businesses, it has to be changed into alternating current (AC) electricity using an inverter. The inverted current then travels from the inverter to the building’s fuse box, and from there to the appliances that need it. PV systems installed in homes and businesses can include a dedicated metering box that measures how much electricity the panels are generating. As an incentive to generate renewable energy, energy suppliers pay the system’s owner a fixed rate for every unit of electricity it generates - plus a bonus for units the owner doesn’t use, because these can help supply the national grid. Installing a PV system is not cheap, but this deal can help the owner to earn back the cost more quickly - and potentially even make a profit one day.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the performance of SAPV system in different months of a year in a specific region and also give an overview of Research and Development (R&D) in the field of simulation of SAPV systems. One of the essential tasks in designing such a SAPV system is to match the prospective energy consumption with the local average solar irradiation, which results in energy production and helps calculate the required storage capacity. In this study, first, the data for one year and the information of the solar radiation based on the latitude and longitudinal information of the site are generated by the PVsyst software. Then, the software gives different values regarding the generation of solar energy for the specified load. The second section includes the PV system design. Technical specifications of the components in the PVSA system are demonstrated in the third section. After that, the simulation results of the system are performed. Lastly, the final section is the conclusions of the paper.
Photovoltaic (PV) modules are used to generate electricity from light. When sunlight falls on the PV modules, it converts sun light into DC electricity. Apart from the advantages of renewable energy sources, the PV based power generation has few more added advantages. The PV based system has no wear and tear which results in less maintenance. The PV based systems are employed in stand- alone applications such as street lighting, water pumping and also accommodated in grid connected systems.
Roof top systems are best suited example for these systems. In the roof top system as shown in fig-4 it consists of solar modules which produces electricity are connected to the battery via charge controller. Further it is connected to the stand-alone inverter to convert direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC), making it available to connect to AC loads. Deep cycle lead acid batteries are generally used to store the solar power generated by the PV panels, and then discharge the power when energy is required. Deep cycle batteries are not only rechargeable, but they are designed to be repeatedly discharged almost all the way down to a very low charge. 
The data acquisitions system could store data in micro-second sampling with high accuracy and can develop software to suite different users. In LabVIEW environment the author can display monitored data in numerical, graph, and data table. This conforms to the study of (Koutroulis and Kalaitzakis, 2003) that used LabVIEW with DAQ system to measure and monitor the renewable energy power plant, and the study of (Mingle et al., 2012) that present the control and measurement of the Fiber Spinning Machine by using LabVIEW, and interface with serial port. Also the study of (Chouder et al., 2013) which is about the studies of the performance and behavior of the PV energy system by using the real time interface based on LabVIEW. (Mahjoubi et al., 2012) studied about the data acquisition system with available components and the feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to the field's data acquisition from remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems in Tunisia. According to the study of (Wang et al., 2012), the technique of visual instrument and the characteristic of solar absorption refrigerator, using National Instrument's product LabVIEW, to develop an effective data acquisition (DAQ) system. This DAQ system can realize the real-time data acquisition as well as data transmission, processing, and display, in addition to that, provides users with historic data inquiry. From details above, it is obvious that the LabVIEW based environment is very popular to be applied for the
are not able to supply electricity as per demand. So these energy sources can be used to bridge the gap between supply and demand during peak loads. This kind of small scale stand-alone power generating systems can also be used in remote areas where conventional power generation is impractical. In this paper, a wind-photovoltaic hybrid power generation system model is studied and simulated. A hybrid system is more advantageous as individual power generation system is not completely reliable. When any one of the system is shutdown the other can supply power . The entire hybrid system comprises of PV and the wind systems. The PV system is powered by the solar energy which is abundantly available in nature. PV modules, maximum power point tracing systems make the PV energy system. The light incident on the PV cells is converted into electrical energy by solar energy harvesting means. The maximum power point tracking system is used, which extracts the maximum possible power from the PV modules. The Wind turbine, gear box, generator and an AC – DC converter are included in the wind energy system. The wind turbine is used to convert wind energy to rotational mechanical energy and this mechanical energy available at the turbine shaft is converted to electrical energy using a generator. To coerce the maximum power from wind system we used a maximum power point tracing system. 
