Stand-Alone Wind Energy

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VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY CONTROL OF AN ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR FOR A STAND-ALONE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM

VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY CONTROL OF AN ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR FOR A STAND-ALONE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM

Wind based energy harnessing systems are generally referred to as wind energy conversion systems (WECS). There are basically two applications, one is grid-connected WECS and another is stand-alone (off-grid) turbines. The stand-alone arrangements are well suited for remote clusters of populace and limited demands. Smaller size turbines can reduce the stress on the grid and reduce pollution [5]. Due to their capacities, if employment of diesel generators (DG) could be eliminated, there would be substantial saving in costs (fuel, operation and maintenance, fuel transportation costs etc.) [6]. Where wind energy potential is present but grid access is absent (connections are difficult and expensive), stand-alone wind turbines are viable to be installed. Since the arrangement is off-grid, some forms of storage system will be required. When complementary systems are employed, they are integrated with a micro-grid [7], thus power management requires complicated control systems [8].
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Analysis of Performance of Stand-Alone Wind Energy Conversion by Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

Analysis of Performance of Stand-Alone Wind Energy Conversion by Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

ABSTRACT: Renewable energy sources are clean, nonpolluting, and available in abundance, and involve very little operational and maintenance cost. Wind and solar energy sources are the most promising unconventional and renewable energy sources that have established themselves as viable alternatives for conversion into electrical energy. Nowadays, most countries of the world are facing difficulties in using conventional sources for power generation due to exhaustion of fossil fuels and environmental issues. Wind energy, is one of the available non-conventional energy sources, which is clean and an infinite natural resource. Variable speed wind energy systems have several advantages compared with fixed speed wind energy systems such as yielding maximum power output, developing low amount of mechanical stress, improving efficiency and power quality. Power electronics devices with a variable speed system are very important, where AC–DC converter is used to convert AC voltage with variable amplitude and frequency at the generator side to DC voltage at the DC-link voltage. The DC voltage is converted again to AC voltage with constant amplitude and frequency at the load side for electrical utilization. Renewable energy sources are clean, nonpolluting, and available in abundance, and involve very littleoperational and maintenance cost. Wind and solar energy sources are the most promising un-conventional and renewable energy sources that have established themselves as viable alternatives for conversion into electrical energy. An array of wind electric conversion systems, installed in a wind farm, can generate megawatts range of electric power. Wind based power conversion systems have been in use since mid-1970s in stand-alone as well as grid-connected configurations. They suffer, however, from a number of drawbacks, the major hurdles being circuit complexity, low power factor of operation, harmonics pollution, and low efficiency of power conversion. Initial investments in non-conventional power conversion systems being relatively high, and the technology gap between the advanced countries and a developing nation like India remaining wide, it was decided to undertake detailed investigations with a view to develop more efficient, highly reliable, and cost-optimized power conversion schemes
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Fuzzy Logic based MPPT & SOC control for a Stand-Alone Wind Energy Conversion System

Fuzzy Logic based MPPT & SOC control for a Stand-Alone Wind Energy Conversion System

This paper presents a simple control strategy for the operation of a variable speed stand-alone wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The PMSG is connected to a three phase resistive load through a switch mode rectifier and a voltage source inverter. Control of the generator side converter is used to achieve maximum power extraction from the available wind power. Control of the DC-DC bidirectional buck-boost converter, which is connected between batteries bank and DC-link voltage, is used to maintain the DC-link voltage at a constant value. It is also used to make the batteries bank stores the surplus of wind energy and supplies this energy to the load during a wind power shortage. The load side voltage source inverter uses a relatively complex vector control scheme to control the output load voltage in terms of amplitude and frequency. The control strategy works under wind speed variation as well as with variable load. Extensive simulation results have been performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
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SIMULATION FOR CONTROL SCHEME FOR A STAND-ALONE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM IN MATLAB

SIMULATION FOR CONTROL SCHEME FOR A STAND-ALONE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM IN MATLAB

As renewable energy comes from naturally available and are not much expensive. So among solar, wind, tidal energy, wind energy is considered to be proven technology. Comparing cost of electricity generation, now days Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) is built for meeting both grids connected and stand- alone load demand. WECS is the machine consists of wind turbine which has wind energy as a input and it generates mechanical energy as output. This mechanical output is given as input to electrical generator for generating electricity.
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Fuzzy Logic based MPPT & SOC control for a Stand-Alone Wind Energy Conversion System

Fuzzy Logic based MPPT & SOC control for a Stand-Alone Wind Energy Conversion System

