There is a dearth of research on idiom interpretation in children with SLI. There is also limited evidence-based research on effective treatment strategies. However, Abrahamsen & Smith (2000) conducted a study of a heterogeneous group of eight students with communication impairments. The purpose of this research was to determine if children with communication disorders are able to learn idioms. More so, they wanted to compare the effectiveness of a computer-assisted instruction method during withdrawal sessions and an in-class method of instruction for the acquisition of idioms for children with specific-languageimpairments. The subjects were enrolled in a communication disorders classroom in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Age and grade levels of the subjects were not mentioned. All subject’s communication disorders were determined to be primarily responsible for the students’ lack of academic success in their general education curriculum. The Figurative Language subtest from the Test of Language Competence- Expanded Edition (Wiig & Secord, 1989) was administered individually to determine a standard score on the assessment of idioms.
Replication and extension of the findings of the present study, and investigation into the causes of impaired socioemotional processing in children with SLI or autism will be important for our understanding of both dis- orders. Specifically, if children with SLI are confirmed as having significant problems with processing voices, and possibly also faces, then descriptions of children with specificlanguageimpairments and approaches to work- ing with such children will need to be radically altered. Equally, it would not be logical to suggest as some theorists have done that autism is caused, or partly caused, by impaired ability to process social stimuli such as faces and voices, or facially, vocally, or bodily expressed affect. It would not be logical because if this were the case then children with SLI who also have these impairments should also be autistic. The impairments in processing social stimuli that occur in autism may, of course, be of a different kind and have a different cause, or cause(s), from those which occur in SLI. Furthermore it may be that whatever causes impaired processing of social stimuli in children with autism also causes the other signs and symptoms of autism. If this is the case, however, it is inaccurate and misleading to say that impaired processing of social stimuli causes autism : rather im- paired processing of social stimuli is one of the conse- quences of whatever fundamental psychological deficit(s) underlie autism.
This paper describes the construction of a procedure for dynamic assessment of the expressive grammar of children already identified with languageimpairments. Few instruments exist for the dynamic assessment of language and those that have been developed, have been largely used to successfully differentiate language impaired from culturally different or typically developing populations. The emphasis in this study was on eliciting clinically useful information that may be used to inform intervention for children with SLI. The method was piloted on three children with specificlanguageimpairments. The test-train-retest format made use of standardized administration of the CELF-3 (UK) before and after a designated training protocol. The training procedure required the children to formulate sentences from randomly presented words, assisted by mediation from the assessor. Results showed that the task used was valuable and appropriate for use as a dynamic measure, and elicited differentiated amounts of change in the children in response to the mediated training phase. Pre-test-post test results were inconclusive, however, and the frameworks for summarizing information could benefit from revision.
Only one study, by Whitehouse Barry and Bishop (2008), has directly examined whether poor non-word repetition in individuals with ASD-LI and SLI results from the same underlying neuropsychological dysfunction. Participants with ASD were subdivided into those with structural language impairment (n = 18), who scored below the 10 th percentile on two or more tests from a comprehensive language assessment battery, and those with normal language (n = 16), who scored in the normal range. In line with previous findings, participants with ASD-LI, as well as participants with SLI, performed significantly less well on the non-word repetition task than participants with ASD who were not language impaired. However, unlike previous studies in which only overall non-word repetition performance has been examined, Whitehouse et al. explored patterns of errors across stimuli with different syllable-lengths. In line with previous research (e.g., Coady & Evans, 2008), they found an effect of syllable-length in the SLI group, with errors increasing as syllable-length increased from two to five syllables. In contrast, syllable-length had little affect on performance in the ASD-LI group. Thus, participants with SLI and ASD-LI performed similarly when stimuli were two and three syllables in length, but the SLI group made significantly more errors than the ASD-LI group when stimuli were five syllables in length. The SLI group also made more errors than the ASD-LI group when stimuli were four syllables, although this difference failed to reach significance. The different patterns of error in the two groups provide some evidence, as Whitehouse et al. argue, that the underlying basis of the non-word repetition deficit is different in each disorder. This particular aspect of Whitehouse et al.’s results should be treated with some caution, however, because only a small number of individuals with ASD (n = 8) performed poorly enough on the non-word repetition measure to be included in the analyses.