energy crisis, due to the continuously growth of the global energy demand, and the global warming from the wide spread utilization of fossil fuels . Solar energy is directly convertible into electrical energy by means of photovoltaic arrays through semi-conductors . However, solar photovoltaicenergy, still presents a vast area of competition comparing to conventional energy resources due its high installation cost and the low energy conversion efficiency of PV cells . Therefore, several studies are being developed in order to minimize these drawbacks by optimizing the performance of PV systems through the operation of conversion systems to in- crease the output efficiency of the overall system. This approach is commonly named as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) . The MPPT is a controlled DC/DC converter inserted between the PV source and the load that monitors the photovoltaic array to operate at its maximum power point (MPP) depending on the load state, PV array generation, PV cell temperature and solar radiation variations . In such a direction, previous re- searches have focused on different MPPT techniques and algorithms. They differ in many aspects such as com- plexity, sensors required, convergence speed, cost and range of effectiveness. The most encountered methods known as the hill-climbing techniques, examples include P&O method and incremental conductance method. Those methods are the most commonly applied in practice due to their simplicity and ease of implementation. However, the shortcomings are also well-known: oscillations around the MPP and they can get lost and track the MPP in the wrong direction under sudden atmospheric conditions changes . More recently, intelligent me- thods as fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks are being adopted for photovoltaic applications, mainly be- cause of their flexibility, symbolic reasoning and explanation capabilities that are useful to deal with strong non
Abstract: In this concept PV-based stand-alone scheme for application in rural areas is proposed. Photovoltaic (PV) has become one of the most promising candidates among the available RESs. However, the availability of PV power is intermittent in nature, and hence, PV-based stand-alonesystems need an energy storage element which is generally realized by utilizing a battery bank. The major challenges in designing such systems are as follows: 1) extraction of maximum power from the PV array; 2) protection of the battery from overcharge and over discharge; 3) dc to ac conversion; and 4) provision for adequate voltage boosting. As multiple objectives are required to be satisfied, the existing schemes for stand-alonesystems require a minimum of three converter stages, leading to considerable reduction in the reliability and efficiency of the system. In order to address this issue, a two-stage stand-alone scheme consisting of a novel transformer coupled dual-input converter (TCDIC) followed by a conventional full-bridge inverter is proposed grid-connected photovoltaic power system, or grid-connected PV system is an electricity generating solar PV system that is connected to the utility grid. A grid- connected PV system consists of solar panels, one or several inverters, a power conditioning unit and grid connection equipment. The proposed concept is further implemented with Grid Connection based PV System simulated using Matlab/simulink software .
The ITPC utilizes the triple active bridges (TAB) with inherent features of power controllability and ZVS. Their soft- switching performance can be improved if two series-resonant tanks are implemented . An advanced modulation strategy is reported in  which incorporates a phase shift (PS) and a PWM to extend the operating range of ZVS. Nonetheless, the TAB topology suffers from the circuit complexity using three active full bridges or half bridges and the power loss caused by reactive power circulation. Therefore a Buck-Boost converter is proposed  to integrate a three-port topology in the half bridge and to decompose the multivariable control problem into a series of independent single-loop subsystems. By doing so, the power flow in each loop can be independently controlled. The system is suitable for PV-battery applications since one converter interfaces the three components of the PV array, battery, and loads. However, in each energy transfer state, current passes through at least five inductor windings, especially under high switching frequency conditions, giving rise to power loss; its peak efficiency is less than 90% and its power capability is limited by the transformer design, making it impossible for current sharing.
Renewable Energy Laboratory software HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables) is a general purpose hybrid system design software. It has the option to investigate a hybrid energy system consisting of components such as photovoltaic, wind turbines, micro hydro, biomass, battery storage and inverters. It was developed to address the need for a hybrid system design tool accurate enough to reliably predict system performance [Appendix (1)]. HOMER is an optimization model, which performs many hundreds or thousands of approximate simulations in order to design the optimal hybrid system. It is simple and efficient enough to conveniently evaluate a large number of design options in its search for the optimum. Homer has been used by a number of researchers to determine an optimum hybrid energy system. HOMER takes one-year of hourly community load, wind data and solar data as inputs (as shown in Figs 3,4,5) . Other inputs include component technical details and costs. Optimization parameters may be selected as required.
The experimental tests are verified by utilizing a 36-V battery bank; actually, the SPVS can also operate well when associated with a 24 V commercial single battery. The proposed topology, along with its control strategy, is very practical because of the flexibility of the configuration and the controlling strategy of the bidirectional dc/dc converter and dc/ac inverter is simple and strong. As a result, it is compatible with a conventional PV or battery systems without any control configuration modification. This topology is highly promising for a commercial product of PV conversion systems.
The world has turned their attention to renewable energy with the increasing demand of power supply and the limited source of fossil fuel. In Malaysia, solar PV energy is growing steadily as the sunlight is easily available throughout the year. As more solar PV system being installed, stand-alone operation is being looked into to bring solar PV to rural areas. However, in stand-alone operations there is no voltage support from the grid which will lead to harmonic problems. Passive filter is one of the methods used to mitigate the harmonic issues in a stand-alone system. This paper focuses on the design of passive filters and the effects of the filter on the total harmonic mitigation in a 8kW three-phase stand-alone PV system are compared. The design of the proposed filters is validated by simulation results in PSCAD software. The simulation results show that the double tuned filter design is able to meet the THD and individual harmonic limit standards better as compared to the single tuned filter and LC filter design.
The main component in the system is PV array. It will convert the solar energy into electricity. As the energy generation and consumption do not generally coincide, energy storage is required in most stand-alonesystems . The solar energy generated during daylight is not fixed, it change depends on the intensity of the sunlight. Energy need to be stored to ensure the stability of the system. Charge controller is important as it consist of DC/DC converter that will take optimum power from PV array and adjust it to the charge voltage of the battery. Inverter is needed when the type of load is AC load. Since the output power drive from PV is in DC, thus inverter converts the DC power to AC power to feed the AC load.
