Special Education In Developing Countries

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EDUCATIONAL INITIATIVES IN THE SAARC COUNTRIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO QUALITY ELEMENTARY EDUCATION IN THE REGION

EDUCATIONAL INITIATIVES IN THE SAARC COUNTRIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO QUALITY ELEMENTARY EDUCATION IN THE REGION

secondary and 12 percent for higher education. Despite such evidence, less than half of all educational spending in the developing world and only six percent of the official aid for education from industrialised nations is devoted to primary education. If the poor are to contribute to and benefit from the process of development, rather than being by-passed by it, then universal primary school enrolment for at least four years would seem to have a fair claim to a greater share of both internal and external resource. This perspective considers education as a tool for economic development and competitiveness of the society and the individuals to be educated as „human capital‟.Such studies provided a ground to support new investments in basic education, the very foundation of human development. Emphasis on primary education represents a direct approach to meeting the needs of the majority of children and a direct investment in „growth from below‟.(Haq &Haq, 1998)
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Agriculture Sector Impediments of Developing Countries with special reference to India

Agriculture Sector Impediments of Developing Countries with special reference to India

Himalayan glaciers are also receding at the fastest rates due to global warming, threatening water shortage for millions of people particularly in India, China and Nepal. Climate change will lead to increased hardship for India's poorest women. Women in India, especially in rural areas, are often responsible for providing daily essentials such as food and water. When climate change related disasters strike, researches have shown that the workload of women and girls increases, thus leading to their exclusion from opportunities like education and a diminishment in their equal participation in development. For example, deforestation increases the time women need to spend looking for fuel. Research has further shown that women have fewer means to adapt and prepare for extreme weather conditions. Many poor women are also actively engaged in agricultural activities, including paddy cultivation and fishing, that will be affected by changing weather patterns in India; loss of livelihood will increase their vulnerability and marginalization {UNDP 2007/8}.
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The implications of global financial crisis on developing countries-with special reference to Macedonia

The implications of global financial crisis on developing countries-with special reference to Macedonia

In the fiscal area, there was significant room to maneuver in a relatively large group of developing countries. They used this space to mitigate the effects of the external shock. Infrastructure investment and social spending were in the focus of these programs. The strategy depended on each country’s social policy framework. Universal social policies in the areas of nutrition, basic education and health should be the major policy focus, but targeted programs for the poor, such as conditional cash transfers, make sense in middle- income countries (in poorer countries, by definition, poverty is widespread and universal programs are clearly superior). Special emergency employment programs were also the essential complement, since unemployment insurance, the traditional automatic stabilizer of industrial countries is generally absent in developing countries. Within the available mix of policies, experience indicates that tax reduction policies are unlikely to have the best effects and, rather, strengthening the tax base should be the focus of policy makers.
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Special and differential treatment of developing countries in the WTO

Special and differential treatment of developing countries in the WTO

markets. The principle of non-reciprocity for developing countries (Article XXXVI) indi- cated recognition of unequal playing fields between developed and developing countries. Preferential treatment took many forms: better market access for exports by developing countries in accordance with GSP, so that they could boost economic development through exports; a lesser level of obligations for developing countries which provided them with the necessary flexibility to pursue policies for industrialization and economic development; and no requirement for developing countries to sign and adhere to all the agreements in GATT. In the early 1980s, the situation changed rather dramatically. There was a broad con- sensus that the past approach to SDT had been disappointing in that it had provided little incentive for developing countries to participate more fully in the multilateral trading system (Whalley, 1999). There was also a growing disenchantment with a development strategy based on import substitution and the protection of infant industries (Kreuger, 1997; Bora et al., 2000). As pointed out by Baldwin (2012), part of this disenchantment was due to the internationalization of supply chains, which made many developing countries real- ize that maintaining protection was increasingly costly. In previous decades, when most production was bundled and trade involved goods manufactured in one nation being sold in another, allowing poor nations to keep high tariffs, while rich nations liberalized, was seen by developing countries as a way to foster their infant industries. By contrast, in a world of international supply chains that rely crucially on imported intermediates, “protec- tion doesn’t protect industry, it destroys it”, as implied by the well-know rate of effective protection argument.
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"Specific Aspects of the WTO Negotiation Process: Problems and Solutions"

"Specific Aspects of the WTO Negotiation Process: Problems and Solutions"

should be admitted that, however good the preparation and however clear the objectives, the broad scope and importance of the issues under discussion made it impossible for any but the most well or- ganized delegations to analyze and clarify their own positions on these issues within the last couple of hours. The newly created groups of developing countries had neither adequate organization nor methods for effective decision making and at best were able to coordinate their positions on a certain issue and support it. For ex- ample, at the meeting on agriculture attended by representatives of the EU, the US and G-21, the latter stated that it could not par- ticipate in negotiations and would only consider the positions of the other two participants. The African Union refused to participate in negotiations on Singapore Issues despite the fact that some members did not share such a radical position. 11 As a result, one can only hy-
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There Is A Low Rate Of Women In Engineering Studies In Chile. Why?

