The number of scenarios that respondents need to value using DCEs is related to the number of attributes and levels assigned to each attribute (Ryan and Hughes 1997). Here the total was equivalent to 432. Thus a fractional factorial design was used (i.e. one which assumes that by obtaining information about people’s responses to limited numbers of choices, the value placed on other choices can be inferred). These were generated by the computer package SPEED. When pairing off choices, it is also good practice to minimize what is known as overlap (trying to avoid pairing attributes in such a way that the levels for attributes are the same for a given attribute for both choice A and B) (Huber and Zwerina 1996) and. Emma McIntosh and I pragmatically tried to pair attributes off in such a way as to avoid overlap as much as possible. It is also good practice to avoid excesses of level imbalance (i.e. the frequency of some attribute levels appearing more often in the choices presented to respondents than other attributes) and under the direction of Dr Mcintosh, I therefore allowed some of the choices sets generated by the SPEED design template to appear more than once (to offset level imbalance in the original SPEED design), which is why we ended up with 15 pairwise choices. Reducing overlap and level imbalance should help to improve the statistical efficiency of findings (i.e. the ability of the DCE to generate information about preferences from as little response information as possible). If we could have specified 4 levels for each attribute we would have been able to generate an
565 Read more
One methodology that can be used to elicit preferences for deriv- ing weights across country criteria is a discrete choice experiment (DCE). This is a quantitative technique to empirically elicit respond- ents’ stated preferences over choice alternatives with different charac- teristics (Ryan and Gerard 2008). DCEs have gained popularity in the health economics literature over the past 20 years. They have also in- creasingly been used to elicit preferences to inform health policy and priority-setting questions in LMICs (Mangham et al. 2009). DCEs provide respondents with a series of hypothetical choice sets and ask respondents to choose their preferred alternative from within each choice set. By making a choice, it is believed that respondents are re- vealing their true preferences over the characteristics of the alterna- tives. DCEs have roots in random utility theory, which assumes that the respondent evaluates alternatives based on their utility for him or her and then selects the one that provides the most utility.
We are also able to report on the preferences of carers. Although the sample was small (n = 41), it was sufficient to establish some statistically significant differences when compared with patients’ responses, but probably insufficient for all differences in preferences between carers and patients to be demonstrated in a statistically significant manner. The number of carer responses obtained via our request in the publication ‘Kidney Life’ was probably limited by the fact that this publication is read more by patients than those who care for renal patients. An alternative strategy would have been to ask patient respondents to supply the name and address of their carer (if applicable) to approach. However, despite the fact we only had 41 carer responses, this data was sufficient to establish that some carer preferences differ significantly from those of patients. In contrast to patients, carers did not value prioritizing those with bet- ter tissue matches or those with dependents. But, they did value prioritizing those with moderate not severe diseases affecting life expectancy more than patients. Whilst it is interesting that carer preferences differed from those of patients, patient preferences are clearly more important in terms of decisions on kidney trans- plant criteria.
15 Read more
When interpreting results it might be expected that, in general, transplant preferences would lie in certain directions. On efficiency grounds improvements in kidney survival should be positively valued, and therefore respondents should generally prefer transplants with the highest chance of success. But, some stakeholder groups might not exhibit this preference if there is a lack of organs closely matching their own requirements. We might expect respondents to prioritize those waiting longer for a transplant on equity grounds, and therefore would anticipate a positive coefficient on a one year reduction in waiting time. It might also be considered that recipients with more dependents should be prioritized because more people would benefit from a recipient‟s improved health. In contrast, all other things being equal, one might expect older patients to benefit less because they have a lower life expectancy, so the coefficient on reductions in recipient age would be expected to be positive. Finally, for efficiency reasons respondents might prioritize more highly those with fewer or no disease(s) affecting life expectancy over those with moderate diseases.
