Spirituality and breast cancer

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The Relationship Among Career Thoughts, Optimism, and Spirituality in Women diagnosed with Breast Cancer

The Relationship Among Career Thoughts, Optimism, and Spirituality in Women diagnosed with Breast Cancer

The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Spiritual Well- Being Scale (FACIT-Sp; Appendix C). The FACIT-Sp is a 12-item instrument used to measure spirituality of individuals diagnosed with cancer and chronic illnesses (Bredle et al., 2011). The FACIT-Sp was a revision of the original FACIT created by Cella (1997), which was used for individuals diagnosed with cancer and especially breast cancer. The self-administrated instrument has two subscales that include meaning/peace, and faith. Some statements include “I have reason for living”, “I feel peaceful”, and “I find comfort in my faith or spiritual beliefs”. The measurement of one’s spiritual well-being in the past week is measured on a 5-point likert-type scale ranging from (0 = ‘not at all’; 4 = ‘very much’; Edmondson, Park, Blank, Fenster, & Mills, 2008). Bredle (2011) expressed “. . . the internal reliability of the subscales was good (α = 0.81–0.88)” (p. 81). Validation to other instruments such as the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL), FACT-G, and different domains of Profile of Mood States (POMS) were tested with the total score of FACT-Sp. The results revealed a strong correlation (r = 0.58; Bredle, 2011). Another instrument was examined for this study was the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale- Revised (SIBS-R) used by Mobley (2011) on a sample of 647 Bahamian women. This was not used because only less than 3% of breast cancer survivors were surveyed. Procedures
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The effects of spirituality on anxiety and depression among breast cancer patients: the moderating effects of alexithymia and mindfulness

The effects of spirituality on anxiety and depression among breast cancer patients: the moderating effects of alexithymia and mindfulness

Two preliminary analyses were performed and each revealed interesting relationships. First, a correlation was run between stage of breast cancer and all other study variables to determine the viability of collapsing all participants into one group. There was a positive relationship between stage of breast cancer and anxiety (r = .25, p < .05). This suggests that as the severity of the breast cancer diagnosis increases, so does the anxiety of the breast cancer patient. This result is not surprising especially when considering the fact that serious illness can lead to profound questions of meaning, highlight one’s powerlessness, and make mortality seem more imminent (Pargament et al., 2005). Further, this finding is consistent with previous research results and with researchers’ suggestions that stage of breast cancer is a potentially confounding variable that should be controlled for when studying breast cancer patients (Compas et al., 1999; Hanson Frost et al., 2000). In this study, stage of breast cancer was controlled for by its inclusion as a demographic variable in the regression analysis for anxiety, with the finding that Stage of Breast Cancer did predict an additional 4% of the variance in Anxiety beyond what could be explained by the predictor variables (Spirituality, Alexithymia, and Mindfulness).
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Predictions of post-traumatic growth according to spirituality, social support and positive affection in deferent age groups with breast cancer

Predictions of post-traumatic growth according to spirituality, social support and positive affection in deferent age groups with breast cancer

The effect of spirituality on health and quality of life is particularly pronounced in people that are coping with consequences of diagnosis of cancer. Researchers have found that religious/spiritual factors in patients with breast cancer are related to physical well-being, positive coping method, and higher satisfaction in life [19]. Kim et al. concluded that spirituality has a positive and linear relationship with positive emotions in people that had grown up with religious dependencies, but no longer have these dependencies, or in people that currently have different dependencies from when they were growing up [20]. Jacobson et al. in their study on patients with advanced cancer found that belief in life after death is associated with lower levels despair due to ending of life, but has no relationship with depression or anxiety. However, with controlling spirituality levels, effects of belief in life after death disappeared. The authors concluded that spirituality had a powerful influence of mental performance compared to life after death beliefs [21]. Review of some articles shows reasonable evidence that religion and spirituality with emotional compliance are better associated with cancer. The results of some studies indicate that spirituality can act as a source of support, by providing the inner strength that helps the person understand situations of severe stress. Higher levels of religious and spiritual beliefs are related to more adaptive coping responses, higher resilience to stress, optimistic life orientation, and greater perceived social support, and lower levels are associated with anxiety among recovering patients. In addition, the relationship between effective coping responses and spirituality is particularly strong among women [22]. Garlick et al. showed that combined mental and spiritual treatment may enhance well-being and cause PTG in breast cancer patients. Women (24) that completed combined mental and spiritual therapy, PTG assessments, and quality of life, showed improvements in sub-scales of physical, emotional, and functional well-
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INCORPORATING ISLAMIC PRINCIPLES AND SPIRITUALITY INTO HEALTH ADVOCACY: A CASE FOR BREAST CANCER AWARENESS

INCORPORATING ISLAMIC PRINCIPLES AND SPIRITUALITY INTO HEALTH ADVOCACY: A CASE FOR BREAST CANCER AWARENESS

Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Qatar 1999-2000 Hematology/Oncology Section, Department of Medicine, Hamad Medical.. Corporation Doha, Qatar..[r]