There Is A Low Rate Of Women In Engineering Studies In Chile. Why?

We keep the original survey data as much as possible so that to reflect the point of view of women who have studied a major involved in engineering. For the integrity of the results as far as graphics are concerned, only the responses of the people who have completed the survey presented above have been taken into account, which becomes 80% of the total population surveyed, that is, a figure very significantAmong the most significant results, the following stand out: i) The most chosen specialty by female engineers is Civil Engineering, and, on the other hand, the least chosen is Execution Engineering. ii) Women engineers currently belong mostly to the first generation of professionals in their family. iii) The degree of satisfaction of the career choice is far superior to the option of having chosen another vocational training option for female engineers. iv) Similarly, respondents have responded that, if a teacher was involved in their decision to study engineering, said teacher would be in the area of mathematics. v) Of the women engineers who currently practice their profession, most of them are in a management position. vi) The religion that predominates among the respondents is Catholic. vii) Family members of a large part of the population surveyed have not encouraged career choice. We carried out a data crossing for emphasizing on i) Average of mathematics in primary education vs. secondary education along with the relevance of teachers in their subjects according to training areas; ii) Games in childhood (extracurricular activities); iii) Family support of career choice; iv) Family motivation for the selection of an engineering career; v) Relevance between professional generation in the family vs. family support for the chosen career; vi) Level of subjectivity of recognition and/or academic requirement; vii) Gender relevance of influencers in career choice; viii) Extracurricular activities in secondary education; ix) Graphs of self-perception in adolescence; x) Activities frequently carried out with friends.
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The European Community and the developing countries. European Studies 5, 1969

The European Community and the developing countries. European Studies 5, 1969

These agreements are important in demonstrating the Community's willingness to make special concessions for some developing countries in the absence of a world-wide system of trade prefe[r]

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Staying Afloat When the Wind Shifts: External Factors and Emerging-Market Banking Crises

Staying Afloat When the Wind Shifts: External Factors and Emerging-Market Banking Crises

The policy implications are clear. Insofar as banking systems in emerging markets are unusually dependent on offshore funds and susceptible to destabilization by sudden changes in global credit conditions, standard levels of regulatory and macroeconomic prudence may not be enough to insulate them from banking crises. The prudential requirements used by high-income countries use to protect their banking systems from domestic sources of instability may have to be supplemented in developing countries by an extra layer of insulation to protect their banking systems against externally-generated or amplified disturbances. Examples of the kind of measures we have in mind include limiting the short-term, foreign-currency-denominated liabilities of banks, adjusting domestic reserve and liquidity requirements to prevent an elastic supply of foreign funds from encouraging an excessive expansion of cyclically-sensitive loans, and requiring developing-country banks to meet even more demanding capital standards than their industrial-country counterparts.
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A study of the long term influence of early childhood education and care on the risk for developing special educational needs

A study of the long term influence of early childhood education and care on the risk for developing special educational needs

Preschool programs were already viewed in the 1960s as important for preventing or correcting the cognitive deficits found in disadvantaged children (Weikart, 1966 reprinted 2016). For example, the Perry Preschool Project offered a structured preschool program to children identified as in need of special educational services, with mean IQs below 80. After one year of preschool this rose more than 10 IQ points in each of three studies, moving the children out of the range that would define them as having SEN. The program was “an effort to firmly establish the precursors essential for the development of an adequate intellectual foundation to permit the growth of language and logical thought.” (Weikart, 2016, p. 11). Weikart concluded the best time to intervene to reduce the risk of special educational needs at school age is between the ages of one and three years.
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The Need For Lifelong Learning In Nigeria’s Banking Industry

The Need For Lifelong Learning In Nigeria’s Banking Industry

Every society (nation) needs its banking sector to function maximally, given the strategic importance of banks. Jegede (2014), citing Oladejo and Oladipupo (2011) and Afolabi (2004), posited that the banking system is unquestionably the engine of growth in any economy in the world, either developed or developing, through its function of financial intermediation; it occupies a crucial position in the country’s financial system to supply customers with forms of exchange such as cash, cheque, checking accounts, credit cards, and to accept funds from depositors and lend them out to borrowers. In addition, they serve as important agents in the development process, and play the role of intermediary between people with surplus and shortages of capital by assisting in increasing the amount/portion of investments and, hence, national output. Given this position, one may argue that an ailing
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Waiting for Godot: Leadership for sustainability in higher education and the emergence of Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs).

