Specific energy consumption

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INFLUENCE OF COAL ROCK HARDNESS AND CONFINING PRESSURE ON SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF PDC BIT DURING GAS EXTRACTION BOREHOLE.

INFLUENCE OF COAL ROCK HARDNESS AND CONFINING PRESSURE ON SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF PDC BIT DURING GAS EXTRACTION BOREHOLE.

Specific energy consumption have a great influence on drilling performance of PDC bit in the process of gas drainage in soft coal seam gas drainage borehole. So study specific energy consumption of PDC bit drilling for gas extraction in soft coal seam is very important. When the confining pressure increased gradually, the increase of damage became slow along with the accumulative special energy absorbency, i.e., the higher confining pressure, the more energy needed for amphibolites to reach the same damage level. The formulas were putted forward for the damage, accumulative special energy absorbency and confining pressure [i]. For sandstone and granite with a single fracture, there is obvious hysteresis effect for the restitution of permeability in the process of unloading of confining pressure [ ii ]. The volume strain sensitivity to the confining pressure of low permeability

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Industrial Sustainability Index and Its Possible Improvement for Paper Industry

Industrial Sustainability Index and Its Possible Improvement for Paper Industry

This paper proposes a new index for assessing sustainability of the industrial sector i.e. the Industrial Sustainability Index (ISI) and demonstrates its utility by applying it to an energy intensive industry. The proposed index incorpo- rates all the three major dimensions of sustainability viz. economic, environ- mental, and social. It represents the socio-economic benefit of an industry per unit of its carbon emissions. The specific energy consumption or energy in- tensity (with commensurate carbon emissions), which is usually reported as a measure of environmental impact of various industries, does not include the social and economic parameters. The proposed ISI also overcomes the diffi- culties in assessing specific energy consumption such as allocation in case of multiple products and its variability with the type and scale of production. To illustrate, the proposed index has been evaluated for a typical paper industry in India. Further, opportunities for its improvement by fuel substitution and repowering through combined cycle power generation have been examined. With existing ISI of 16 units to an improved ISI of 78 units, approximately five times improvement in ISI was observed, indicating a potential for signif- icant improvement in industrial sustainability through such measures.

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Parameters of the hydro-mechanical mixer for diesel biofuel production

Parameters of the hydro-mechanical mixer for diesel biofuel production

Abstract: The aim of the work is determination of influence of the mixture temperature, of the frequency of mixer rotation and of the mixing time on the specific energy consumption of the process of diesel biofuel production with using of the laboratory mechanical mixer, determination of influence of the nozzle diameter, of the rate of turn-over of the pump shaft of the mixture delivery and of the angle of inclination of the blades on the rate of turn-over of the hydro-mechanical mixer and on the specific energy consumption during of diesel biofuel production, and also determination of influence of the amount of potassium methylate added to the oil on the diesel biofuel kinematic viscosity and the endurance time of diesel biofuel with air access on the flash temperature of diesel biofuel. The object of research was the laboratory mechanical mixer for determination of the specific energy consumption of the process of diesel biofuel production and pilot sample of the hydro-mechanical mixer for the diesel biofuel production. The subject of research was determination of energy parameters of the process of diesel biofuel production and of diesel biofuel quality parameters. Experimental studies were conducted with using the Box-Benghken plan, which minimizes the dispersion between the experimental data and the value obtained by regression equation. The regression equations to determine the specific energy consumption of the process of diesel biofuel production with using of the laboratory mechanical mixer and to determine the rate of turn-over of the hydro-mechanical mixer and the specific energy consumption of diesel biofuel production with using of the pilot sample of the hydro-mechanical mixer are obtained. The dependence of the influence of the nozzle diameter, the rate of turn-over of the pump shaft of the mixture delivery and the angle of inclination of the blades on the rate of turn-over of the hydro-mechanical mixer is established. The influence of the structural and technological parameters of the hydro-mechanical mixer on the specific energy consumption of diesel biofuel production is determined. The dependencies for determination of influence of the amount of potassium methylate added to the oil on the diesel biofuel kinematic viscosity and the endurance time of diesel biofuel with air access on the flash temperature of diesel biofuel are obtained.