32 Read more
All participants who enrolled in the study provided verbal consent. A single investigator conducted the semi-structured interview (see Supplementary materials) for all participants. The interviews were audio recorded. We asked participants to identify possible harmful exposures and consequent adverse outcomes in the hospital setting, and to rank their suggestions from highest to lowest priority as research targets. If the sug- gestions were not amenable to examination from routinely collected electronic health data, we asked participants to consider exposures and outcomes that would typically be recorded in electronic health records. We transcribed the recorded interviews to obtain information on exposures and outcomes of interest and to conduct qualitative analyses to gain greater insight about stakeholder interests and concerns. Study data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. 6
11 Read more
Methods/Design: This mixed methods evaluation will analyse stakeholder preferences for centralisations; it will use qualitative methods to analyse planning, implementation and sustainability of the centralisations ( ‘ how and why? ’ ); and it will use a controlled before and after design to study the impact of centralisation on clinical processes, clinical outcomes, cost-effectiveness and patient experience ( ‘ what works and at what cost? ’ ). The study will use a framework developed in previous research on major system change in acute stroke services. A discrete choice experiment will examine patient, public and professional preferences for centralisations of this kind. Qualitative methods will include documentary analysis, stakeholder interviews and non-participant observations of meetings. Quantitative methods will include analysis of local and national data on clinical processes, outcomes, costs and National Cancer Patient Experience Survey data. Finally, we will hold a workshop for those involved in
14 Read more
The questionnaire included 30 questions in three sections: (1) the child’s food preferences (CC), (2) the mother’s and father’s current and childhood preferences (MP/FP and MC/FC, respectively), and (3) the family lifestyle, food habits, enjoyment of school lunches, and intake of traditional Japanese food etc. Parents answered whether the mother, the father and their children had disliked food at present and whether they consumed the food during their childhood. If they answered ‘yes’ to each question above, they also answered which foods the mother, father and their children disliked with free description. If the answers were not the father’s or mothers, they asked both parents about their likes and dislikes and asked the mothers about their habits/their children’s habits and answered the questions in the questionnaire. Additional questions analysed the parents’ cooking habits and attitudes towards food as well as the children’s lifestyle, bed time, wake-up time, whether or not the child assisted in shopping tasks, food habits, frequency in which the children ate breakfast, frequency the mothers ate breakfast, whether or not the children helped to prepare the dishes, enjoyment of school lunches, and the amount of traditional Japanese food which the children consumed and so on. SPSS version 19.0 J (IBM Japan, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) was used for all statistical analyses. Pearson’s χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests were used to assess the pairwise relationships among MP, FP, MC, FC and CC.
The greatest number of policies are triggered when there is first suspicion of deliberate use. However, a significant number of policies and corresponding stakeholder mandates and roles are triggered by subevents that will occur both in naturally-occurring and deliberately-caused outbreaks. The policies that govern stakeholder roles during event identification, response, and recovery shift as a DBE unfolds. Early response efforts are largely governed by local and national regulations and policies that vary depending on the State in which the outbreak is first identified (Figure 2A). As the event progresses, additional policy documents are invoked as UN organizations, other international organizations, non affected states, NGOs, and private sector organizations become increasingly involved in ongoing event response and recovery. These policy documents include, but are not limited to, resolutions of the UN General Assembly and UN Security Council, as well as constitutions, resolutions, international regulations, and memorandums of understanding across a wide range of national and international stakeholders, each of which is relevant to a different set of stakeholders. When an event is confirmed to have been deliberate based on the results of epidemiological and criminal investigations, the stakeholders mandated to engage shift from more response or public health-focused organizations to include more governance-based organizations (Figure 2B).