Waiting for Godot: Leadership for sustainability in higher education and the emergence of Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs).

integration processes have intensified in recent years and should impart dynamism to global trade and enhance the trade and development possibilities for developing countries. In recent years, a growing number of these countries have adopted courageous policy reforms involving ambitious autonomous trade liberalization, while far-reaching reforms and profound restructuring processes are taking place in Central and Eastern European countries, paving the way for their integration into the world economy and the international trading system. Increased attention is being devoted to enhancing the role of enterprises and promoting competitive markets through adoption of competitive policies. The GSP has proved to be a useful trade policy instrument, although its objectives will have to be fulfilled, and trade facilitation strategies relating to electronic data interchange (EDI) have been effective in improving the trading efficiency of the public and private sectors. The interactions between environment policies and trade issues are manifold and have not yet been fully assessed. An early, balanced, comprehensive and successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations would bring about further liberalization and expansion of world trade, enhance the trade and development possibilities of
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ECONOMIC EDIFICE, URBANISATION AND RURAL EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

ECONOMIC EDIFICE, URBANISATION AND RURAL EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Since the advent of Official Development Aid (ODA) in the 1950’s aid projects focussed on primary education in rural areas on particular needs of the rural population (cf. Adler 1970). The objective was to provide functional vocationally oriented education and training in order to provide learners with a better understanding and knowledge of their environment so as enable them to learn farming oriented skills (Malassis 2011). The aim of this type of education was both economic and social. By the mud-1970’s, however, a different philosophy emerged, which differentiated between ‘ruralisation of the curriculum’ and ‘ruralisation of education’ (cf. Jackson 2000). The latter denotes various approaches in content and teaching-learning activities that provide rural areas with schools, teachers and facilities so that learners in rural areas have access to education. In contrast, the former denotes an overhaul of existing school curriculum to focus on the acquisition of agricultural capacity. However, this distinction did not emerge as an important discussion in an academic literature of its times. However speculative, it could be said that due to a lack of a substantive academic discussion certain vagueness in the concept of ‘ruralisation’ of rural education remains (Ndjabili, 2004). Notwithstanding this the concept of basic education gained traction in developing countries through ODA.
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Documents 1990

Documents 1990

Community budget, financial management developing countries, invitation to tender, report financing of aid, Lomé Convention education cooperation agreement, EC agreement, EFTA education [r]

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Need for Competency Based Radiation Oncology Education in Developing Countries

Need for Competency Based Radiation Oncology Education in Developing Countries

Modern developments in radiation oncology require specialists who are able to meet the associated growing challenges. This can be achieved by providing the knowledge, skills and attitudes which underpin defined competencies in areas including communication, collaboration, social actions, organization and man- agement. Knowledge and skills necessary for the application of certain tech- niques in specific fields of oncology have been recognized and underlined as the major driving forces for education and training in the past, which included im- plicitly the ability to carry out specific activities. A new explicit paradigm ‘‘com- petency’’ expresses the knowledge, skills and attitude in a way that ensures pro- fessionals in current and future oncology-related disciplines are educated ap- propriately and comprehensively in order to meet the growing demands of more complex patient management approaches.
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Medical education in the developing countries of Afro Asia : a critical review

Medical education in the developing countries of Afro Asia : a critical review

schools and institutions of the health care system so as to jointly provide an integrated programme of education, research and delivery of preventive,curative and rehabilitative services[r]

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Vouchers for basic education in developing countries : a principal-agent perspective

Vouchers for basic education in developing countries : a principal-agent perspective

Some European countries with voucher systems, recognizing the incentive that flat per-pupil payments create for schools to select relatively advantaged students and for p[r]

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An Empirical Study on Effectiveness of SMS Marketing in Developing Countries with Special Focus on Pakistan

An Empirical Study on Effectiveness of SMS Marketing in Developing Countries with Special Focus on Pakistan

Mobile marketing also known as wireless marketing is a model of advertising that targets users of handheld mobile instruments like cell phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). Mobile or SMS Marketing allows direct communication with the consumers, targeted audience and potential market of the company with much ease and in less time. [1] (Haghirian, 2001). SMS marketing can be more cost effective than other medium as its main cost is just buying or collecting cell phone numbers. In developed countries it is very common exercise and also considered as highly effective tool but in developing this subject is still in its experimental phase [2] (Dickinger, Haghirian & Murphy, 2004). Keeping in view this status, an empirical study to identify the Effectiveness of SMS marketing in developing countries especially in Pakistan is conducted.
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Trends in International Trade in Higher Education: Implications and Options for Developing Countries. Sajitha Bashir

Trends in International Trade in Higher Education: Implications and Options for Developing Countries. Sajitha Bashir