This paper presents a simple control strategy for the operation of a variable speed stand-alone wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The PMSG is connected to a three phase resistive load through a switch mode rectifier and a voltage source inverter. Control of the generator side converter is used to achieve maximum power extraction from the available wind power. Control of the DC-DC bidirectional buck-boost converter, which is connected between batteries bank and DC-link voltage, is used to maintain the DC-link voltage at a constant value. It is also used to make the batteries bank stores the surplus of wind energy and supplies this energy to the load during a wind power shortage. The load side voltage source inverter uses a relatively complex vector control scheme to control the output load voltage in terms of amplitude and frequency. The control strategy works under wind speed variation as well as with variable load. Extensive simulation results have been performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
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A STAND-ALONE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM CONTROLLED BY PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

A STAND-ALONE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM CONTROLLED BY PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

In today’s world,with a competitive cost for electricity generation, wind energy conversion system (WECS) is nowadays deployed for meeting both grid-connected and stand-alone load demands. However, wind flow by nature is intermittent. In order to ensure continuous supply of power suitable storage technology is used as backup. In this paper, the sustainability of a 4-kW hybrid of wind and battery system is investigated for meeting the requirements of a 3-kW stand-alone dc load representing a base telecom station. A charge controller for battery bank based on turbine maximum power point tracking and battery state of charge is developed to ensure controlled charging and discharging of battery. The mechanical safety of the WECS is assured by means of pitch control technique.
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Control Scheme for a Stand-Alone Wind Energy Conversion System

Control Scheme for a Stand-Alone Wind Energy Conversion System

ABSTRACT- This paper presents control scheme for a stand-alone wind energy conversion system. Present energy need heavily relies on the conventional sources. But the limited availability and steady increase in the price of conventional sources has shifted the focus toward renewable sources of energy. Of the available alternative sources of energy, wind energy is considered to be one of the proven technologies. With a competitive cost for electricity generation, wind energy conversion system (WECS) is nowadays deployed for meeting both grid-connected and stand-alone load demands. However, wind flow by nature is intermittent. In order to ensure continuous supply of power suitable storage technology is used as backup. In this paper, the sustainability of a 4-kW hybrid of wind and battery system is investigated for meeting the requirements of a 3-kW stand-alone dc load representing a
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CONTROL SCHEME FOR A STAND-ALONE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM USING MATLAB SIMULATION

CONTROL SCHEME FOR A STAND-ALONE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM USING MATLAB SIMULATION

As renewable energy comes from naturally available and are not much expensive. So among solar, wind, tidal energy, wind energy is considered to be proven technology. Comparing cost of electricity generation, now days Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) is built for meeting both grids connected and stand- alone load demand. WECS is the machine consists of wind turbine which has wind energy as a input and it generates mechanical energy as output. This mechanical output is given as input to electrical generator for generating electricity.
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Nine Phase Transformer through MLI Base Stand Alone Integrated Wind Energy System

Nine Phase Transformer through MLI Base Stand Alone Integrated Wind Energy System

ABSTRACT: The global electrical energy consumption is rising and there is a sudden increase in the demand of power generation. Large number of renewable energy units is now being integrated to power system for meeting and rising demand of power generation. The present technology used in wind turbines was based on squirrel cage induction generator or permanent magnet synchronous generator straightly connected to the load through standard power electronic converters. In this paper, nine phase winding transformer through multilevel inverter base stand alone integrated wind energy system for reducing harmonics with multi carrier pulse width modulation techniques is proposed. The results establishes the proposed stand alone system performance in both open and closed loop for harmonics, voltage and current responses at linear loads at different wind conditions with energy storage system. And the comparison analysis is presented. The proposed system is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
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A Stand-Alone Z-source Inverter for Wind Energy Conversion System with Wind Tripping Mechanism

A Stand-Alone Z-source Inverter for Wind Energy Conversion System with Wind Tripping Mechanism

ABSTRACT: The ever increasing energy consumption, rapid progress in wind power generation technologies, and the rising public awareness for environmental protection have turned alternative energy and distributed generation as promising research areas. Due to natural intermittent properties of wind, Stand-alone wind renewable energy systems normally require energy storage devices or some other generation sources to form a hybrid system. The simulation of Z-source inverter for wind energy system and wind tripping mechanism is proposed in this paper. A comparison of inverter fed wind energy system and Z-source inverter fed wind energy system is made.
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Economic Feasibility of Stand-Alone Wind Energy Hybrid with Bioenergy from Anaerobic Digestion for Electrification of Remote Area of Pakistan

Economic Feasibility of Stand-Alone Wind Energy Hybrid with Bioenergy from Anaerobic Digestion for Electrification of Remote Area of Pakistan

