Effective wildlife management not only focuses on sustaining the populations of the target species and their environment, but also understanding and cooperating with stakeholders, because policies may be ineffective without stakeholder support (Fisher, 1997; Nielsen, 1999). Understanding motivations of groups en‐ gaging in wildlife exploitation is critical in developing appropriate management and, where necessary, altering behaviour to optimize conservation benefits; in recreational fisheries, this can be the es‐ timation of current and future catch‐and‐release participation rates and promotion of catch‐and‐release of species at risk (Frijlink, 2011; Heard, Sutton, Rogers, & Huveneers, 2016; Sutton & Ditton, 2001). An angler's decision to release fish is determined by commitment to angling (specialization), consumptive orientation and contextual factors such as the size of the fishing party, hours fished and the number of different species caught (Sutton, 2003). Specialization is comprised of subdimensional properties that relate to an an‐ gler's experience, avidity, skill and the centrality of fishing to the angler's lifestyle (Ditton, Loomis, & Choi, 1992; Salz, Loomis, & Finn, 2001). Consumptive orientation measures the importance of certain catch‐related variables to the angler, namely catching numbers of fish, keeping fish, catching a trophy fish and catching something (Anderson, Ditton, & Hunt, 2007; Fedler & Ditton, 1986; Kyle, Norman, Jodice, Graefe, & Marsinko, 2007). Species must have unique value to stakeholders as food items or sport fish (Tracey, Lyle, Ewing, Hartmann, & Mapleson, 2013; Wallmo & Gentner, 2008) and may also have important conservation (Bruce, 2014; Heard et al., 2016; Jensen et al., 2009), economic (Hickley & Tompkins, 1998; Shrestha, Seidl, & Moraes, 2002; Galeano, Langenkamp, Levantis, Shafron, & Redmond, 2004; Prayaga, Rolfe, & Stoeckl, 2010; Frijlink, 2011) or social (Kellert, 1985; Neff & Yang, 2013; Philpott, 2002) at‐ tributes. Additional layers of geographic, cultural and/or social con‐ text (Graefe & Ditton, 1997; Grambsch & Fisher, 1991; Henry & Lyle, 2003; Rogers & Bailleul, 2015; Sutton, 2003) can yield important differences in attitude and behaviour towards wildlife.
For each of the fishes in the analysis, we also assigned categorical values for conservation status based on SARA Schedule 1 listing, and several life history and ecological traits based on information from Scott and Crossman (1998). Life history parameters were chosen for their potential to influence listing status. Categorical parameters included riverine or lacustrine, stream or lake spawners, anadromous, had benthic juvenile stages, benthic adult stages, juvenile and adult feeding guilds, whether the species are nest builders and whether the species experiences human exploitation in Canada. Human exploitation included both commercial and sport fishing harvest as well as commercial harvest for the bait industry. Additionally, continuous variables were assigned for maximum age, maximum length, age at maturity, and length at maturity (Appendix A). For cases where specific information was lacking in Scott and Crossman (1998), the species at risk registry (sararegistry.gc.ca) and Coker et al. (2001) were used to fill in the gaps. The ecological and life history traits were chosen for their potential to influence conservation status. Benthic life stages, for example, were chosen as possible
77 5.2 Significant Areas- Least Cost Path
The least cost path analysis runs through 8 properties (lot: 4, 5, 9, 12, 13, 17, 26, 27) which are termed “Significant Natural Areas,” according to the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Provincial Policy Statement, 2005. These sites are protected under the policy and development on significant wetlands, woodlands and natural areas are not permitted under section 2.1.4. Site alterations are not permitted on land classified as significant, nor on adjacent lands unless it can be “demonstrated that there will be no negative impacts on the natural features or their ecological function” (OMNR, 2010, p.6). The policy aims to maintain and restore significant natural area vegetative buffers with the planting of native plant species (OMNR, 2010). Fittingly, tallgrass prairie ecological corridors specifically function to meet policy objectives by providing essential buffers to “Significant Natural Areas.” Tallgrass prairie corridors contribute towards restoring lost habitat and developing habitat linkage using native plant species.
