Decades ago, as performance is ephemeral, writings on plays were invariably on the literary aspects of the text rather than the particularities of staging. There were also very less treatise on the research methodology to document performance. Even in libraries we can locate books on the staging of Shakespeare and other western dramatist‟s but writings on Indian English plays in performance and books on the methodological base for such an analysis is a rarity. This paper has sprouted out of an urge to elicit a fitting research methodology to document the theatrical journey of Gurcharan Das‟ „Three English Plays‟ – „Larins Sahib‟, „Mira‟, and „9 Jakhoo Hill‟, which have been repeatedly revived since the 1960‟s.
I find the paintings by Egon Schiele particularly powerful, and the text by Steiner (1993, p.86) expands my understanding: 'I went to towns that seemed endless and dead, and felt sorry for myself'. Schiele's black and dead towns; are not to do with 'observation and aestheticization of historical decline'...'but reflect his own condition'. 'The dead or black town is for Schiele the phenomenological epitome of a condition in the human spirit…no topographical precision is called for not even...people'. 'The walls, windows and roofs of the houses have physiognomies all their own, facial eloquence that expresses the lives of those who live there'. He dispenses with verifiable topography and concentrates on 'facial expressions' of the houses. The anthropomorphic characteristics of the buildings are the ones I engage with. There is much here that corresponds to my memory and experience and it is interesting to note that there are no people in the paintings. The 'dead town' paintings are supporting my enquiry into architecture 'staging the sensation' of the psychological uncanny.
The detection of metastatic disease during colon cancer staging underpins treatment strategy and is fundamental to the optimisation of patient outcomes. Staging pathways rely on high technology imaging platforms such as CT, PET-CT, and MRI, which differ in their diagnostic accuracies across individual organs. Such multimodality staging pathways are complex, resource and time intensive, involve irradiation, and increase patient anxiety. Modern MRI platforms can image the whole body within 1 h, and whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) is advocated as a more accurate, efficient, and safer alternative to multimodality staging pathways. We searched PubMed and Embase (without language restriction) for articles published between Jan 1, 1990, and Sept 30, 2018, using MeSH and full-text search-strings for “cancer”, “neoplasm” “staging”, “diagnostic accuracy”, “magnetic resonance imaging”, “whole body imaging”, “diffusion magnetic resonance imaging”, “metastasis”, “colorectal”, and “colon”. We found several meta-analyses reporting WB-MRI accuracy for cancer staging. Many combined different primary cancers in single analyses or were limited to detecting metastasis in single organs (or both). Most meta-analyses compared WB-MRI with PET-CT, and scintigraphy (in the case of bone metastasis), rather than CT alone, which is the test used most commonly in colorectal cancer staging. No meta-analysis considered colorectal cancer in isolation. Most primary studies were small, single site, and explanatory, with WB-MRI interpreted by a few specialised radiologists. They focused on single modality comparisons rather than evaluating real-world, multimodality staging
ough it may be true to say that ‘we have no way of calling into question the status of what might be a convincing but feigned performance’ at his trial, Vanini’s status as an author allows us to gauge his performance at his trial against his views according to his writings. Despite asserting at his trial that he did not believe nature to be capable of creation because of its sub- servience to God, Vanini oﬀers several passages in De admirandis in which, disguised as the views of the pagan other, he allows for an interpretation of his text as an assertion of the supremacy of nature as man’s creator. He even goes so far as to refer, while still discussing pagans, to ‘Natura, quae Deus est’ (‘Nature, which is God’), as well as repeatedly critiquing the Catholic belief in the resurrection of the dead and miracles. It is worth restating that it is impossible for the reader to ascertain with absolute certainty whether Vanini’s texts are demonstrative of his true beliefs and objections, or of his mask of outward conformity. It is equally impossible, therefore, to know for certain whether a given line of text, such as those that detail the staging of miracles on the part of pagan priests, is to be read as Vanini’s public transcript—in which case the author truly abhors these purely pagan practices—or whether such lines are a hidden transcript according to which Vanini also believes the dominant Catholic authorities to be guilty of the same crime. e very real
The main weakness of this study is that it is retrospec- tive and the two groups are not comparable. The TAH staged group had higher rates of significant myometrial invasion and more positive lymph nodes with a corre- sponding higher proportion of stage III and stage IV cases compared to the RALH group. Although there was no recall bias given that the study was retrospective, there may have been selection bias when choosing lapa- rotomy versus robotic staging for patients. If preo- perative testing had findings concerning for more ad- vanced disease such as lesions concerning for metastases or lymphadenopathy, the surgeon may have been more likely to choose laparotomy. The TAH group had a high- er proportion of both positive pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Both the TAH and RALH cohorts had similar numbers of total pelvic lymph nodes retrieved so the difference in positive pelvic lymph nodes was likely not due to a difference in surgical technique. However, fewer para-aortic lymph nodes were retrieved in the RALH group, likely due to the learning curve associated with introducing a new modality. The RALH cohort also had fewer positive para-aortic lymph nodes, which is in accord with the lower percentage of positive pelvic nodes in this group. While it is certainly possible that some in the RALH were under-staged, particularly with respect to the para-aortic node dissection, this does not appear to have an impact on the risk of recurrence .
