conceived as a country buen retiro in the hills of Erbusco for a wild young man from Milan who had no real winemaking experience, the company has grown over the years one step at a time, and today produces 2.5% of all metodo classico in Italy, of a quality that pits itself against the finest Champagnes. Maurizio Zanella, 52 years old this year, remains the driving force, even after the powerful Santa Margherita group became part of the company’s management. Three quar- ters of Cà del Bosco’s production is sparkling Franciacorta, all of which are bottle matured for at least 24 months, rising to even 60 months in the case of wines such as Cuvée Annamaria Clementi Zanella, the apex of Italian metodo classico production. These wines have provided some unexpected surprises in blind tastings, demonstrating that the production process and choice of grapes is perhaps more important than pedigree.
Agricultural lands are the widest Human-modified ecosystems, making crop production the most extensive form of land use on Earth. However, in conventional agricultural land man- agement, soil erosion may be boosted up to 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than the natural rates of soil production, making unproductive about the 30% of the world’s arable. Nowa- days in Europe, vineyards represent the most erosion-prone agricultural lands, especially in Mediterranean countries, showing the highest erosion rates in comparison to other type of land uses. Prosecco wine is produced in NE Italy by a rate of 400 M bottles per year, with the fastest growing demand in the global market at present. A production of 90 M bottles year -1 is currently running in the historical Prosecco DOCG (215 km 2 ), in a steep hilly land- scape of Veneto Region (Conegliano-Valdobbiadene). To sustain wineproduction, agricul- tural intensification is at present increasing, by re-setting of hillslopes and land use changes towards new vineyard plantations. The aim of this study is to estimate and to map potential soil erosion rate, calculating a sort of “soil footprint” for wineproduction in different agricul- tural land-management scenarios. RUSLE model was adopted to estimate potential soil ero- sion in Mg ha − 1 year − 1 , by using high resolution topographic data (LiDAR), 10 years rainfall data analysis, detailed land use and local soil characteristics. For a conventional land-man- agement scenario the estimated that total potential soil erosion in the Prosecco DOCG area is 411,266 Mg year -1 , with an erosion rate of 19.5 Mg ha year -1 . Modelled soil erosion is mainly clustered on steep slopes, with rates higher than 40 Mg ha -1 year -1 . In Prosecco vine- yards potential soil erosion could reach 300,180 Mg year -1 , by a mean rate of 43.7 Mg ha -1 year -1 , which is 31 times higher than the upper limit of tolerable soil erosion threshold defined for Europe. In contrast, simulation of different nature-based scenarios (hedgerows, buffer strips, and grass cover) showed soil erosion could be effectively reduced: a 100% inter-row grass cover showed a reduction of almost 3 times in vineyards (from 43.7 to 14.6 Mg ha -1 year -1 ), saving about 50% of soil in the whole Prosecco DOCG. The soil footprint modelled for a conventional land-management scenario is about 3.3 kg every bottle a1111111111
The Riesling clones for this project were harvested approximately a month after the Chardonnay, Chardonnay musqué and Pinot noir clones. The delayed harvest date, due to the re-entry interval period after spraying, resulted in grapes that were further ripened as observed with a decrease in titratable acidity in the juice around 7 g L -1 for all treatments and at a concentration more suitable for table wineproduction. The soluble solids were also higher than those ofthe other varietals because of the later harvest date which resulted in an ethanol concentration around 12% (v/v) in the base wine; thus all Riesling wines were diluted prior to secondary fermentation (Table 4.7). The pH in the initial juice and sparklingwine at the midpoint was between 2.9-3.0 and within the ideal range for sparklingwineproduction (Ribéreau-Gayon et al. 2006). The ethanol concentration at the midpoint ranged between 12.7 – 13.4 % (v/v) (Table 4.7). Even with the dilution of the base wine prior to secondary fermentation, the ethanol in all Riesling treatments is above the maximum ideal value of 12.5% (v/v) ethanol in sparklingwine. Furthermore, there were significant differences in pressure between treatments. Clone 49 on SO4 rootstock with KS pectinase addition had an average pressure of 4.9 atm while the LAFAZYM® pectinase treatment had an average pressure of 7.1 atm at the midpoint. The varying pressures and higher ethanol concentrations may have been due to hand bottling the wine for secondary fermentation as compared to using a bottling line in a commercial setting. Wine and yeast culture were separately out for each bottle, which may have resulted in more variability.