14 the Species at Risk Act (SARA) as early as 2002 (COSEWIC, 2008). Considered to be growing in numbers in the first half of the 1960s, SRKW population size dropped dramatically between the late 1960s and the early 1970s. This first decline was attributed to the development of a unique type of fishery: the live capture of killer whales. It is estimated that, over the period 1964-1973 a total of 47 individuals belonging to SRKW, half of which did not survive in captivity for more than a few years, were taken from their natural environment and transferred into aquaria and amusement parks (Bigg, 1975). Live captures of killer whales were banned in 1973, and, over the years following the ban, SRKW started to rebound. With a 19% increase over the period 1973-1980, SRKW went from 70 to 83 individuals. From 1981 to 1984, as a consequence of diminished birth rates and increased mortality rates of reproductive females and juveniles, SRKW experienced another phase of decline that brought the population to 74 individuals. This second phase of decline was the result of selective captures of mature individuals occurring during 1964- 1973 (Olesiuk et al., 1990). During the following 10 years (1985-1995), SRKW experienced a peak in the number of mature individuals, which was accompanied by reduced mortality rates and increased birth rates. In 1995, SRKW reached 99 individuals, a number that has not been surpassed, or even approached, over the past 22 years. As of June 16, 2018, SRKW accounts for 75 free-living orcas and for one individual living in captivity, at the Miami Seaquarium. More specifically, the L pod currently includes 34 individuals, while the J and K pods account for 23 and 18 individuals, respectively.
Central venous catheters (CVCs) have become essential in the management of critically ill patients, as well as other patient populations requiring acute or long-term medical care. Intravascular catheters can become colo- nized by microbial pathogens following an extraluminal or intraluminal route of endemic infection emanating from the insertion site and catheter connector/hub, respectively . Meta-analyses have been published demonstrating a reduced risk of CVC colonization and CVC-related bloodstream infection with some of the
The complete genomic sequence of H. Pylori and H. hepat- icus is now known. With the identification of H. pylori the paradigm for the management of peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, MALT lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma has undergone paradigm shift [20,21]. The H pylori infec- tion is now also been implicated in diverse conditions like coronary artery disease, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, skin diseases, and growth retardation in children [22-25]. The Helicobacter sp have been reported to survive in bile juice and that has prompted people to think "could this bacterial colonization of bile be responsible for hepato- biliary disease"? Helicobacter species has been identified in bile juice of patients with cholelithiasis, primary scleros- ing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis [26,27,4,28,29].
are ecologically similar to the potential area of introduction. The lack of history of invasiveness does not imply that risk is low unless it is known that the taxon was introduced in large numbers and/or established and nevertheless failed to become invasive. That is, one possible explanation for lack of information on invasiveness is that the taxon has not previously been introduced in sufficient numbers or under conditions suitable for escape, establishment, and spread. It is also possible that relevant information has not been made public yet or that relevant databases have not been updated due to limited resources. Pathogens and parasites should be considered. In many cases the risk assessment for associated pathogens and parasites will depend not only on the alien animal species being considered, but on precisely where it would be coming from -- as this would change the mix of pathogens and parasites that would need to be considered. How this would be addressed in practice may depend on data availability, technical capacities, or other variables. If compelling evidence exists that the risk of invasiveness of the taxon is high, then question 3a may become moot. In that case a jurisdiction with limited capacity might choose to make a decision to restrict or prohibit import based on the answer to Question 3,
Invasive fungal infections caused by Candida species have increased significantly. They now rank fourth as the most common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections in the United Stated  and the most common one at one major hospital in Taiwan . Candidemia is not only associated with a mortality of about 30% to 40% but also extends the duration of hospital stay [3,4] and increases the cost for medical care . In recent years, Candida spe- cies associated with candidemia have shifted from Cand- ida albicans to non-albicans Candida species (NAC) . Approximately half of the reported cases of candidemia are now caused by NAC [7-10].
6 Lasius neglectus has been blamed for damaging electrical equipment in a variety of locations where is it a pest species (Espadaler, 1999; Jolivet, 1986; Rey and Espadaler, 2004). Whilst the precise monetary value of this damage is rarely assessed, a colony at Saint- Desirat, France is estimated to have caused €5000 worth of damage over 4 years (Le Parisiene, 2015). The cost of reducing ant numbers within homes both in terms of materials used and expertise required is likely to be significant over time. The presence of L. neglectus could also have a negative impact on the value of property in an area, if the infestation were publicised. Measures taken to prevent the spread of ants from existing locations (e.g. restrictions on the movements of plants and soil) also result in a cost both in terms of inconvenience and money (Boase, 2014).