Social media services such as Twitter offer an immense volume of real-world linguistic data. We explore the use of Twitter to obtain authen- tic user-generated text in low-resource lan- guages such as Nepali, Urdu, and Ukrainian. Automatic language identification (LID) can be used to extract language-specific data from Twitter, but it is unclear how well LID per- forms on short, informal texts in low-resource languages. We address this question by an- notating and releasing a large collection of tweets in nine languages, focusing on confus- able languages using the Cyrillic, Arabic, and Devanagari scripts. This is the first publicly- available collection of LID-annotated tweets in non-Latin scripts, and should become a standard evaluation set for LID systems. We also advance the state-of-the-art by evaluat- ing new, highly-accurate LID systems, trained both on our new corpus and on standard ma- terials only. Both types of systems achieve a huge performance improvement over the existing state-of-the-art, correctly classifying around 98% of our gold standard tweets. We provide a detailed analysis showing how the accuracy of our systems vary along certain di- mensions, such as the tweet-length and the amount of in- and out-of-domain training data.
The authors of this article use traditional research methods in order to describe languageimpairments in the individual phases of AD and discuss possibilities for their improvement with respect to AD. Therefore, first, a method of literature review of available sources describing languageimpairments in the individual phases of AD is exploited. Second, to show how informal caregivers and relevant drugs can successfully intervene in the improvement of these languageimpairments, a method of comparison of different research studies explor- ing such social intervention and medical treatment is used (Figure 1).
Social networking services offer new opportunities for people with special needs, although many of them often find the existing social network services too difficult to use. For example, much effort has been put into making Facebook more accessible for certain special groups , but it is still quite challenging for someone with intellecual and developmental disabilities (IDD), speech and language impairment (SLI) or difficulties in reading or writing . Also some senior citizens find social network services quite complicated to use.
Lastly, panel members ’ comments (S3 and S6 Docs), revealed concerns about prevailing prac- tice, and issues regarding service delivery. First, the issue of delay versus disorder in language development: although the difference is not supported by research, there appears to be a widely held belief that children with uneven profiles of language impairment are being prioritised for SLT/SLP services over those with 'flat' profiles of impairment. Second, there is a persisting ten- dency in some circles to think that intervention is not required when languageimpairments are associated with social disadvantage. Where these misconceptions persist, they need challenging. Regarding the resources for service delivery, there was concern that increased awareness of language difficulties and better identification might ‘ open floodgates ’ and that present services could not cope. We would argue that this concern is misplaced. Rather, it is important for greater recognition that language impairment is a public health and education concern, and one that will lead to greater social, medical and educational problems if not addressed. We are at a time when models of service delivery are under scrutiny, with recognition of the impor- tance of prevention as well as treatment . For those with persisting problems it is clearly important to delineate treatment pathways, to ensure correct referrals are made and response to intervention is monitored. Success in this endeavour will require better collaboration between speech and language professionals, those in education, and in mental health services, as well as a commitment to evidence-based policy and practice.
Supplementary comments: This topic was the most controversial of those we covered, and some panel members did not agree with this final statement. Nevertheless, on the basis of majority opinion, supported by research evidence, we do not endorse the traditional view, still used in some diagnostic systems, e.g., ICD-10 , of recognising language impairment only when there is a significant mismatch with nonverbal IQ. This kind of definition has come under attack from four directions. First, there has been a move away from sole reliance on IQ tests for diagnosing intellectual disability, to take into account ability to function adaptively in everyday life in terms of reasoning and judgement . Second, it has been shown that, in chil- dren with languageimpairments, level of nonverbal skills is not a reliable indicator of potential, does not determine response to language intervention [98,99,100,101] and is not associated with a unique linguistic profile [102,103,104]. Third, discrepancy scores are so unstable that they cannot provide a reliable basis for classification or diagnosis . Fourth, adequate lan- guage functioning is found in many children with low nonverbal IQ, contradicting the notion that nonverbal ability sets some kind of limit on rate of language development . In sum, where low nonverbal ability accompanies poor language skills, it should be seen as a correlate rather than an explanation. The key consideration in identifying language impairment is whether the child is likely to benefit from intervention and that is not determined by IQ. Indeed, restricting intervention to those with a large IQ discrepancy risks denying services to the children with the most severe and extensive needs .