The origin of PV energy conversion technology goes back in 1839, when becquerel first discovered the PV effect. PV energy conversion is the direct conversion of radiative energy, in form of sunlight, into electrical energy. In the past decades there was a huge development in the field of renewable-energy sources. Photovoltaic system (PV) is unrivalled of the sources of high cost and low conversion efficiency has limited to use such endless energy source. It is a clean energy technology and is anticipated to sustain a significant contribution to the world energy production towards the remnant of this nation. PV systems have particular features that offer some added value as a system of the output power of a PV system is nonlinear and it is affected by environmental conditions, such as irradiation and temperature.
photovoltaicsystems accompanied with battery storage system are beginning to play an important role over the world to supply power to remote areas. The objective of the study reported in this paper is to elaborate and design a bond graphs model for sizing standalone domestic solar photovoltaic electricity systems and simulating the performance of the systems in a tropical climate. The systems modelled consist of an array of PV modules, a lead- acid battery, and a number of direct current appliances. This paper proposes the combination of lead acid battery system with a typical standalonephotovoltaicenergy system under variable loads. The main activities of this work purpose to establish library graphical models for each individual component of standalone photovoltaic system. With solar customers in many states now receiving a low price for electricity sold back to the grid, battery back-up systems can be a viable alternative as they use the electricity stored during the day to run your house at night. They also have the advantage of being able to supply power during power outages.Grid-connected systems do not need batteries which reduces considerably initial capital costs and energy costs. For a comparable load, grid-tied systems use smaller PV arrays than stand-alonesystems. In order to address this issue, a two-stage stand-alone scheme consisting of a novel transformer coupled dual-input converter (TCDIC) followed by a conventional full-bridge inverter is proposed. The proposed TCDIC can realize maximum power point tracking and battery charge control while maintaining the proper voltage level at the load terminal. A suitable control strategy for the proposed TCDIC devised for manipulating the TCDIC to realize the first two aforementioned objectives, while the third objective is achieved by employing a conventional proportional integral (PI) controller to control the output voltage of the full bridge inverter through sinusoidal pulse width modulation. The simulation results are performed by using Matlab/Simulink software.
Photovoltaic (PV) is the field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells for energy by converting sunlight directly into electricity. The two principal classifications are grid-connected or utility-interactive systems and stand-alonesystems. Photovoltaicsystems can be designed to provide DC and/or AC power service, can operate interconnected with or independent of the utility grid, and can be connected with other energy sources and energy storage systems. There are two type of PV systems almost used, grid connected and off grid (stand-alone) .
This paper presents a design for a stand-alonephotovoltaic (PV) system to provide the required electricity for a single residential household in rural area in Jordan. The complete design steps for the suggested household loads are carried out. Site radiation data and the electrical load data of a typical household in the considered site are taken into account during the design steps. The reliability of the system is quantified by the loss of load probability. A computer program is developed to simulate the PV system behavior and to numerically find an optimal combination of PV array and bat- tery bank for the design of stand-alonephotovoltaicsystems in terms of reliability and costs. The program calculates life cycle cost and annualized unit electrical cost. Simulations results showed that a value of loss of load probability LLP can be met by several combinations of PV array and battery storage. The method developed here uniquely deter- mines the optimum configuration that meets the load demand with the minimum cost. The difference between the costs of these combinations is very large. The optimal unit electrical cost of 1 kWh for LLP = 0.049 is $0.293; while for LLP 0.0027 it is $0.402. The results of the study encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the remote sites in Jordan. Keywords: Renewable EnergySystems; PhotovoltaicStand-Alone Power System; Sizing; Optimization; Storage; Loss
In theory, multiple-input converters (e.g. three-port converters) can provide a single-unit solution interfacing multiple energy sources and common loads -. They perform better than traditional two-port converters due to their lower part count and smaller converter size. In particular, the isolated three-port converter (ITPC) has become an attractive topology for various applications owing to their multiple energy source connection, compact structure and low cost -. In this topology, a simple power flow management scheme can be used since the control function is centralized. A high-frequency transformer can provide galvanic isolation and flexible voltage conversion ratio. The ITPC is usually
The World Energy Forum has predicted that natural sources such as oil, coal and gas reserves will be exhausted in less than another 10 decades. Petroleum account for over 79% of the primary energy consumed in the world, and 57.7% of that amount is used in the transport sector and are extremely reduced. The exhaustion of natural resources and the increasing demand towards the conventional energy have forced planners and governor to look for alternative sources. Renewable energy is energy derived from resources that are regenerative, and do not deplete over time. Based on the development of such applications, renewable energies have been increased markedly in recent years. This is proven with the approach taken by each governor and education institute, where all the renewable energy is being study in order to implement the application for their future.