This study quantified reports of wildlife seen near to livestock around QENP showing that inter-species transmission of BTB infection is possible and showed feasible high-risk areas for interactions on the border of QENP. Sharing of grazing and water resources occurred frequently, which would favour environmental transmission. In contrast, infrequent close contact between species occurred which could possibly facilitate aerosol transmission. Although considering the environmental conditions, host determinants and pathogen factors, transmission of BTB between species is likely a rare spillover event. Other diseases, particularly those with tick vectors, could be easily transmitted within the time frames and distances reported in our study (Caron et al. 2013). Regarding the high number of sales in cattle herds, disease introductions in cattle from other livestock are likely to be a high-risk event, even though farmers may first implicate wildlife as a source of infection. Disease control at the point of movement and sale of cattle will presumably have a greater impact on the spread of BTB in livestock than controlling the interface between wildlife and cattle in a situation where eradication is not being considered. However, this intervention does not address the spread of the disease within wildlife. It is unknown what role other wildlife such as the Uganda kob, waterbuck and warthog play in infection transmission within this system, although they were regularly sighted near cattle and homesteads.
Model uncertainty is a sub-division of epistemic uncertainty that occurs as a result of methodological structure. The ISEIA and Harmonia + approaches may introduce model uncertainty by (1) applying the precautionary principle, and (2) using a semi-quantitative approach. The precautionary principle, or taking the worst-case scenario when different scenarios are possible, is advocated in Harmonia + (D’hondt et al. 2015) and ISEIA (Branquart et al. 2009), reflecting the requirements of the CBD (UNEP 2014a). Ironically, the application of the precautionary principle together with potential linguistic biases in relation to source information may exacerbate focussing and confirmation biases, anchoring, or framing by encouraging assessors to select information that portrays alien species in the worst possible light. Furthermore, D’hondt et al. (2015) suggest that choosing the maximum score from each category instead of the mean, while satisfying the precautionary principle, reduces the protocol’s discriminatory power by skewing the results of each module towards 1.0 as it is highly unlikely that a maximum score would not be applied to any single question. A reduction in discriminatory power and an accompanying increase in species classified as invasive may result in reduced management effectiveness if management budgets remain unchanged. In addition, application of the precautionary principle will have a greater effect for alien species that lack regional spread and impact data as knowledge gaps increase the need for reliance on expert knowledge. On the other hand, choosing the maximum score as part of a precautionary approach maintains the visibility of potential risks. Therefore, it is vital that the application of the precautionary principle is accompanied by a discussion of its potential implications for certainty of risk categorisations and protocol discriminatory power. Additionally, both the mean and the maximum scores can be made visible during the reporting stage to maximise transparency. Both the ISEIA and Harmonia + protocols are semi-quantitative methods that convert what
Sixteen of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge’s 38 mammals may be heading for serious trouble. Our Climate Change Vulnerability Index assessment found six species—polar bear, arctic fox, muskox, tundra vole, brown lemming and collared lemming—“extremely vulnerable” to climate change, indicating an extremely high likelihood that their num- bers or range within the refuge will substantially decrease or disappear by 2050. Ten species—lynx, wolverine, caribou, Dall sheep, Alaska mar- mot, arctic ground squirrel, singing vole, northern bog lemming, tundra shrew and barren ground shrew—were assessed as “highly vulnerable,” their abundance or range likely to decrease significantly by 2050. With the threat of climate change imminent for highly and extremely vulnerable species alike, refuge management priorities should focus on the animals of both designations—the 16 most vulnerable mammals in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
be taken into account in future control activities, espe- cially with regards of the marked prevalence of multidrug resistant malaria in these regions [5,14,15]. The increased infection risk associated with increased distance from health facilities points to the need to improve access to health care, especially in remote areas. Village malaria workers (VMW) or outreach activities in such areas can help until the infrastructures improve and population sta- bilizes. In Koh Kong, and particularly in Preah Vihear, the higher infection risk for children, and the effect of dis- tance to forest and bednet use, are consistent with trans- mission occurring in forest-fringe villages. Therefore, personal control measures such as impregnated bed-net use should be promoted or reinforced in these villages. In Sampovloun, risk of infection was highest for individuals aged 15–39 years mostly involved in farming and forest activities outside the village, suggesting that infection with malaria parasites occurs frequently in remote forest camps or new settlements and not in long-established villages. Thus, the distribution of impregnated hammock nets and information of forest workers on preventative behavior should be strengthened in this area. Two reasons account for the under-representation of adult men in our study population: i) individuals working outside their villages for farming and forest activities were not present the day of the survey; ii) this age group is poorly represented in Cambodian population which is characterised by a spe- cific deficit of males among the adult population because of excess mortality from civil war . Beside this limita- tion, this group was at higher risk of malaria in all survey areas, with an age-gender interaction being detected in Sampovloun. In the 15–39 year age group, males are likely to be more exposed to local malaria vectors due to farming or forest activities (woodcutting, hunting, gem- stone mining), working with the upper body uncovered and staying outside late at night with no bednet protec- tion [4,24,25]. These observations are consistent with pre- vious studies on forest malaria and malaria risk for men in South-East Asia [24-27]. The spatial distribution of preva- lence and the identification of the villages at malaria risk point to a stratified malaria endemicity in Cambodia. Considering the patchy situation of malaria in this coun- try, control strategies should therefore be primarily designed for and adjusted to the village level.