The system was simulated using Homer software as shown in Fig 6. This software helps to find the optimized configuration of different system components. It models both conventional and renewable energy technologies in particular biomass and wind turbines which are the options envisaged for energy efficient technologies. Homer is able to evaluate the economics and technical feasibility of the system. First, Homer simulates the working power system by calculating the hourly energy balance for a year. The above mentioned system is simulated using Homer. It returns the optimized possible system configurations in time 2 hours and 14 minutes with 2 sensitive variables.
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Harmonics Reduction in a Wind Energy Conversion System with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Harmonics Reduction in a Wind Energy Conversion System with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

The objectives of this work were to simulate a stand-alone wind energy conversion system, to design three-phase harmonic filters, to reduce voltage and current harmonics of a wind turbine PMSG generator, and to calculate the harmonics order and THD by using FFT analysis. To avoid distortions, three-phase harmonic filters were used to connect with the synchronous generator. From the harmonic content of the generator output, whether voltage and current, we found that harmonic amplitude decreases whenever the order of harmonic increases. In either case, the highest harmonic order is the 5 th . The obtained THD of both voltage and current, when using three phase thyristor rectifier, were higher than the THD computed when using the diode rectifier either without or with filters. We can thus deduce that using a three-phase diode rectifier along with three-phase harmonic filters to reduce harmonics in the generator decreases the THD. After using two stages of filters, the THVD and THID are 0.5% and 0.53%, respectively. These optimal results were obtained at a wind speed of 8 m/s with using thyristor converter, whereas for the diode rectifier, the THD was found to be 0.52% and 0.62%, respectively.
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Control Strategy of Stand-Alone Wind Based Energy Systems or Small Scale Power Grid Applications

Control Strategy of Stand-Alone Wind Based Energy Systems or Small Scale Power Grid Applications

Abstract :- The aim of this paper is analyzing the operation of stand-alone wind turbine system with variable speed permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and a system for storing energy during wind speed and load variations and supply the single phase energy for domestic appliances. The power absorbed by the connected loads can be effectively delivered and supplied by the proposed wind turbine and energy storage system. The stand-alone control featured is constant output voltage and frequency that is capable of delivering to variable load. The PI controller in switch mode rectifier can be replaced with fuzzy control technique to improve the output voltage level. Energy storage devices are required for power balance in the stand alone wind energy systems. Originally the holistic shape of the entire arrangement is achieved together with the PMSG, the AC-DC and DC-DC converter and storage system.
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Enhancement of Handoff Speed by Improving Mobility of Data Packets

Enhancement of Handoff Speed by Improving Mobility of Data Packets

Abstract—Wind power can be used in off-grid systems, also called stand-alone systems, not connected to an electric distribution system or grid. The power conversion unit features a wind-turbine-driven PMSG, a diode rectifier, a buck-boost dc/dc converter, a battery bank, and a dc/ac inverter. In this paper, a distributed generation based on stand alone wind energy conversion system (WECS) using a variable speed permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is proposed with PWM rectifier and a battery for storing the extra wind energy. The topology for the same condition has been demonstrated using MATLAB Simulink based simulations.
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Modeling Stand Alone Photovoltaic-Wind Hybrid System For 100W Motor

Modeling Stand Alone Photovoltaic-Wind Hybrid System For 100W Motor

Wind turbines are used to generate electricity from the kinetic power of the wind. Historically they were more frequently used as a mechanical device to turn machinery [12]. In other words wind turbine is a device that changes kinetic energy from the wind source to generate mechanical energy. In windmills, wind energy is used to turn mechanical machinery to do physical work, such as crushing grain or pumping water. Wind power is used in large scale wind farms for national electrical grids as well as in small individual turbines for providing electricity to rural residences or grid isolated locations. Wind energy is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, cleans, and reduces toxic atmospheric and greenhouse gas emissions if used to replace fossil-fuel derived electricity.
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Technological Analysis of a Solar-Wind-Battery-Diesel Hybrid Energy System with Fuzzy Logic Controller

Technological Analysis of a Solar-Wind-Battery-Diesel Hybrid Energy System with Fuzzy Logic Controller

requires system’s long-term assessments to ensure efficiency. G To reach a techno-economic optimum hybrid economic system graphical construction approach, probabilistic method, and artificial intelligence can be used. An optimum combination of the system reliability and the system cost are two major parameters must be searched for by them no matter what sizing and optimization technique are used [6]. A vital criterion in optimization is the expected reliability from a stand-alone hybrid system; the governing factor is the cost of the system if unlimited budget is not available. Therefore, to attain an optimum solution, they must study the relationship between system reliability and cost. This paper will concentrate on reviewing the current state of the local meteorological data generation, optimization and control technologies for the stand-alone hybrid solar– wind energy systems with battery storage and try to find what further work is needed [5].
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Modeling and Simulation of 7- Level Solar PV Wind Hybrid System for Induction Motor Drive Application