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Characteristics of sunflower seed drying and microwave energy consumption

Characteristics of sunflower seed drying and microwave energy consumption

A b s t r a c t. The effect of the microwave-convective drying technique on the moisture ratio, drying rate, drying time, effective moisture diffusivity, microwave specific energy consumption, and energy efficiency of sunflower seeds were investigated. Drying took place in the falling rate period. Increasing the microwave power caused a significant decrease in the drying time. The drying data were fitted to four thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models was compared using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi-square and root mean square error between the obser- ved and predicted moisture ratios. The results showed that the Page model was found to satisfactorily describe the microwave-convecti- ve drying curves of sunflower seeds. The effective moisture diffu- sivity values were estimated from Fick diffusion model and varied from 1.73 10 -7 to 4.76 10 -7 m 2 s -1 . Increasing the microwave power resulted in a considerable increase in drying efficiency and a signi- ficant decrease in microwave specific energy consumption. The highest energy efficiency and the lowest microwave specific energy consumption were obtained at the microwave power of 300 W.

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ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AN INDUCTION FURNACE: A NEW APPROACH

ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AN INDUCTION FURNACE: A NEW APPROACH

The aim of this paper is to improve the overall performance of induction furnace and to improve melt rate with optimum use of electricity. This paper mainly put attention on induction furnace as these are main consumer of electricity in foundry. In case of induction furnace efficiency is sensitive to many controllable features lie in operational practices ,coil height, charge mix, furnace utilization etc. So with the help of recommendation ,it is easy to find out the ways to lower the specific energy consumption in this furnaces.

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Bio Diesel Synthesis from Kenaf Seed Oil and Performance Analysis of Its Bio Diesel Blends on Four Stroke, Compression Ignition Engine

Bio Diesel Synthesis from Kenaf Seed Oil and Performance Analysis of Its Bio Diesel Blends on Four Stroke, Compression Ignition Engine

few years because of its eco-friendly nature, low pollution emitting and non-toxic properties. Globally, there are hundreds of crops which can be used as a biodiesel feedstock. Use of biodiesel reduces dependence on non-renewable sources of energy such as fossil fuels. Oils generally have high viscosity, high density and high flash point and therefore they cannot be directly used as fuel in diesel engine. Suitable process is used in order to synthesize bio-diesel from oil to make its properties similar to that of conventional diesel. In present study, base catalyzed transesterification process has been used in order to get biodiesel from kenaf seed oil. Properties of kenaf seed oil and bio-diesel are comparative to that of conventional diesel. Biodiesel can either be used alone(B100) without any blending or it can be blended with conventional diesel according to ASTM specifications so as to ensure safe operation of CI engine which has been designed for conventional diesel fuel. In present study, objective is to analyze performance of kenaf seed bio-diesel and its blends. n-butanol will be used as an additive. Use of additive will enhance combustion quality of diesel. Engine performance parameters such as brake power (BP), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) have been measured under various load conditions for different bio-diesel blends and these performance parameters have been compared to that of conventional diesel.

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Solving Downgrade and DoS Attack Due to the Four Ways Handshake Vulnerabilities (WIFI)

Solving Downgrade and DoS Attack Due to the Four Ways Handshake Vulnerabilities (WIFI)

3.1.4 Brake Specific Energy Consumption (BSEC) BSEC is the energy input required to develop unit brake power and is independent of the fuel used. Fig. 4 presents the variation of BSEC for gasoline and the blends with load. Decrease in BSEC with increase in load were observed up to a load level of about 2500 g, and thereafter, a slight increase was observed. This could be due to percent increase in fuel required to operate the engine is less than the percent increase in brake power. The initial decrease in BSEC could be attributed to the complete and high combustion of fuel. Above 2500 g load level, the time taken for complete combustion of fuel decreased, hence a slight increase in BSEC was observed. It was as well observed that increase in proportion of n-butanol in the blend the calorific value decrease, while the specific fuel consumption increase, this is responsible for the lower BSEC of all blends than that of gasoline. The availability of the oxygen in the blends might as well be the reason for the lower BSEC.

