Special Operations Forces

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Effects of deployment on diet quality and nutritional status markers of elite U.S. Army special operations forces soldiers

Effects of deployment on diet quality and nutritional status markers of elite U.S. Army special operations forces soldiers

United States (U.S.) military personnel have deployed to support continuous military operations conducted since 2001. U.S. Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) Sol- diers, in particular, deploy frequently [1] and are respon- sible for executing critical defense capabilities regarded as special warfare, which includes training, advising, and assisting host nations, as well as surgical strike, which in- cludes some operations with humanitarian objectives such as hostage rescue [2]. SOF Soldiers must maintain high levels of physical and cognitive performance to respond effectively to mission requirements of ongoing and evol- ving conflicts [2]. Conventional and SOF Soldiers com- monly conduct missions from overseas bases known as forward operating bases (FOB), which have evolved over time to provide considerable shelter and nourishment. However, the environment remains austere relative to li- ving conditions in the U.S. and perishable and non- perishable food items can be difficult to transport to FOBs. The possibility of limited availability of food items requiring transport has the potential to decrease quality of dietary intake in deployed environments.
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Disrupt, Deny, Dismantle: A Special Operations Forces (SOF) Model for Combatting New Terrorism

Disrupt, Deny, Dismantle: A Special Operations Forces (SOF) Model for Combatting New Terrorism

Terrorism in the new millennium has morphed drastically since the 1970s. The terrorist organizations of today are a hybrid between the insurgent group models of the 1960s and modern terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda. This hybrid model has created what has become a transnational insurgency recruited, trained, and led by major terrorist networks such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). Even smaller regional groups such as Boko Haram have surpassed merely conducting terrorist attacks. These smaller groups are also focused on controlling territory. Tan (2008) refers to this change as “New Terrorism”. To combat New Terrorism, a combination of counterinsurgency tactics and counterterrorism tactics must be employed. This study will examine the need to define roles and responsibilities for various organization and various echelons through the introduction of a new Special Operations Forces model; Disrupt, Deny, Dismantle. The acronym to be used for this model is D 3. This model recommends different tactics, techniques, and procedures for forces not specifically assigned the counterterrorism mission. As new terrorism continues to change, only counterterrorism forces should be tasked with the Find Fix Finish, Exploit, Analyze, and Disseminate (F3EAD) model of targeting (Counterterrorism 2014). All other military and law enforcement elements should disrupt and deny the enemy in support of the counterterrorism effort. This study is based on extensive research and the author’s 23 years of experience serving in U.S. Army Special Forces. Throughout his career, the author interacted with people from various social, economic, and professional backgrounds throughout the Middle East, Africa, and the Balkans.
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Career Modeling of United States Army Officers in Special Operations Forces .

Career Modeling of United States Army Officers in Special Operations Forces .

order to begin training in for one of the SOF branches, an Army Special Operations Forces (ARSOF) board will select officers from throughout the Army who applied for training. The board is held once each year and selects officers from a particular year group. For example, the FY2012 ARSOF board convened in April 2012 to select officers from cohort year group 2009 (MILPER Message11-359). Additionally, accession by the board exempts the officer from unit deployments in the near future (MILPER Messages 08-091, 09-074, 10-111). Instead of deploy- ing, the officer will begin training in that SOF branch’s training pipeline. A training pipeline refers to the different schools the officer must attend in order to graduate. Typically, the pipeline consists of the SOF branch’s Assessment and Selection, the Captain’s Career Course, Airborne School, the specific SOF branch Qualification Course, and language training. If an officer has already completed one of these courses (such as Airborne School or a language), then he or she simply moves ahead in the training pipeline. Throughout the pipeline, the officer may fail a certain course. The officer may recycle through the course in the next class if the opportunity is available, or the officer reverts back to control of his or her basic branch. The graduation from the Qualification Course changes the officer’s branch from his or her previous branch (for ex- ample, infantry, armor, logistics, or military intelligence) to CA, PO, or SF. Graduation means that the officer has completed all training requirements for that particular SOF branch and the officer is now eligible to fill an authorized position within that branch.
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Optimizing long-term capital planning for Special Operations Forces