c. Owners – as those, who decide about financing of all activities; structure of wineproduction in the Czech Republic projects into a multiple role of most of the owners – they are also employees, and winegrowers – and this projects into competitiveness of the Czech wineproduction, as well. Advantages of this reality especially include the influence of owners on the whole spectrum of operations within the product vertical of wine, their good knowledge of customer requirements, which – in the case of foreign competitors – is only intermediated, and not direct. Strong connection with particular region facilitating negotiations with the suppliers and local buyers, and shortening the way to the final consumer helps as well. On the other hand, this also lowers the potential to reach economies of scale and other size-bound advantages. Comparison of the structure of wineproduction in the Czech Republic, and in the neighbouring countries is provided in Figure 1.
in 2012, European organic wine could for the first time be labelled as such. it took more than 20 years to attain this goal, but now it offers organic winemakers an important opportunity to demonstrate their value-added and communicate their efforts. producers can use the organic logo to win consumers’ trust, and consumers can be assured that they are buying a completely organic product. Wine is the first arena in which the Eu was later than the uSa and other jurisdictions in writing organic rules; for all other products, it has been the pioneer. Between the introduction of the Eu’s first generation of organic legislation in 1991 and the introduction of organic wineproduction rules in 2012, the only labelling option open to producers using organic techniques was, “Wine made from organic grapes”, whereby grape-growing was regulated by European organic legislation but the actual winemaking process was not. as a consequence, the shared label did not preclude significant differences across winemakers in terms of techniques or the identity and quantity of additives used. it should be mentioned that several private standards were developed to overcome the lack of a common regulation; they shared a common core (see Private Standards for Organic Wines, p. 8 ) but were nonetheless different, and not all organic winemakers followed them.
Wine tourism represents a clear example of a tourism experience created around a typical intensive product. It has been often promoted under the impulse of ‘neo-rural’ ethos, which means new rural entrepreneurship, new rural style of life, new tourist activities in the farm house, culture of hospitality and sustainability (Asero and Patti, 2009b). Williams (2001) remarks that there has been a shift ‘in wine country imagery from an emphasis on wineproduction processes and related facilities to more of an emphasis on aesthetic and experimental values associated with more leisure recreational and tourist pursuit’. Similarity, it has been noticed that wine provides a motivating factors for tourists to visit a destination as wine regions tend to be attractive places and vineyards aesthetically pleasing (Cambourne et al., 2000).
Approximately 90% of the total volume of is im- ported from the following nine countries: Italy, Hun- gary, Spain, Slovakia, France, Germany, Macedonia, Serbia, and Moldavia. With only some exceptions, the Czech foreign trade with wine are oriented at the EU countries. Nearly 1/3 of the total volume is imported from Italy, approximately 1/3 from another three countries (Hungary, Spain, and Slovakia) and approximately 1/3 from other countries. The develop- ment of wine imports from the individual countries is illustrated in Figure 7. It is obvious that immediately after the accession of the CR to the EU, the structure of three groups mentioned above was quite differ- ent. The EU common market organisation for wine and for several years the unsatisfied expectations of some countries caused jointly marked changes in wine imports into the CR. This caused that the vol- ume of wine imported from Italy nearly doubled and returned to the approximately initial position as late as in 2011/2012. This increase was to the detriment of imports from Austria, which decreased to 1/10. At the same time, imports from Slovakia increased approximately three times and those from Germany and France increased by 50%. A significant reason of the increased wine imports from these two countries was the introduction of the duty-free trade after the accession of the Czech Republic to the European Un- ion. This development clearly illustrates the effect of
Is to white wine what Cabernet is to red wine. When Chardonnay wines are made well, they are bold, rich, and complex and taste of ripe figs, peaches, honey and butter, hazelnuts and spice. Chardonnays, more than any other white wine, love to be aged in oak.
The theoretical contributions of Bastiat are certainly negligible but his doctrinal approach and more importantly his own history and success in the 1840s and 1850s are worth the attention of scholars interested in the diffusion of the economic thought and the use and misuse of economic theories and doctrines in newspapers and parliamentary debates. This is what my present contribution is about. In this respect, the study of Bastiat is much more interesting when using tools from the rhetoric in addition to those from economic theory. Moreover, the importance of the political debates calls for a somewhat more sociological approach to the case of Bastiat’s ideas and the issues of the Douro wine and brandy in the second half of the 19 th century.
work, the age of the firm and employed prevention systems. Industrial accidents mean a major physical, psychological and social harm to the worker, who suffers. In addition to the physical and psychological injuries caused, work related accident is a social prejudice in the worker's environment, and, in turn, economic decline, since in most cases, it involves the absence or incapacity to perform the production activity (Martín del Moral, 2006). The identification and assessment of risks in each process of winemaking are fundamental to establish the necessary preventive measures in order to minimize the threat, which generate in the physical, mental and social integrity of the worker.