11 Read more
Total quality management only raises the problem but does not provide any solution. Though the nature of total quality management implies the emergence of stake- holders and satisfaction of their needs because realiza- tion of it gives positive impact to all organization’s stakeholders – good quality products provide benefit and delight to customers, richer organizations make richer society, establish new work places, implementation of new technologies allows to save resources and herewith provides positive ecological effect. Positive influence on society or community improves organization’s goodwill and gives permission to organization to act and operate in the same way. From this point there is one drawback in scientific literature that there are no wider discussions or references how to pursue that. Quite often constructive cooperation with stakeholders is missing; unsatisfactory alignment of interests emerges and all that impedes satis- faction of stakeholder interests and reduces organization competitiveness. People and organizations are apt to keep relationships when this corresponds to their inter- ests. Organizations could want to start cooperation with stakeholders in order to gain trust and keep the costs low in execution of their plans, in order to improve their good-will when satisfying stakeholders’ expectations and needs. During initial stage interests of stakeholders are identified but later a more difficult process comes where consensus is sought from the long-range perspective Three different notions could be distinguished on how to harmonize and satisfy differing interests: accommoda- tion of interests, alignment of interests, and balancing
The importance of process in RTW is not new. The notion that process is inextricably linked to RTW is consistent with the writings of Young et al. (2005) and Pransky et al. (2005). For instance, those two author groups have defined RTW as both a process and an outcome and asserted that RTW requires ongoing measurement during and upon completion of the process but specific indicators for measuring the effect of the process on outcomes are unclear. Young et al.‟s developmental conceptualization of RTW does suggest however that outcome measurements across the phases of RTW need to be considered. Results from stakeholder consensus in this study provide further insights as to the nature of the process; that the seamlessness or making the process easy to participate in, experiencing collaborative and respectful interactions that consider the worker‟s and others‟ dignity are areas for formative evaluation of the overall success of RTW. These concepts indicate that measures of success might include examinations of the nature of the process and that the views of others involved in the process such as supervisors, co-workers, and RTW co-
193 Read more
The hints given as well by the literature as by the fact of the hotel industry being part of the service industry on the one hand and the tourism industry on the other hand lead to the justification of adding the stakeholder relationship aspect to the model. As not all stakeholders and their respective perceptions and demands can be analysed by an empirical data analysis, the three decisive stakeholder groups (internal hotel stakeholders, hotel guests and Destination Management Organisations (DMOs)) will be analysed ceteris paribus. Furthermore, it became obvious that while the application of both management approaches - corporate crisis management and stakeholder relationship management – is more than justifiable due to the industry specifics the majority of organisations seem to apply them more intuitionally than strategically if they apply them at all. In relation to stakeholder relationship management many of them apply the approach without naming it explicitly. One reason for this non-professional application of both approaches may be found in the fact that the typical hotel organisation is attributed to SMEs. Within SMEs limited resources such as time and workforce have to be allocated to daily operational processes instead of strategic planning. These facts may be seen as a clear indication for the need of a general model which can be applied to the individual hotel organisation without great effort and profound academic knowledge.
10 Read more
In this case, if the degree of mutual influence shifts towards the actor’s greater power (over the counterparty), the estimates of expectations shift to a positive direction (towards the value "Will improve radically") in a similar way. Vice versa, if the degree of mutual influence shifts towards greater power of the counterparty, expectations shift to a negative direction (towards the value "Will worsen radically"). It must be noted that not one but several properties of one counterparty usually change simultaneously. Due to this, the change in expectations is defined as a convex combination of the corresponding fuzzy numbers, taking into account the weight coefficients of the properties, based on the proposed rule base and given membership functions . In this case, the weight properties may also be fuzzy. A degree of desire for changes, which is a function of satisfaction and expectations regarding the counterparty, is another characteristic of relations among the actors in the stakeholder network. It is assumed that the lower the satisfaction is and the more negative the expectations are, the greater is the degree of desire for changes, and vice versa. A change in properties leads to a change in expectations and, therefore, to a change in the desire for changes. Due to this, it is proposed to consider the properties of actors as variables, when various scenarios of changes in relations in the stakeholder network are reviewed. As such, each scenario is a combination of some successive changes in the properties of stakeholders in the network, leading to consequences in the relations among them with a certain probability. The expectations of stakeholders to each other and to the organization, just as those of the organization to stakeholders can be recalculated within each scenario, as well as the corresponding degrees of desire for changes.