Optimizing long-term capital planning for Special Operations Forces

The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) J8 directorate is responsible for planning long-range capital expenditure for Special Operations Forces (SOF). In executing its mission as the designer of the future SOF, the USSOCOM J8 uses the Long-Range Capital Planning Toolkit (LRCPT) to compare total obligation authority to projected investments over a 30-year time horizon. The LRCPT allows USSOCOM to change project and resource category parameters to analyze the effects on available procurement and research, development, test, and evaluation allocations. This “what if” analysis allows for course-of-action comparison and helps USSOCOM visualize resource impacts, but the LRCPT does not provide an optimized program portfolio. The goal of this thesis is to improve the LRCPT by developing proof-of-principle optimization models for long-range capital planning. We present three linear optimization models: (1) the Binary Knapsack model, (2) the Weighted Goal Programming model, and (3) the Weighted Goal Programming with Platform Tracking model. These models can be incorporated into the LRCPT to provide USSOCOM with an efficient method for optimizing long-term procurement planning, ensuring there are no SOF capability gaps over the 30-year horizon.
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Standards in Weapons Training (Special Operations Forces) pdf

Standards in Weapons Training (Special Operations Forces) pdf

d. As an example: in an entire Special Forces Group, we count on a battalion-sized element requiring some phase of certification/ validation. In that battalion, one B team and six A teams may require weapon qualification ranges and ammunition. Weapons to be fired equates to 68 M16s, 12 M203s (including the M16 portion) and 8 pistols. The remaining elements of the battalion will require ammunition to support four fire tactical exercises (using blank am- munition), four LFXs and a CTC rotation for two B teams and 12 A teams. These are approximation methods and should not be taken as absolutes.
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Effect of chiropractic manipulative therapy on reaction time in special operations forces military personnel: a randomized controlled trial

Effect of chiropractic manipulative therapy on reaction time in special operations forces military personnel: a randomized controlled trial

hands, arms, or legs. Improved and coordinated reactions and responses to specific stimuli can be vital during com- bat military operations and other activities by reducing cognitive processing time. Understanding whether spinal manipulation has such an effect in persons with high-level physical capability also sheds more light on potential mechanisms influenced by spinal manipulation. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to answer the question: does chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) lead to improved reaction and response time in combat-ready SOF personnel reporting little or no pain?
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Understanding the global special operations network's value to counterterrorism: a balanced scorecard approach

Understanding the global special operations network's value to counterterrorism: a balanced scorecard approach

The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) intends to build a global network of special operations forces capable of meeting the requirements set forth by a changing national strategy. To understand the origins of the new strategy, consider the dominating news headlines regarding the United States Department of Defense over the past five years. Significant changes are happening as a result of a reduced presence in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Budget Control Act of 2011, and a strategic re-balancing towards Asia. These changes are occurring against a backdrop of numerous security threats, ranging from an increasingly assertive China to non-state extremist networks in the Horn of Africa, Central Asia, and rogue nation-states in the Middle East. As a result of these dynamics, in 2012 the President and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs released guidance on future American defense priorities. After a decade of sustained conflict, they seek to reshape the force, maintain a force capable of dealing with today’s threats, and share the burden of cost and risk with strategic partners (DoD, 2012a).
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Technological Upgradation of Paramilitery Forces (Special Area of Operation is the Key Issue)

Technological Upgradation of Paramilitery Forces (Special Area of Operation is the Key Issue)

The U.S. Company called Ops-Core developed its flagship product, the Future Assault Shell Technology, or FAST, helmet. Designed for special operations forces, it featured an integrated mount for night vision, as well as built-in retention lanyards for any night-vision devices. More significantly, along the rim of each side of the helmet was a mounting platform for accessories. The wearer could mount task lights, hearing protection, communication accessories, face protection, oxygen systems, video cameras, and numerous other devices. The FAST helmet came with pre-applied Velcro, which had become popular for mounting call sign and infrared identifiers. Rounding out the design was a new dial-based liner and strap system, which made adjusting the fit significantly easier. Despite being 30% lighter, the FAST still exceed the ballistic protection requirements of the ACH. Ops-Core also developed accessory rails for the existing MICH and ACH designs.(http://taskandpurpose.com/combat-helmets- have-moved-beyond-just-protection/)
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The USSOCOM Trinity: Refining Special Operations Commitment to 21st Century Warfare

The USSOCOM Trinity: Refining Special Operations Commitment to 21st Century Warfare

The Defense Strategic Guidance issued on 5 January 2012 changes the paradigm under which the American Military Establishment prepared to fight wars for the last 20 years. What follows is an examination of the ramifications of this change in regard to its impact on United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), and suggestions for a means and method in fiscally-constrained environments to provide the United States of America with a global capability to prevent and deter large-scale contingencies through the transformative utilization of existing Special Operations Forces. By reinforcing success in USSOCOM‟s own model for countering terrorism and replicating the efficacy of subordinate unified commands and Joint Task Forces, USSOCOM will remain the Tip of the Spear.
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KS4 Forces - Forces

KS4 Forces - Forces

Force diagrams show you the direction a force is acting in. It shows you the direction an object is being pushed, pulled or twisted. The direction of the arrow shows you the direction of the force. The sizes of the arrows can be used to compare the sizes of the forces.