Concurrent infections with B. capreoli and Babesia sp. EU1 Concurrent infections of mammalian hosts with multiple Babesia species have not been reported to date. However, co-infections of mammalian hosts with tick-borne patho- gens of different genera are known to occur, including simultaneous infection with Babesia and Theileria (re- ported in cattle)  and co-infection with Babesia and Borrelia burgdorferi (observed in humans) . Similarily, infection of ticks with multiple pathogens has been re- ported [45-47]. The lack of identification of co-infections with two or more Babesia species in mammalian hosts may predominantly result from the applied methods of genetic analysis, which only identify single Babesia species from samples. Consequently, multiplex (real-time) PCRs or reverse line blot hybridization should be used to confidently exclude co-infections. Using our PCR-based approach, co-infection status with two Babesia species be- came apparent in five animals. Interestingly, the two ap- parently healthy Alpine chamois infected with B. capreoli were also infected with Babesia sp. EU1, and none of the three roe deer with co-infection had been found dead, raising the possibility that co-infection may dampen the pathogenic effect of either Babesia species. Indeed, experi- mental co-infection with B. divergens and Anaplasma phagocytophila in cattle resulted in markedly reduced hematological abnormalities when compared with animals infected with either pathogen . However, another study suggested that co-infection with two hemoparasites of low virulence can have additive effects and lead to dis- ease, while infection with either one would remain sub- clinical .
Data accessibility. The model was developed in R v. 3.0 (R: a language and environment for statistical computing; R Foundation for Statistical Computing, software available for download at http://www.R-project.org/). Additional packages used included Logit, BigMemory, Sp, RGDAL and spatial. The IP of the R code is currently held by EFSA; the code is available for use upon agreement by EFSA and the FLURISK project team partners. The population density data for commercial and backyard chickens was produced by the FAO, using preliminary datasets. GIS datasets of the final global population densities will be available on the Livestock GeoWiki as they are completed (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org). The country surveillance types are listed in ‘Country surveillance types.csv’. The records used to define the spatial distributions of HPAI H5N1 clades 1 and 2 are freely available and were downloaded from FAO’s Empres-i website, at http://empres-i.fao.org . We were able to match isolates from the Empres-i database to genetic sequencing information in GenBank for a limited number of H5N1 clade 1 and 2 isolates; these are listed, along with the characterization of the virus scores, in the supplementary file ‘FLURISK H5N1 virus analysis.xls’. A similar process was conducted for the H7N9 isolates; see ‘H7N9 linkages.xlsx’. It can be seen from these datasets that incomplete or unvalidated data collection means we are unable to match all isolates. The GIS .tif files associated with figures 4 and 5 are provided in the ‘Results.zip’, which also includes a .tif file of the spatial risk result for H5N1 clade 2 (50th percentile result). We also provide the first, 25th, 75th and 99th percentile results for H5N1 clade 1 as an example of the uncertainty generated through the analysis.
laboratory they can be laid on other surfaces (Kay, 2004; Warren and Tadic, 1970). Therefore eggs are considered most likely to enter New Zealand via containers where the containers are contaminated with foliage. It is uncertain whether the egg-laying behaviour observed in the laboratory would occur in the wild if a female became trapped inside a container. Since this behaviour has not been reported from the wild, and since neonate larvae do not typically travel in search of food (and therefore would be likely to starve if hatched on an container), egg laying on inanimate objects is assumed to be not significant for this risk analysis. This would need to be reconsidered if new information was found suggesting that (a) egg masses are consistently laid on inanimate objects in the wild and (b) larvae hatching from these egg masses are capable of surviving (specifically, locating food). Nonetheless, as the egg stage is reported to last only 5-23 days, egg masses laid on sea containers would only arrive in New Zealand if they contaminated goods just prior to loading. Egg masses associated with air containers are expected to arrive alive.