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Polygenic Risk Scores for Prediction of Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Subtypes

Polygenic Risk Scores for Prediction of Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Subtypes

In the hard thresholding approach, a series of stepwise forward regression analyses were first carried out in 1 Mb regions centered on SNPs significant at a pre-specified threshold for association with either overall and/or subtype-specific disease in the training set. Only SNPs passing the specified p value thresholds were included in each 1 Mb region. Two analyses were performed in parallel: for overall breast cancer and ER-negative disease. At each stage the SNP with the smallest (conditional) p value for any analysis was added to the model, the threshold for the step- wise regression being the same as that for pre-selection. The pro- cess was repeated until no further SNPs could be added at the pre-defined threshold. A second stage of stepwise regressions were then carried out across all regions in each chromosome, to take into account correlated SNPs in different regions. Finally, the effect sizes for the selected SNPs were jointly estimated in a single logistic regression model.
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Reproductive factors with respect to breast cancer risk and breast cancer survival

Reproductive factors with respect to breast cancer risk and breast cancer survival

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women worldwide and its incidence is increasing in all countries, being highest in high income countries (1). In Sweden, for instance, one in every eight women is diagnosed with breast cancer during her lifetime (2). Despite the declining mortality from breast cancer in high-income countries in recent decades, this form of cancer still kills women more than any other form in all nations (3). Estrogens and reproductive factors associated with exposure to estrogen e.g., low parity, early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and late age at the time of first pregnancy, are well- known risk factors for breast cancer. During the course of life, women are exposed to different levels of estrogen, especially high levels during their fetal life and when they become pregnant. Thus, exposure during these latter periods may be particularly important for the development of breast cancer. The impact of reproductive factors on the risk of breast cancer has been examined in many studies and some researchers propose that these factors may also play a role in breast cancer mortality.
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Breast Cancer. Patient Resources. Classification of Breast Cancer YOUR GUIDE TO

Breast Cancer. Patient Resources. Classification of Breast Cancer YOUR GUIDE TO

with a margin of normal tissue. Generally smaller breast tumours can be managed with a lumpectomy, in which case the tumour is removed but the rest of the breast is left intact. This is usually followed with radiotherapy of the remaining breast.

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Ignatian Spirituality as Ecclesial Spirituality

Ignatian Spirituality as Ecclesial Spirituality

The key point I am making is that the Exercises presume more than simply the retreatant and Jesus, but a whole ecclesial way of life from which Ignatius draws in a range of ways – th[r]

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A REVIEW ON SCREENING METHODS OF BREAST CANCER, CANCER BIOMARKERS AND PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AGAINST BREAST CANCER

A REVIEW ON SCREENING METHODS OF BREAST CANCER, CANCER BIOMARKERS AND PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AGAINST BREAST CANCER

“A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. It might be used to view how great that body response on medicine for an infection alternately condition. In addition, it is also called as an atomic marker [17].” Biomarkers about malignant might incorporate an expansive range from claiming biochemical entities, for example, nucleic acids, proteins, sugars, lipids, also little metabolites, cytogenetic also cytokinetic parameters and also entire malignant units discovered in the body liquid. A thorough understanding of the significance of every biomarker will be a chance to extremely critical not best for diagnosing the ailment reliably, as well as help in the decision of different restorative plan at present accessible that is liable will profit the patients [18]. Biomarkers are utilized within three elementary ways as a diagnostic tool, prognostic tool, and predictive tool [19].
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Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

The data were analysed using the SPSS v.13 and Stata v.8.2 statistical packages (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA; Stata- Corp. LP, Texas, USA). Using two conditional logistic regres- sion models (for absolute breast FA and relative breast FA) the crude and adjusted relative odds of breast cancer were esti- mated for each breast FA variable and other known potential risk factors and confounders, together with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For the purposes of this analysis, because a 1 ml change in breast volume FA is very small, the results for breast volume FA are presented as the change in relative odds for a 100 ml change in breast volume FA. In addition, given the strong effect of age at menopause on breast cancer risk, this was controlled for in additional models containing only post- menopausal women. The effect of age at first pregnancy was modelled using another set of conditional logistic regression models for the subset of women who had ever been pregnant, and again age at menopause was controlled for in an addi- tional analysis including only post-menopausal, ever pregnant women. A case-control stratum was excluded from the analy- sis if the information for either the cases or controls was not known for the variable in question. The variables were entered together into the multivariable regressions, and then factors that did not contribute significantly after consideration of other potential cofactors were removed from the model only if they were found not to influence the FA associations. The models containing all risk factors are presented and only minor changes to the parameter estimates in the main findings resulted if insignificant terms were removed.
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Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