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Performance Study of Preheated Degummed Jatropha oil on Agricultural Diesel Engine

Performance Study of Preheated Degummed Jatropha oil on Agricultural Diesel Engine

The variation of BSEC with the increase in power output and with the increase in concentration of DGJO in diesel fuel is presented in figure3. The result indicated the BSEC decrease with the increase in output up to 80% of load and after that BSEC again increases. The BSEC also increased with increase in concentration of DGJO with each blend of vegetable oil in diesel at all the stages. The minimum Brake specific energy consumption was observed at maximum power output with diesel fuel (14.6 MJ/kWh) followed by DGJO 20 (15.9 MJ/kWh). The minimum BSEC at

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Mathematical and neural network modelling of terebinth fruit under fluidized bed drying

Mathematical and neural network modelling of terebinth fruit under fluidized bed drying

The paper presents an application which uses Feed Forward Neural Networks (FFNNs) to model the non-linear behaviour of the terebinth fruit drying. Mathematical models and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) were used for prediction of effective moisture diffusivity, specific energy consumption, shrinkage, drying rate and moisture ratio in terebinth fruit. Feed Forward Neural Network (FFBP) and Cascade Forward Neural Network (CFNN) as well as training algorithms of Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and Bayesian regularization (BR) were used. Air temperature and velocity limits were 40–80°C and 0.81–4.35 m/s, respectively. The best outcome for the use of ANN for the effective moisture diffusivity appertained to CFNN network with BR training algorithm, topology of 2-3-1 and threshold function of TANSIG. Similarly, the best outcome for the use of ANN for drying rate and moisture ratio also appertained to CFNN network with LM training algorithm, topology of 3-2-4-2 and threshold function of TANSIG.

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A Comparative Study of Performance and Emissions Characteristics under Pure Diesel and Blends of Alternative Fuels of a C I Engine

A Comparative Study of Performance and Emissions Characteristics under Pure Diesel and Blends of Alternative Fuels of a C I Engine

The period during which both the inlet and exhaust valves are closed represents the significant part of the engine cycle, as the power is developed by the engine during this period. Hence the power cycle has been assumed to start from the point of inlet valve closing and extend until the exhaust valve opens. The assumptions that have been made during the in-cylinder processes, except the combustion process are described in detail in reference [13]. Energy equation – the general form of energy equation as applied to an open system is written as below:

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Modeling Method for Flexible Energy Behaviors in CNC Machining Systems

Modeling Method for Flexible Energy Behaviors in CNC Machining Systems

As a prerequisite, it is important to understand and analyze how electrical energy use or power demanded is consumed in CNC machining processes. Most stud- ies have been based on machining parameters to analyze energy consumption for CNC machining systems. Dra- ganescu et  al.  [7] statistically modeled the relationship between energy consumption and machining param- eters using the Response Surface Method. Diaz et al.  [8] and Velchev et al.  [9] characterized the specific energy of machine tools as a function of material removal rate. Li et  al.  [10] established an empirical model of energy consumption based on power measurements under various cutting conditions with different machining parameters. Lv et al.  [11] investigated the energy char- acteristics related to machining parameters and proposed the power models of CNC machining systems through an experimental method. Camposeco-Negrete [12] mod- eled energy consumption of machining parameters for a specific lathe machine tool with the Response Surface Method. Liu et  al.  [13] characterized the energy con- sumption of machining parameters for a specific milling

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Comparative Analysis of Air Cooled and Water Cooled Air Conditioning System in a Laboratory Building

Comparative Analysis of Air Cooled and Water Cooled Air Conditioning System in a Laboratory Building

3) Water Cooled Chillers: Water cooled condensers utilize water as consolidating medium and utilize a pump to course water through the condenser and out to cooling tower that rejects the heat to the air. A cooling tower is a specific heat exchanger in which air and water are carried into coordinate contact with each other to diminish the water's temperature. As this happens, a little volume of water is dissipated, diminishing the temperature of the water being flowed through the pinnacle. The utilization of the cooling tower gives water-cooled systems an effectiveness edge over air-cooled systems. The water-cooled chillers have water cooled condenser associated with cooling tower and are generally favored for medium and huge establishments where there is adequacy of water. Likewise, they are additionally favored in cases that is requested steady execution of the system, freely of the surrounding temperature (mechanical ventiating and cooling, ventilating of computerized systems and so forth), on the grounds that the limit of the water-cooled chillers are not influenced by the encompassing temperature changes.