10 Read more
The emerging situations and financial scandals made reporting and disclosure as the most meaningful stakeholder engagement channel to engage in dialogue with stakeholder. Perhaps, it is resulted from failures of companies’ commitments, which were made before financial scandals. Even most of the commitments were found verbally committed to stakeholders, including employees, those latter could not manage to present as evidence. That is the reason, stakeholders prefer reporting’s and disclosures which can exhibit as evidences in such circumstances. Indeed, those scandals make the board of companies to believe engagement with stakeholders or informing key stakeholders is crucial in terms of sustainable value creation, because they occupy an important place in the companies. Therefore, companies are publishing different reports with annual report, these include sustainability reporting, ESG reporting, CSR reporting, and triple- bottom reporting. These disclosures enhance corporate reputation (Bebbington et al., 2008). Henceforth, the corporate reputation has the potential to create significant business advantages (Brown, et al., 2010; Simnett et al., 2009), which can help the company in negotiating with stakeholders. Furthermore, information from reporting make stakeholders to feel what are material information to them, that provide relevant guidance for investment decision. As well as knowing about importance, were given in strategies and put them in organisation’s strategies by those who are charged with governance. On the other hand, developing reports with non- financial indicators build-up capacity and enables the company to deal with sensitive issues. The non-financial reporting such as CSR reporting attracts stakeholders and makes them comfortable with business activities. This helps the companies in negotiating with the government and in maintaining organisational reputation. For example, recently, there were many oil exploration leaks that affected “ECO” balance. Where company assured that nobody needs to pay for their activities, through CSR reporting as well as press conferences.
The hypothesis is supported that a diversity of opinion exists as to the relative importance of stakeholder groups. However the finding that three quarters of responding companies have identified their stakeholders opposes the hypothesis that views about who the key stakeholders are will vary. On a rating scale from 1 (extensive regular dialogue) to 5 (no dialogue), employees emerged as the most consulted group with 84% of respondents choosing a rating of 1 or 2, see Figure 4. Other highly consulted groups include suppliers (74%), customers/consumers (68%), industry associations (63%), unions (53%), and 42% for both environmental and social NGOs rated. Little dialogue is undertaken with government and politicians (21%) and only 5% had consulted to any extent with an independent CSR expert.
10 Read more
Analysis of the responses to the ―word association‖ question will show whether the stakeholders’ brand meaning falls into the appropriate responses to brand meaning per the CBBE model (Keller, 2001). The brand meanings of the different stakeholder groups are compared to assess whether their responses are aligned in the factor of the CBBE model. If the responses are consistently coded into the ―brand meaning‖ level of the CBBE model (Performance and Imagery factor categories) by all markets, then the brand meaning can be considered developed and on the right path to a strong brand. However, if the responses are not consistent across the ―brand meaning‖ level of the CBBE model, or are not consistent across markets (for example if one market’s responses are mainly Judgments and another market’s responses are mainly Performance) then the brand meaning may be underdeveloped or inconsistently developed among markets. The overall brand meaning response conclusions should be reported by frequency of responses falling into each of the six factors of the CBBE model. After the frequencies of responses are assigned for each stakeholder market, comparisons can be made to ensure proper brand meaning development between stakeholder markets.
18 Read more
Stakeholder participation was measured using the stakeholder involvement questionnaire developed by Kanungo (1982) and Schaeffer, (1994) and Arnstein (1969). Who identified the levels of stakeholder participation to involve job participation which tested the stakeholders’ willingness to carry out the current project activities, consultation which involves testing the stakeholder views about the way they were involved by being consulted about the project before the initiation phase, and decision making which looked at the degree at which stakeholders participated in making decisions which impacted on them. Stakeholder Commitment to the project was measured using the instrument developed by Allen and Meyer (1990) in terms of three categories; Affective (stakeholder’s emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the project activities), Continuance (commitment based on the costs that a stakeholder associates with abandoning the project) and Normative (stakeholder’s feelings of obligation to stay with the project).