We also examined whether levels of emotional and behavioural problems were associated with the background family characteristics that were available on the sample: children eligible for free school meals (FSM) and IDACI score. The former was tested within each group by a series of independent samples t-tests comparing scores for those who were, and who were not, eligible for FSM. The latter was tested by Pearson’s correlations. None of the associations reached our conservative significance level of p < .01 but for the LI group Peer problems were marginally higher in children eligible for FSM (p = .04) and in the ASD group Conduct problems were marginally associated with increased deprivation as measured by the IDACI score (p = .03). We then explored whether either eligibility for FSM or IDACI scores was associated with NVIQ, language and SRS score, again analysing each group separately. In the ASD group only IDACI score was moderately associated with the language composite (r = .-47, p < .001) and when this was partialled out (in addition to age) in the correlations between child characteristics and SDQ scores, the negative association between language ability and levels of emotional and behavioural problems was attenuated but still marginally significant for the SDQ Total problems score (r = -.41, p < .05) 1 .
remarkable successes have been reported of this modern technological medicine for speech- language development in children who have hearing loss during the past 35 years. Body of evidence does emphasis on the emergence of early-developing speech and language skills of cochlear implanted children than peer hearing aided, including increased comprehend and expressive vocabulary , mean length of utte- rance , syntactic complexity , improved vowel space , and increased auditory perce- ption . Despite these progresses, children with cochlear implants (CIs) have delay on narrative production development. Some resear- chers believe that in comparison with aged- match normal hearing peers, children with CIs have poorer oral narrative skills. For example, researchers observed that children with CIs demonstrate good results on quantity and cohe- rence of the utterances, but problematic outco- mes on quality, content and efficiency of retold stories. Indeed, children with CIs are classified as discourse language delayed group . In spite of all that, narrative intervention studies with hearing impairments and CIs children are sparse . Unfortunately, much of the avail- able information related to these interventions is anecdotal in nature; relatively few research stu- dies specifically addressed intervention or inst- ructional techniques to improve narrative ability and story comprehension for children with hear- ing impairment . These limitations lead us into a deeper investigation of the methods and results of NBLI approach in children with hear- ing impairments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess qualitatively the advantages and limitations of NBLI approach in these popu- lations based on the available scientific litera- ture.
Optimum build management is very important, even vi- tal for developers of applications that consist of hundreds of thousands or millions lines of code. This issue is gener- ally understood, and smart dependency checking (also called smart make or incremental compilation — all viewed by us as variants of the general smart recompilation technique) is provided in several IDEs and compilers for the Java pro- gramming language. Despite that, there are, to our best knowledge, no publications that document such a technol- ogy for the Java language (or any other statically type- checked programming language that compiles source code into portable bytecodes) at the level of detail that would al- low to verify or improve it. This may be one reason why this technology does not seem to be implemented equally well in the few different tools where it is available. There are also very few contemporary academic publications in this area. With this paper, we hope to partially close this gap. We also hope that it may provide useful guidelines for designers of similar technologies for other programming languages.
The system has been tested using small scale tests only. Testing the language in a real-life setting, not in student projects and proof-of-concepts, might prove useful to uncover potential problem areas or areas of improvement. Results of this tests may be used to either decide to research and implement potential language extensions. These can then be fed back to the users to test whether they indeed provide an improvement. Since performance is always an issue when it comes to game development, it might be wise to research what the performance penalty is for using the language. Throughout the language and the support framework care has been taken to not adversely effect performance, however, in some areas performance improvements might still be gained. One thing that might significantly improve performance is compiling the DSL model to an implementation in C# or general .NET code (MSIL) , which can then be used without requiring the DSL model to be running as well.