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An analysis of Special Operations Command-South's distributive command and control concept

An analysis of Special Operations Command-South's distributive command and control concept

The current C2 element in the Southern Cone manages over three lines of operations which support both the partner nation military and multiple interagency efforts. Prior to placing a C2 element at the embassy, these lines of operations were managed by the J3 at SOCSOUTH Headquarters. However, through this arrangement, the J3 lacked any visibility into daily operations gained simply by residing at the U.S. Embassy. Consequently, the Operations Directorate could not guide its operations as precisely. By placing a SOF C2 element within the embassy, SOCSOUTH is better attuned to local issues that arise and can adjust its operations to improve support to interagency efforts. During a recent visit to the TBA, the authors observed SOCSOUTH’s node chief personally interact on several occasions with member of the country team. Without this communication, opportunities for proper employment of SOF might have been squandered. This persistent presence in the Embassy helps develop the confidence necessary for successful integration into the country team.
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Suicide attempts in U S  Army combat arms, special forces and combat medics

Suicide attempts in U S Army combat arms, special forces and combat medics

soldiers tend to be at high risk for posttraumatic stress reactions, suicidality, and other mental health problems relative to other military occupations [15–17]. Special forces (SF) are elite, highly trained soldiers who engage in frequent, often unconventional warfare operations. Al- though SF is a branch of CA, it warrants distinct consider- ation. Soldiers who successfully complete the rigorous selection process and training for SF may have unique characteristics [18–20] that make them more resilient than other soldiers [21]. Combat medics (CM) are also of particular interest, as they serve dual roles as both soldiers and healthcare providers [22]. CM can experience direct combat exposure while embedded with infantry units [23, 24] and are also directly exposed to the severe injury and death of soldiers they attempt to save.
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A comparative analysis of congressional budget adjustments for U.S. Special Operations Command

A comparative analysis of congressional budget adjustments for U.S. Special Operations Command

multiple sets of environmental conditions (i.e. desert to mountainous terrain, direct action mission profiles of short duration to extended cold weather operations while under heavy load) and maintain dexterity/comfort in the extremities. Recent operational experience indicates that users require improvements/additions to currently fielded glove systems. The SOF Modular Glove System utilizes five interchangeable gloves and applies the latest textile technology to reduce weight, minimize thermal discomfort in extreme cold weather, enable maximum dexterity, tactility, flexibility, protect the hand from heat and flame threats and provide exceptional moisture management. According to the requestor, this is a good use of public funds because the Special Operations Command intends to provide its operators with a protective glove system that enables them to conduct operations in all battlefield conditions, including extreme cold weather environments. Developed to be compatible with the SOF’s Protective Combat Uniform designed for frigid conditions, this SOF Modular Glove System will provide cold weather protection to -50 degrees as well as provide waterproof protection in wet conditions.
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‘Even had I wanted to   ’: intelligence and Special Operations in the Falklands Campaign

‘Even had I wanted to ’: intelligence and Special Operations in the Falklands Campaign

By the 1990s the Ministry of Defence had discovered - to its chagrin - that many SAS veterans were writing books, inspired in part by the literary endeavours of Sir Peter de la Billiere. 14 Accordingly, we have several accounts of the Falklands by SAS veterans to compare with this history. One of the most famous escapades was an SAS mission to sabotage an Argentine airbase. The War Cabinet, concerned that Royal Naval ships were vulnerable to Super Etendard bombers equipped with Exocet missiles, changed the rules of engagement to allow some activity on the mainland. It was proposed that special forces should undertake an intelligence-gathering mission, followed by an Entebbe-style raid on the Super Etendards at the Rio Grande airbase in Tierra del Fuego. Codenamed Operation Mikado, the SAS got cold feet and soon came to refer to this as Operation Certain Death. An SAS reconnaissance party in a RN helicopter took off on 17 May, but bad weather and low fuel forced it to land 50 miles from its target. Here the mission was aborted and it is often asserted that the RN helicopter crew was abandoned by the SAS troopers who scurried for the Chilean border. Meanwhile other SAS units had reportedly refused to carry out the main raid. Alas, Freedman sheds no light on these rather
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A Multiple Capability Sympathetic Detonator System for the U S  Special Forces pdf

A Multiple Capability Sympathetic Detonator System for the U S Special Forces pdf

Countdown & Absolute Timers are used for pre-setting the acoustic listening window SYDET and the detonation time Time Delay.... Operational Concepts In the Sympathetic Mode, SYDET Will D[r]

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5 years on from the EA10   Should the armed forces remain a special case?