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Investigation of energy-efficient solid desiccant system for wheat drying

Investigation of energy-efficient solid desiccant system for wheat drying

In this study, we proposed a solid DDS for the drying of wheat grains. Drying of agricultural products is crucial not only to avoid fungus/mold attacks but also to increase the shelf life of agricultural products [4] . It helps to minimize the demand and supply gap which ultimately brings economic stability of the agricultural products. Consequently, this can improve food shortage and malnutrition issues worldwide. Figures 2a and 2b represent the schematic and psychrometric diagrams of the proposed solid DDS. It mainly consists of: (i) a desiccant wheel used to dehumidify the air; (ii) heater for process air heating (bio-mass/gas or electric); (iii) drying bin/structure; (iv) heater for regeneration of desiccant wheel (electric driven or preferably bio-mass/gas driven). The numbers 1 to 7 showed in Figure 2 are the sequence and states of conditions of air during the drying process. It starts from the suction of ambient air by a desiccant wheel from state 1 to 2. At state 2, the specific humidity decreases from Y 1 to Y 2 due to adsorption of the moisture from the

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE FUELED WITH JATROPHA BIODIESEL

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE FUELED WITH JATROPHA BIODIESEL

In the last few decades, industrial growth, maintenance of quality of life, and diminishing fossil fuel reserves has lead to exploration for alternative fuel to fossil fuels. Vegetable oils such as soybean oil, canola oil, palm oil, rice bran oil, raspberry oil, mahua oil and sunflower oil can be directly used in diesel engines as biofuel [1], because these oils have comparable performance to that of diesel fuel with less exhaust emissions [2, 3]. Usage of vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines is not new as Rudolf Diesel first demonstrated his new diesel engine at the 1900 World Exhibition in Paris by using peanut oil. However, there are a few concerns on the usage of edible oil in biodiesel production, because this may affect food security and may inflate the food product prices [4-6] especially in heavily populated developing countries. Hence, this cause persuade to shift the search for alternative renewable energy sources towards usage of non-edible oils such as cottonseed, jatropha curcas, castrol, mustard, rubber seed, pongamia and neem oils etc. as biodiesel feedstock [7,8]. These renewable energy resources support the growth of rural employment, reduce the dependency on fuel imports and also reduce environmental pollution. The past research has revealed that with increase in volume fraction of n-butanol in biodiesel, there is reduction in exhaust emissions of the diesel engine when fueled with methyl ester of jatropha oil [9]. Some reviews have shown that the diesel engine delivers slightly lower brake thermal efficiency with less exhaust emissions when jatropha oil methyl ester was used as biodiesel in single cylinder DI engine [10, 11]. The increase in brake thermal efficiency and reduction in emission was noticed when diesel additive such as Multi-DM-32 added to jatropha biodiesel [16]. In this present research work, jatropha curcas oil which is non-edible oil is selected for the study of performance evaluation.

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Assessing the Effect of Window, its Shape and Shading Devices on the Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption (In the Region of Mashhad City)
                 

Assessing the Effect of Window, its Shape and Shading Devices on the Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption (In the Region of Mashhad City)  

energy consumption [3]. Since the overall heat transfer coefficient (or U-value) of windows is normally five times greater than those of other components of a building’s envelope (e.g., walls, doors, etc.), and about 20-40% of energy in a building is wasted through windows [4], the design and selection of a proper window system is one of the important strategies for effectively conserving the energy of a building [5]. Many studies were performed to calculate the effect of windows’ dimensions on the amount of heat passing through the window out and it was said that the Window Wall Ratios, in compared with the two factors of the shape of window and the direction of building, is the most important characteristics of window in terms of its effects on the change of total energy consumption [6] In recent years, more books, theses and articles were discussed about window but their discussion was more related to the kind of glass and/or airflow through the window. And also these issues have been discussed more in American and European countries [7] and [8] but, the effects of window’s dimensions on the thermal comfort has been discussed in Asian countries less.