Additionally, evidence that more subtle language differences are evident at elevated rates among rela- tives of individuals with ASD points towards prag- matic language as a genetically meaningful domain in ASD, with potential for informing molecular ge- netic studies, which examine more specific ties to component phenotypes in ASD that may segregate independently and relate to distinct genetic under- pinnings (Losh, Sullivan, Trembath, & Piven, 2008). The development of computational tools for quan- tifying language impairment in ASD, such as the present study, may therefore contribute to future studies of ASD genetics as well. This can be accom- plished by applying the present study’s methods to large-scale datasets, which are appropriate for broad genetic studies. In addition, the methods presented below provide a continuous measure of pragmatic impairment, which can be more readily compared against genetic data.
These results indicate that NLP, though developed for children with autism (Koegel et al., 1987; Laski et al., 1988), can result in increased vocalizations for older adults with cognitive impairments. All participants experienced an increase in appropriate vocalizations with increases in unprompted language for two of three participants. Unfortunately, time constraints prohibited continuation of the experimental evaluation until the majority of appropriate responses were unprompted for all participants. However, anecdotal reports indicate that the two participants still served at the day program (Lucy and Patsy) are much more vocal than before participation with hundreds of vocalizations per day. Recent frequency data documents four to six words per day that have never been heard before for Lucy, with friendly greetings and social interactions occurring regularly. Recent data samples indicate up to 40 novel vocalizations per day for Patsy and infrequent use of highly repetitive and bizarre vocalizations that were common prior to intervention. The two participants with substantial inappropriate vocalizations experienced small to moderate decreases during intervention, though NLP does not specifically target inappropriate speech. Staff reported being very satisfied with the intervention and very surprised at the effects, particularly with Lucy who was previously thought to be mute. Lucy’s family member indicated her satisfaction with Lucy’s improvements and that she finds Lucy more animated, happier and engaged appropriately in more activities with noticeable increases in unprompted language since NLP was implemented.
A pervasive characteristic of DSLs is that they have a central and well-defined domain, allowing users to focus on the jargon of the problem domain, while screening away the complex internal operations of a system . Since DSLs are used for a specific problem domain, they tend to have a clear notation for it, using meaningful symbols that are easy to enter using a keyboard or mouse. This results in a smooth learning curve for domain experts, who may not be adept in core programming skills. DSLs also empower them to easily comprehend and specify logic of their applications, and also maintain them with changing requirements. Thus, the popularity of a well-designed DSL lies in its capability of improving users’ productivity and communication among domain experts.
on the alpha- bet. The class of the alphabet is often taught after the introduction of greetings and farewells. Well, here we have another chance to deepen further in teaching and learning these syntaxes. Ask students to make up an alphabet of nouns-object/ thing/place, present it in class and then identify the gender of these words, this can be done through a game if desired, for which the new technologies (com- puter tools applications) can be used, for example, “ Kahoot ”. During the class- topic-discussion set an exercise which consists in writing nous-phrases. For ex- ample, if the letter A is said and written the word “ auto ”, with the use of defi- nite/indefinite articles and descriptive-adjectives one can say/write a phrase: “ El auto blanco ”./ Un auto blanco . These examples of phrases show the concordance between the articles + noun + adjectives and they are addressed to empower the acquisition of the linguistic competence with regard to the use of ( gender , num- ber , and word-order ) in the writing and speaking context of Spanish language communication.
recruitment rounds. You are likely to ﬁnd that the careers service will offer courses (some accredited as part of your degree) to help you develop personal and transferable skills as well as individual advice and guidance. You are likely to ﬁnd that some of the staff of the careers service will have particular experience and knowledge in careers advice and guidance for students with impairments. It is worth getting to know how the careers service in your university works and how you can make the most of it. All university careers services belong to the Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services (AGCAS) which produces a range of publications, including some for graduates with impairments and disabilities. SKILL, the National Bureau for Students with Disabilities, is another very useful source of information and advice. The Hobsons Career Guide series includes a guide for students with disabilities. This is updated each year and can be an invaluable source to help you think through such issues as ‘should I disclose my disability to a potential employer?’, and ‘how can I avoid an interview focusing on my disability rather than on me?’. ‘Mentoring’ is one particular form of support and preparation for moving on from university. You may ﬁnd that your own university has a mentoring scheme in place, or you could take advantage of other organisations offering mentoring. One particular aspect of recruitment that you need to be aware of is the