Background: The selection of important outcomes is a crucial decision for clinical research and health technology assessment (HTA), and there is ongoing debate about which stakeholders should be involved. Hemodialysis is a complex treatment for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and affects many outcomes. Apart from obvious outcomes, such as mortality, morbidity and health- related quality of life (HRQoL), others such as, concerning daily living or health care provision, may also be important. The aim of our study was to analyze to what extent the preferences for patient-relevant outcomes differed between various stakeholders. We compared preferences of stakeholders normally or occasionally involved in outcome prioritization (patients from a self- help group, clinicians and HTA authors) with those of a large reference group of patients. Participants and methods: The reference group consisted of 4,518 CKD patients investigated previously. We additionally recruited CKD patients via a regional self-help group, nephrologists via an online search and HTA authors via an expert database or personal contacts. All groups assessed the relative importance of the 23 outcomes by means of a discrete visual analog scale. We used descriptive statistics to rank outcomes and compare the results between groups. Results: We received completed questionnaires from 49 self-help group patients, 19 nephrologists and 18 HTA authors. Only the following 3 outcomes were ranked within the top 7 outcomes by all 4 groups: safety, HRQoL and emotional state. The ratings by the self-help group were generally more concordant with the reference group ratings than those by nephrologists, while HTA authors showed the least concordance.
10 Read more
Retail stores can participate in demand response programs with the possibility of load shifting and building automation systems. Demand response activities in retail stores are influenced by various factors, such as business operations, company goals and policies, etc. Meanwhile, the demand response participation can potentially disrupt occupants ’ (e.g. customers and employees) lifestyles, thermal comfort and health as well as potentially increase cost or energy consumption. Therefore, stakeholders ’ acceptance and behaviors are crucial to the retail stores ’ success of demand participation. Therefore, this paper conducted a questionnaire with retail stores to investigate retail stores ’ preferences of demand response programs and stakeholders ’ engagement. The questionnaire is designed and collected with energy/ store managers (who are responsible for energy in stores) in Denmark ( N = 51) and the Philippines ( N = 36). The result shows that: 1) retail stores are more willing to participate in the implicit demand response by manual energy control compared to the utility control or building automation. Meanwhile, retail stores have significant concerns about business activities and indoor lighting compared to other aspects; 2) the statistically significant influential factors for retail stores to participate in the demand response are related to whether demand response participation matches company goals, influences business operation, and whether retail stores are lack of related knowledge; 3) retail stores believe that employees and customers should be informed about the demand response activities but not involved in; 4) there are significant differences regarding energy control preferences and concerns between retail stores in Denmark and the Philippines, but no significant difference regarding employees ’ and customers ’ engagement.
20 Read more
Abstract—Retail buildings can provide energy flexibility to the grid with the possibility of load shifting and building automation systems. Demand response is a collective innovation in the smart grid domain. Various stakeholders should be involved in the demand response activities to ensure the success. The owners or senior management of retail buildings need to consider the stakeholders who are directly influenced by the demand response participation, e.g. customers and employees. Meanwhile, demand response activities are influenced by various factors, such as energy market structure, policy, etc. Therefore, this paper investigates the demand response readiness for retail buildings with three aspects: energy control preferences, stakeholder engagement, and cross-national differences. A questionnaire is designed and collected with store managers in Denmark (N=51) and the Philippines (N=36). The result shows that: 1) retail stores are much readier to participate in the implicit demand response by manual energy control compared to the utility control or building automation. Meanwhile, store managers have significant concerns about business activities and indoor lighting compared to other aspects; 2) the statistically significant influential factors for retail stores to participate in the demand response are related to whether the DR participation matches the company goals, influences business operation, and whether retail stores are lack of related knowledge; 3) retail stores believe that stakeholders should be informed about the DR activities but not involved in; 4) there are significant differences regarding the energy control preferences and concerns between retail stores in Denmark and the Philippines, but no significant difference regarding the stakeholder engagement.
16 Read more
We included preferences on when events are scheduled in the penalty structure and omitted preferences regarding the content of courses. Classifying all events based on their content is a laborious task which requires intimate knowledge of the content of all courses. We feel that we should concentrate on the position of all events per class in the timetable first. If there results of this project are useful, we can refine the results based on course content afterward. The model can be easily expanded with additional event types. By copying a row in the room-event type penalty matrix we can split events in e.g. taught computer tutorials and independent work computer tutorials. These would have the same characteristics but could be distinguished by a penalty rule that encourages mixing theoretical and practical events on a day (or hard and easy events or boring and exciting events).
128 Read more