Concerns in the academic community revolve around the following issues: (i) effects on institutional autonomy (ii) tenure of faculty and impacts on academic freedom (iii) intellectual property rights and (iv) undermining the role of higher education as an essential public service. The first three concerns relate to the need to change governance systems within traditional universities and regulations regarding the functioning of universities in order to compete with non-university higher education providers, either for-profit institutions or corporate universities. They are as pertinent for universities in developed countries as in developing countries, in the latter, the for-profit subsidiaries of public universities from developed countries fall into the same category. In order to be more market-oriented, develop appropriate curricula for different segments, and separate teaching from research, the consensual governance patterns of universities, relying largely on faculty collegiality, would need to change. Many leading US private universities find it difficult to launch overseas ventures partly because faculty preferences for research have to be factored in. Accommodating faculty research preferences is necessary because research contributes to the ‘brand image’ of the university. The presence of tenured faculty makes it difficult to compete on price. On the other hand, lack of tenure and increasing reliance on part time staff can impinge on academic freedom. In a situation where content development and delivery of the service are physically separated, and the content can be used in different locations, the question of who owns the rights to the instructional materials becomes paramount. For institutions in developing countries, this is a crucial issue that affects whether increased trade in higher education will be capacity-enhancing or whether faculty in these countries will specialize in the “low skill” jobs as instructors or facilitators of content delivery, rather than in contributing to the production and dissemination of academic knowledge.
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The Development Of Higher Education In Indonesia

The Development Of Higher Education In Indonesia

According to the Statistic Agency of Indonesia (BPS), in 2009, 740,200 (7.1%) was categorized as educated unemployment. In 2018, the number of educated unemployment rose significantly at 10.02%. Some blame the curriculum that is not relevant to the needs of society. Moreover, there is an external efficiency where many graduates work in areas outside their area of competencies and knowledge. Although some feel that they have been well educated to be able to work outside their ‗comfort zone‘, others feel that such a condition is a waste of resources. At present, only 25 percent of higher education graduates got a job that matches with their expertise. In terms of macro perspective, the rise on the number of educated unemployment and the emerging of external efficiency phenomenon are caused by several factors: (1). An education policy that is not oriented with market needs; (2). Economic policy, particularly investment, that is not capable to provide occupations for this type of unemployment; (3). Development economic policy that tends to capital intensive rather than labor-intensive; (4). Market becomes ―saturated‖ with some of the courses; and (5). Supply induce symptom where a lot of educated workers gives strong pressure to a small number of formal sectors. On the other hand, in terms of micro perspective, those problems are caused by the character and student‘s academic potential. Denison and Chung (cited in Digdowiseiso) argued that educated unemployment must answer the challenge to create their own job without over- reliance on the job market conditions or employers [1]. In other words, he strongly supports the argument of creating entrepreneurship culture in students. Also, the government has to give an incentive for the informal sector as it has unlimited ability to absorb many workers. Some argue that the curriculum is blamed for what happens in Indonesia. From primary school to a degree, many students are taught in terms of the theoretical framework without combining a practical aspect. Thus, we create a graduate who does not ready and is less competitive in the job market. The government of Indonesia reintroduced the ‗link and match‘ concept that focuses on how education policy, especially the curriculum, fits with the industry needs. However, the problem of this concept is to what extent this concept can be poured forth in a more operational framework. In terms of functional, some private universities have applied this program where many industry practitioners become lectures. Moreover, an internship may be
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DEVELOPING PSYCHOPEDAGOGICAL AND METHODICAL COMPETENCES IN SPECIAL / INCLUSIVE EDUCATION TEACHERS

DEVELOPING PSYCHOPEDAGOGICAL AND METHODICAL COMPETENCES IN SPECIAL / INCLUSIVE EDUCATION TEACHERS

The interpretation of the quantitative and qualitative results of the research makes it possible to build the socio-professional profile of the special and special inclusive education teachers. Thus, the former ones are people with bachelor's or master's degrees in the area of special psychopedagogy, have competences in the evaluation, diagnosis, therapy, rehabilitation, education, professionalization and monitoring the evolution of students with various disabilities. Therefore, the socio-professional profile of these teachers includes elements such as: the capacity to teach students with SEN in a personalized pace, adjusted to their needs, a good capacity for empathy, knowledge and attention given to age specific requirements, support given to students so that they can cope with school tasks and so on. On the other hand, the special inclusive education teachers can have bachelor's or master's degrees in specializations connected to special education or in any other field of study, provided that they have completed a postgraduate course in the field of special school psychopedagogy. As a result, their training in the area of special education might be without depth, their area of competences being limited to recognizing the problems faced by students with SEN, to using didactic strategies which can be applied to this category of students too, and to empathic communication within the school community. It is necessary, therefore, to develop these psycho-pedagogical and methodical competences of special education teachers, which can be achieved by involving them in projects developed in this field of specialization, or by completing continued professional training courses (Fernández, 2013, Wahlgren, 2016, Mrnjaus, 2012).
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