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Influence of mill type on densified biomass comminution

Influence of mill type on densified biomass comminution

husk (Helianthus annus L.) pellets; and Colombian La Loma coal were provided by EDF Energy plc. South African eucalyptus (Euca- lyptus grandis) pellets, American steam exploded white wood chip pellets, and miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) pellets were pro- vided by E.ON UK plc. Steam exploded pellets are commercially produced by separating the lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses components of woody biomass though both chemical degradation and mechanical deformation. The process involves adiabatic expansion of water inside the wood tissue pores and auto hydrol- ysis of cell components [50], and is known to improve pellet den- sity, carbon content, and grindability [22,39,50,51]. Microwave torrefied white wood pellets, sourced from a commercial supplier, are produced by using microwave energy to directly and volumet- rically heat woody biomass through pyrolysis at temperatures below 350 ° C [52]. Microwave treatment improves pellet energy density and grindability, as well as creating a more hydrophobic material [35,53,54]. La Loma coal was included in the study to pro- vide a reference coal against which the performance of the bio- masses in coal mills could be compared. La Loma has a HGI value of 46, a standard HGI for coals burnt in UK coal fired power stations [39].

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Improving the performance and emission parameters of a single cylinder
spark ignition engine with Ethanol Gasoline blends

Improving the performance and emission parameters of a single cylinder spark ignition engine with Ethanol Gasoline blends

Hakan [10] studied the comparison of experimental and theoretical investigation of ethanol-gasoline blends in SI engine in a quasi-dimensional SI engine cycle model. The blending ratios were between 1.5 to 12 volume percentage of ethanol and with mathematical model, upto 21 volume percentage of ethanol. It was concluded that that the experiment with 7.5% of ethanol was optimal blend ratio on analyzing the engine performance and emissions, but the mathematical model revealed 16.5% ethanol proved to be an optimal blend ratio, which required further enhanced studies. A four stroke multi-cylinder Toyota Tercel 3A engine was used to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of unleaded gasoline and ethanol blend by Al-Hasan [3]. The performance parameters include brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, equivalence A/F ratio and brake power. The parameters were analyzed with variation in ethanol blend ratios. The results showed the performance parameters were better with notable decrease in BSFC and equivalence A/F ratio. It was also identified that CO and HC emissions decreased with a marginal increase in CO 2 , when 20% ethanol-gasoline blend ratio was

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Energy consumption of chipper coupled to a universal wheel skidder in the process of chipping wood

Energy consumption of chipper coupled to a universal wheel skidder in the process of chipping wood

ABSTRACT: The chipper for chips is an energy consuming machine. Many factors influence the result of chipping which influence the whole process. The paper deals with the process of wood chipping by a chipper in order to deter- mine its energy consumption. The main purpose was the determination of input power and comparison of revolution frequency on the outlet shaft of a skidder regarding the dimension of the torque depending on variable parameters which characterize the process of wood chipping during the measurement and the analysis of energy consumption of a chipping machine was carried out.

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Actual usage conditions and energy consumption of refrigerator freezers

Actual usage conditions and energy consumption of refrigerator freezers

A Phoenix single phase electronic energy meter (model SM68, class 2.0) manufactured by Smart meters technologies (M) Sdn. Bhd. was used to monitor the daily energy consumption in each house. All thirty houses were surveyed sequentially. Meter shows the readings in Wh up to 999.99 and it shows readings in kWh when readings are 1000.00 and above. Temperatures were recorded at three levels (top, middle, and bottom) of refrigerator-freezers compartment using a multi-purpose digital thermocouple. The technical specifications of the thermocouple are shown in table 1. However, only T type thermocouple was used in monitoring temperatures at different points of a refrigerator-freezer. A final year student who is working on energy efficiency project conducted data collection as the student has very good understanding about the monitoring approach.

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Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis Effects of the Electrodes Materials Nature on the Solar Water Electrolysis Performances

Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis Effects of the Electrodes Materials Nature on the Solar Water Electrolysis Performances

Like the electrodes couple of Aluminum/copper gives the best performances (high flow and efficiency, weak power consumption), we envisages to do better by re- placing aluminum by magnesium; this last has indeed an electrochemical potential lower than the aluminum and thus the potential difference with copper is increased.

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