5 years on from the EA10 Should the armed forces remain a special case?

ETD75 Art 2(2) did not include the combat effectiveness restriction, and nether did SDA75 s 7 which implemented it – could be argued that a number of situations in s 7 could have covered the armed forces but this was not considered by CJEU in Sirdar

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Irom Chanu Sharmila and the Movement against Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA)

Irom Chanu Sharmila and the Movement against Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA)

The annexation of Manipur into the Indian Territory in 1949 was not fully welcome to the people of Manipur. It was annexed through an accord signed between the King of Manipur Bodhchandra and the Indian state. The seeming discontent of the people was eventually expressed through various insurgent movements in the state. The militarisation of the state of Manipur was followed thereafter to curtail the voice of people for freedom and human rights. The armed forces of the state were stationed with special powers. Gradually the powers became a form of atrocity for the civilians and their rights. Horrifying stories of atrocity meted out by the armed forces became a regular feature of the lived experiences of the people. Mostly under the guise of an encounter, such atrocities took place and people bore the brunt without ‘protest’. In the process a ‘fear psychosis’ was created in the minds of the people perpetuating a culture of silence towards the extreme form of violation of human rights and dignity (Laishramchan, 2014). In these existing conditions, the event, which triggered off the people’s movement in Manipur, was the Malom massacre. Malom massacre took place in a small place called Malom where nine civilians were killed by the Army in broad daylight aftermath of a bomb attack on an AR convoy at Malom Makha Leikai (Manipuronline, 2014). As a witness to this incident, Irom Sharmila was deeply perturbed by the sufferings of the common people because of such heinous state policies and the rest is history. In this paper, Irom Sharmila’s struggle would be discussed in the form of a ‘hope’ for change and transformation. Her form of struggle is concretised against the historical specificity of the state and its formation in postcolonial India. Further, it discusses how along with an individual transformation collective transformation is important in order to experience both praxis and poesis for peace. Irom Sharmila’s struggle began with the ‘hope’ for change (see also, Pulla and Kharel, 2014). The change from peacelessness to peace, from violence to violence-free society, from conflict
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STATE OF CONNECTICUT. Division of Special Revenue ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS FOR PARI-MUTUEL OPERATIONS

STATE OF CONNECTICUT. Division of Special Revenue ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS FOR PARI-MUTUEL OPERATIONS

(t) Closing of entries. Entries for purse races shall close 24 hours prior to post time and no entry shall be received after that time, except when races fail to fill or in the case of printing errors, when additional time may be granted. There shall be no "also eligible" entries. (u) Starters. Every greyhound entered for a purse must be a starter unless it is scratched. (v) Special races and stake races. An association may conduct a race or series of races for a designated prize upon approval of the division. The association's request should include the source of purse monies to be paid, wagering format, qualification for entrance and the manner in which the purse will be distributed. All races conducted under such request shall be held in conformance with sections 12-574-F1 to 12-574-F65, inclusive, of the Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies.
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United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) CONTRUCTION MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK December 2009

United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) CONTRUCTION MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK December 2009

This handbook is meant to serve as a tactical guide for Contingency Contracting Officers (CCOs) performing construction-focused activities within the USSOCOM theatre of operations. This handbook is not intended to override or contradict any applicable regulation, policy, or standard operating procedure, nor is it intended to cover contingency contracting principles from A-Z. For an overview of contingency contracting fundamentals, see the USSOCOM Contingency Contracting Module or Contingency Contracting-A Joint Handbook for the 21 st Century. As an acquisition professional, a CCO should always practice responsible stewardship, flexibility, and adaptability to best support mission objectives. While this handbook will provide examples, possible solution sets, and guiding principles for successful construction management by a CCO, no two contingency experiences are the same. Thus, this handbook is intended to help the CCO operate with a synergistic
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Military Operations Associated With Internal Security And Special Rules For Opening Fire In Armed Conflicts

Military Operations Associated With Internal Security And Special Rules For Opening Fire In Armed Conflicts

311) provides that “the armed forces will often use the police when it suits them and will do things their own way when it does not” A further difficulty might be occasioned if the police are inadequately trained to deal with what for them might be an abnormal situation. Distrust between the armed forces and police can create all sorts of additional problems. Intelligence information tends to be jealously guarded and not shared. Duplication of effort due to mistrust results in inefficiency and undermines the state‟s security efforts. Marco, (2005: 215) states that “joint training between the military and the police, will ease operational problems, increase co-operation between the armed forces and civil authorities including the police”. This is vital in such operations and the key to a successful restoration of law and order.
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