to improve exposure and prevent ureteral complications . This is important since impaired exposure is a major reason for conversion , especially in obese women . The rate of conversion to laparotomy was 4.3% in this series. It compares favourably with previous reports [24, 31, 32] and is consistent with the conversion rates reported for single-centre studies (<10%) [15, 20, 23] Unexpectedly, the recently published LAP-2 multicentric randomised controlled trial (RCT)  reported a conversion rate of 26%. This surprisingly high rate of conversion is probably more representative of the reality, without the bias of a specialised centre. However, it may be influenced by the higher prevalence of obesity among women in the USA compared with Europe  and the need for comprehensive surgical staging (including pelvic and para-aortic lympha- denectomy) to meet the study protocol .
Expression of V-ATPase in esophageal squamous cancer cells, the observed pathological grading, and TNM staging informed us that overall functional expression of V-ATPase could be associated with both the pathological grading and TNM staging in esophageal squamous cancer cells. We found that the higher pathological grading and TNM staging, the higher the expression rate and more intense the positive staining for V-ATPase. For example, when comparing the lymphatic metastasis group and non- lymphatic metastasis group, expression of V-ATPase was much higher in the lymphatic metastasis group than was found in the non-lymphatic metastasis group. Since the expression of V-ATPase was closely associated with ABCG2 (Table 2, P < 0.001), in esophageal squamous cancer cells, this data indicated that it was very likely that both proteins promoted their reciprocal expression.
and progressive exertional dyspnea are main symptoms. In addition, scalene muscle hypertrophy, fine crackles and key findings (5).Serum marker such as lactate dehydrogenase sensitive for ILD detection and minute walk test (6MWT) are quite meaningful physiological examination. International IPF guideline published the importance of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings. Key findings of IPF are honeycombing, traction and subpleural reticular opacity. However, baseline clinical physiological status can predict future prognosis of IPF. Recently some composite IPF patients.In management, two nintedanib are available for prevention of progression of IPF. In this review, I focus on clinical characteristics, staging and real management of IPF including comorbidities.
Results: Of 65 <mrT3b tumours, 45 were ≤ pT2 and 14 were ≤ pT1sm2. MRI accuracy for ≤ T1sm2 was 89% (95% CI 63% to 87%), positive predictive value (PPV) 77% and negative predictive value (NPV) 92%, and for ≤ T2 89% (95% CI 79% to 95%), PPV 93% and NPV 81%. Interobserver agreement between two experienced radiologists was >0.7 suggesting good agreement. 44 out of 65 patients underwent radical surgery and 22 out of 44 were ≤ mrT2. MRI accuracy to predict lymph node status was 84% (95% CI 70% to 92%), PPV 71% and NPV 90%. Among the 21 out of 65 (32%) patients undergoing local excision or TEM, 20 out of 21 were staged as MR ≤ T2 and confirmed as such by pathology. On follow-up, none had relapse. If the decision had been made to offer local excision on MRI TN staging rather than clinical assessment, a significant increase in organ preservation surgery from 32% to 60% would have been observed (difference 23%, 95% CI 9% to 35%). Conclusions: MRI is a useful tool for
Methods: The Streamline trials are multicentre, non-randomised, single-arm, prospective diagnostic accuracy studies with a novel design to capture patient management decisions during staging pathways. The two trials recruit adult patients with proven or highly suspected new diagnosis of primary colorectal (Streamline C) or non- small cell lung cancer (Streamline L) referred for staging. Patients undergo WB-MRI in addition to standard staging investigations. Strict blinding protocols are enforced for those interpreting the imaging. A first major treatment decision is made by the multi-disciplinary team prior to WB-MRI revelation based on standard staging investigations only, then based on the WB-MRI and any additional tests precipitated by WB-MRI, and finally based on all available test results. The reference standard is derived by a multidisciplinary consensus panel who assess 12 months of follow-up data to adjudicate on the TNM stage at diagnosis. Health psychology assessment of patients ’ experiences of the cancer staging pathway will be undertaken via interviews and questionnaires. A cost (effectiveness) analysis of WB-MRI compared to standard staging pathways will be performed.
The a priori total sample size was a minimum of 50, stratified by cancer site (25 lung and 25 colorectal patients). There was flexibility to recruit beyond this number to achieve saturation, that is, the point beyond which further interviews contribute little new informa- tion, although this was not needed. The first 123 trial patients were approached and 91 (74%) agreed to be interviewed. Of the 91 who agreed, 51 patients (56%) participated; we believed we had reached saturation by 50 patients and ceased interviews; however, one additional interview was subsequently completed as a patient (from the original 91 consenting patients) expressed a strong wish to share their views. Reasons patients were not inter- viewed included consent retracted (n=8), participation in a related questionnaire study (n=14), withdrawal from the main trial (n=12) and interview quota reached before completion of all staging imaging tests (n=6).