Previous risk assessments of zoonotic influenzas have tended to focus on identifying the molecular characteristics of the strain, the presenting signs and/or the epidemiological risk factors after human infections have occurred [47–49]. Most are qualitative and reactive, although there are more sophisticated spatial analyses, for example trying to predict the likely locations of further human H7N9 cases based on the occurrence of poultry markets . While statistical correlation is a useful method for describing spatial risk in the context of a specific organism, it does not readily assist (without large simplifying assumptions) when trying to identify and rank the risks of multiple strains, as decision makers will have to do in order to prioritise which strains are monitored and/or controlled. The same issue applies to several theoretical models that have been developed describing the (spatial) spread of AI in poultry and humans [51–54]; these models provide useful ways to assess a) how spread may occur in different circumstances and b) how spread may be mitigated under different control strategies, but are reasonably complex and focus on one generic strain of influenza. In addition, many of these models remain largely theoretical due to a lack of precise parameter estimation for a number of reasonably obscure or hard-to-measure parameters. We face similar problems of parameter estimation, however our focus on a relatively simple model that requires reasonably accessible parameters does somewhat mitigate this common problem. This allows us to be reasonably confident in the results of the epidemiological component of the model, although we still face difficulties with parameter estimation of the molecular component of the model due to a lack of knowledge about the genetic mechanisms that drive human infection. However, the explicit consideration of different strains does allow our model to better realise the aim of being used as a decision support tool that has breadth of coverage across variation in strain and space.
As in Italy (Veraldi and Valsecchi 2007), treatment strategies for tungiasis were diverse, with manipulation of lesions being the commonest. Even though unorthodox, early extraction is effective and touted as one of the most sustainable remedies for tungiasis in resource poor settings. Unfortunately, because of lack of light to illuminate body parts and lack of sterilised instruments to treat lesions safely, the risk of physical trauma and creation of ulcers that secondary bacteria can colonise and transmission of blood borne infections such as HIV between cases is too great to be ignored. Apart from clawing lesions using thorns and splinters, petroleum jelly and petroleum hydrocarbons such as grease and paraffin were common remedies for tungiasis. Even though 15% and 9% of respondents considered them effective, these by products are residual, requiring weeks of frequent use to be effective. They are also costly, ineffective against off host flea stages such as eggs and pupa, and therefore, are unsuitable for routine treatment of tungiasis. To lower the burden of tungiasis in the area, the potential of using safe modern insecticide and indigenous plants such as Mexican marigold to manage it should also be determined.
known mammal, bird, and amphibian spe- cies in tropical forests. Vulnerable, endan- gered, and extinct species were collectively far more likely to be imperilled by combina- tions of threats than expected by chance. In this previous study, the key environmental synergisms were habitat loss, fire, exotic- species invasions, and pollution (Laurance and Useche 2009). In addition, pathogens can interact with other driving factors, such as habitat loss, climate change, overexploita- tion, invasive species, and environmental pollution, to contribute to local and global extinctions (Smith, Acevedo-Whitehouse et al. 2009). In conclusion, we assume that a significant proportion of protected and endangered species that are stressed are also under pressure because of environmental stressors, as highlighted by several investiga- tions cited in Table 5 (Annex). Additionally, those species that are restricted to defined habitats may also face a higher risk of ex- tinction due to stochastic processes (Drake and Lodge 2004; Drake 2006; Griffen and Drake 2008).
The molecular methods used in this study revealed a low level of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs submitted to the rehoming shelter, with less than 5% presenting positive results. This is similar to the prevalence of infection (between 1.0% and 14.7%) identified in previous studies of dogs from various sources (e.g. stray, kennelled or pet dogs) in the United Kingdom and Europe (Dubná et al. 2007; Grimason et al. 1993; Osman et al. 2015; Overgaauw et al. 2009), North America (el-Ahraf et al. 1991; Smith et al. 2014), Japan (Abe et al. 2002), China (Jian et al. 2014), and Australia (Milstein and Goldsmid 1995). The majority of positive cases in this study were identified as the host adapted C. canis. C. canis has been reported as the only species infecting dogs in the majority of studies where PCR typing has been undertaken (de Lucio et al. 2017; Lucio-Forster et al. 2010; Morgan et al. 1997; Osman et al. 2015).