The data were analysed using the SPSS v.13 and Stata v.8.2 statistical packages (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA; Stata- Corp. LP, Texas, USA). Using two conditional logistic regres- sion models (for absolute breast FA and relative breast FA) the crude and adjusted relative odds of breast cancer were esti- mated for each breast FA variable and other known potential risk factors and confounders, together with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For the purposes of this analysis, because a 1 ml change in breast volume FA is very small, the results for breast volume FA are presented as the change in relative odds for a 100 ml change in breast volume FA. In addition, given the strong effect of age at menopause on breast cancer risk, this was controlled for in additional models containing only post- menopausal women. The effect of age at first pregnancy was modelled using another set of conditional logistic regression models for the subset of women who had ever been pregnant, and again age at menopause was controlled for in an addi- tional analysis including only post-menopausal, ever pregnant women. A case-control stratum was excluded from the analy- sis if the information for either the cases or controls was not known for the variable in question. The variables were entered together into the multivariable regressions, and then factors that did not contribute significantly after consideration of other potential cofactors were removed from the model only if they were found not to influence the FA associations. The models containing all risk factors are presented and only minor changes to the parameter estimates in the main findings resulted if insignificant terms were removed.
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Serum erythropoietin levels, breast cancer and breast cancer initiating cells

Serum erythropoietin levels, breast cancer and breast cancer initiating cells

We had previously demonstrated that BCICs downregulate proteasome subunit expression and function via binding of Musashi1 to the mRNA of NF-YA [16], a component of NF-Y, the master regulator of proteasome subunit expres- sion [17]. Furthermore, we developed an imaging system that allows for tracking and targeting of BCICs based on the accumulation of a fusion protein of the fluorescent pro- tein ZsGreen and the C-terminal degron of murine orni- thine decarboxylase. In cells with low proteasome activity, the fusion protein cannot be degraded and allows for iden- tifying these cells by flow cytometry [14, 18]. Importantly, breast cancer cells with low proteasome activity overlap with cells that exhibit high ALDH1 activity [19]. To dem- onstrate that SUM159PT breast cancer cells with low pro- teasome activity are enriched for BCICs, we performed an in vivo limiting dilution assay. 10 2 –10 6 cells with high (ZsGreen-negative) or low (ZsGreen-positive) proteasome activity were injected into the flanks of female NSG mice. Tumor-initiating cell frequency was found to be 1:2586 in ZsGreen-positive cells and 1:72,886 in ZsGreen-negative cells (Table 1, p < 0.0001). This level of BCIC enrichment compared well to other used markers in the field [20], thus supporting the validity of our reporter system as a marker for BCICs in this triple-negative breast cancer line.
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Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Breast cancer prevention trials

Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Breast cancer prevention trials

cancer. The entry criteria for NSABP were calculated according to the Gail model, which takes into account family history (but not the age of the affected relative), number of breast biopsies and hormonal risk factors. All women aged 60 years or more were eligible and women less than 60 had to have a 5-year risk of breast cancer equivalent to that in a woman of 60 years. The entry crite- ria for the IBIS trial are based on family history, benign breast disease and nulliparity. A range of options for entry was used to approximate a twofold risk compared to the normal populkation for age in the range 45–70 years, a fourfold risk for age in the range 40–44 years, and a 10- fold risk for age in the range 35–39 years. Details were provided by Cuzick [8]. Although pathological and endocrine risk factors were allowed, in practice the large majority of subjects were entered because of a history of a young close relative with breast cancer. This was also true of the RMH trial, but was less true for the NSABP study, in which hormonal risk factors and breast biopsies were more important entry criteria.
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Identification of genes involved in breast cancer and breast cancer stem cells

Identification of genes involved in breast cancer and breast cancer stem cells

The identification of novel biomarkers for breast cancer has been a focus for research for many years. The implication of CSCs in drug resistance and recurrence is also well known. Because the gene expression of NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX2, and CD34 stemness transcription factors is implicated in the progression of breast cancer, the identification of genes that affect the above factors is essential. The present study aimed to determine genes that were overexpressed in breast cancer and particularly in breast CSCs and to determine their relationship with stemness pathways. We detected two main groups of genes: those that were expressed only in breast CSCs and that could be used as potential biomarkers and those that affect specific transcription factors, that are essential for stemness maintenance, and that might be used as new therapeutic targets.
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Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

Variables recorded during delivery included presence of pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational age at delivery, non-reassuring fetal heart status in labour, meconium stain[r]

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Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

Objectives: To evaluate extraction time, safety, cost effectiveness and incidence rates of intraperitoneal and port site infections when a sterile surgical glove is[r]

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Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

diabetic patients following-up at two PHCs in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A 5-part validated, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to assess: 1) demographic and c[r]

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Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

Conclusion: Majority of physicians in Madinah general hospitals and primary care centers were aware of smoking cessation/quitting therapy and their practice regarding smo[r]

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Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

Pharmaceutical Promotions Impact on Prescribing Behavior of Primary Health Care Physicians: Taif Experience, Saudi Arabia.[r]

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Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Regulation and Progression: A Review on Genetics and Microenvironment of Breast Cancer

If any donor authorizes the removal of any of his human organs before his death under subsection (1) of section 3 of the Act, for transplantation into the body of suc[r]

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