In conclusion, the new TNM-staging system presents a clinically useful and applicable system, which can be used for indication and stage-adapted therapy. It also seems to serve as a potential prognostic prediction model for over- all and recurrence-free survival. Advanced stage IVa pa- tients can be treated with multimodality therapy including radical surgery, which results in a longer survival com- pared to patients with stage III. Systematic lymph node dissection is recommended and has a strong impact on stage distribution (stage IV). We all should perform systematic lymph node dissection, although its impact on adjuvant therapy and prognosis is still controversial. Fur- ther studies using prospectively collected data (especially advanced stages and lymph node status) of large patient cohorts on the proposed TNM-staging system are war- ranted to prove our results and would be helpful for uniform classification of thymic tumors, stage-adapted therapy, and prediction of prognosis.
Various modalities are employed for diagnosis and sta- ging of gastric cancer, with each method being influenced by inherent characteristics, observation conditions, instru- ment performance, and differences between institutions. Therefore, clinical staging of gastric cancer has a relatively low accuracy (60–70%) compared with pathological sta- ging [28–33]. Also, endoscopic staging is often based on clinical experience because of the lack of objective criteria for assessing the depth of invasion. While endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is useful, it is difficult to determine the depth of ulcerated lesions and the accuracy is no bet- ter than that of standard endoscopic diagnosis . Ac- cordingly, we investigated preoperative factors related to tumor stage and we devised the CSP score by weighting each factor to obtain a useful predictor of gastric cancer stage. The depth of invasion is assessed preoperatively by endoscopic observation, EUS, and abdominal ultrasound.
Nodal staging can predict the recurrence and survival of RC after radical resection. However, limited number of LNs examined will increase the possibility of understaging, which makes the postoperative management and surveillance dif- ficult. Therefore, a series of studies have been performed, confirming that the number of LNs examined could dramati- cally impact patients’ prognosis. Recommendations for the minimum number of LNs examined vary from 10 to 23, yet no consensus has been reached.
Marrazzo et al.  indicated that patients with triple- negative breast cancer could be good candidates for BCT without surgical axillary staging. However, in the present study, ER/PR status was not significantly associated with the impact of surgical axillary staging on BCSS. Although adjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to reduce 10-year breast cancer mortality for all subtypes by one- third compared with no chemotherapy , patients who were at low risk for recurrence had a small absolute ben- efit which might be outweighed by long-term toxicities . Consistently, our results showed that chemotherapy did not prolong BCSS of patients with T1 breast cancer either.
relation analysis revealed that lncRNA ZEB2- AS1 expression in CRC was correlated with dea- th (P<0.001), and the five-year OS was, respec- tively, 43.2% and 76.7% in patients with higher and lower lncRNA ZEB2-AS1 expression. In addition, Cox regression analysis showed that location (P=0.020), N1 staging (P=0.021) and lncRNA ZEB2-AS1 lower expression (P<0.001) were independent prognosis factors associat- ed with a better OS. To the best of our knowl- edge, this is the first study concerning the role of lncRNA ZEB2-AS1 in CRC.
C-Choline for local use was performed at the radiopharmaceutical production facility in Salvador, Bahia (Fernandes, 2016). In the next year, straight-forward studies on the production and quality control of 177 Lu-PSMA-617 were carried out at IPEN. However, such a radiopharmaceutical is still not commercially available (Silva, 2017). The following radiopharmaceuticals are available worldwide for diagnostics, treatment and staging for prostate cancer: 18 F-FACBC, Al 18 F- PSMA-11, 18 F-PSMA-1007, 18 F-DCPyL, 64 Cu-PSMA-617 (Han, 2017), 177 Lu-PSMA-617 and 225 Ac-PSMA-617 (Maarten, 2018).Unfortunately, onecannotfind reports of industrial-scale production of the same radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic, treatment and staging in the Brazilian literature. In the current world scenario, there is a concern to study of the efficacy of 18 F-FACBC, Al 18 F-PSMA-11, 18 F-PSMA-1007, and 18 F-DCPyL fluorinated radiopharmaceuticals, which would be the gold-standard for diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer. However, there is the challenge of putting the production route into the industrial standards to make them commercial due to the patents of 18 F-PSMA-1007 and 18 F- DCP-L. In Brazil, there were more than 40 nuclear medicine clinics that use the 68 Ga-PSMA-11 radiopharmaceutical system from 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generators and 14 cyclotrons installed. In the literature, no reports of commercial or in-house productions of
9. Kim MR, Roh JL, Kim JS, et al. 18F-FDG-PET and bone scintigraphy for detection of metastases in patients with malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract. Oral Oncol 2008; 44: 148-15. 10. Hannah A, Scott AM, Tochon-Danguy H, et al. Evaluation of 18F- FDG PET/CT with histopathological correlation in the initial staging of head and neck cancer. Ann Surg 2002; 236: 208-217.
The tumor staging was determined according to the 7 th edition of the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) for Cancer staging system; 16 for cases of ultra- late recurrence of NSCLC over 10 years after resection, the invasive size and staging was investigated according to the 8 th edition as well. 17 Histological diagnoses were made on the basis of World Health Organization classi ﬁ cation. 18 Ultra-late recurrence cases were compared with non- recurrence cases that could be followed up over 10 years after resection, and the factors related to ultra-late recur- rence were analyzed.