Modeling and Simulation of 7- Level Solar PV Wind Hybrid System for Induction Motor Drive Application

Due to the critical condition of industrial fuels which include oil, gas and others, the development of renewable energy sources is continuously improving. This is the reason why renewable energy sources have become more important these days. Few other reasons include advantages like abundant availability in nature, eco-friendly and recyclable. Many renewable energy sources like solar, wind, hydrel and tidal are there. Among these renewable sources solar and wind energy are the world’s fastest growing energy resources. With no emission of pollutants, energy conversion is done through wind and PV cells. Day by day, the demand for electricity is rapidly increasing. But the available base load plants are not able to supply electricity as per demand. So these energy sources can be used to bridge the gap between supply and demand during peak loads. This kind of small scale stand-alone power generating systems can also be used in remote areas where conventional power generation is impractical. In this
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Stand-Alone Hybrid Generation System Based on Renewable Energy

Stand-Alone Hybrid Generation System Based on Renewable Energy

components are shown in Fig. 13 [8], [21], [22]. The wind turbine adopted is TIMAR Wind Energy. When wind speed is 12m/s, the wind turbine produces the maximum power 600W. Solar cell adopted is Topper Sun Energy TS-M250 and its maximum power is 250W. Hydro turbine adopted is New Energy Corporation ENC-005-F4, in here we changed the generator that nominal power from 5kW to 5HP. Wind turbine, hydro turbine, and solar cell are the main sources to supply load demand. The vanadium redox flow battery is an energy storage device in the system. Fuel cell model includes a fuel cell module and a fuel controller. The fuel cell is an accessory generator in this system. In order to keep the supply and demand is balanced. When the supply is bigger than the load need, first store the energy by VRB, and when the VRB is fully charged, then use the fuel cell to save the energy. When supply is smaller than the load need, first the VRB discharge to supply the load need, and the fuel cell generation when the VRB reached the discharge limit. Thus, the system can circulate supply load demand and the energy will not be wasted. The flowchart of the energy dispatch
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Performance Analysis Of Hybrid Energy System With Five Level Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive

Performance Analysis Of Hybrid Energy System With Five Level Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive

are not able to supply electricity as per demand. So these energy sources can be used to bridge the gap between supply and demand during peak loads. This kind of small scale stand-alone power generating systems can also be used in remote areas where conventional power generation is impractical. In this paper, a wind-photovoltaic hybrid power generation system model is studied and simulated. A hybrid system is more advantageous as individual power generation system is not completely reliable. When any one of the system is shutdown the other can supply power [1]. The entire hybrid system comprises of PV and the wind systems. The PV system is powered by the solar energy which is abundantly available in nature. PV modules, maximum power point tracing systems make the PV energy system. The light incident on the PV cells is converted into electrical energy by solar energy harvesting means. The maximum power point tracking system is used, which extracts the maximum possible power from the PV modules. The Wind turbine, gear box, generator and an AC – DC converter are included in the wind energy system. The wind turbine is used to convert wind energy to rotational mechanical energy and this mechanical energy available at the turbine shaft is converted to electrical energy using a generator. To coerce the maximum power from wind system we used a maximum power point tracing system. [2]
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Design and Implementation of Grid Connected Hybrid   PV and Wind Energy Generation System

Design and Implementation of Grid Connected Hybrid PV and Wind Energy Generation System

Now days in the electric utility industry are encouraging the entry of power generation and energy storage at the distribution level. Together, they are identified as distributed generation (DG) units. Several new technologies are being developed and marketed for distributed generation, with capacity ranges from a few kW to 100 MW. Solar and wind power is naturally intermittent and can create technical challenges to the grid power supply especially when the amount of solar and wind power integration increases or the grid is not strong enough to handle rapid changes in generation levels. In addition, if solar wind are used to supply power to a stand-alone system, energy storage system becomes essential to guarantee continuous supply of power. The size of the energy storage depends on the intermittency level of the solar or wind. The solar and wind pv hybrid generation system then this output synchronis with grid as the voltage and frequency. The combination of hybrid solar and wind power systems into the grid can further help in improving the overall economy and reliability of renewable power generation to supply its load. Similarly, the integration of hybrid solar and wind power in a stand-alone system can minimize the energy storage size needed to supply continuous power.the combined solar and wind system into grid can help to minimum cost and improving reliability of power generation to supply its load. The stand-alone systems can be sub-classified into common DC bus or common AC bus. Distributed generators can help fluctuations in power supply since generations’ units will be close to the loads. Combining both PV solar and wind powers can minimize the storage requirements and ultimately the overall cost of the system . Increasing PV panels and capacity of wind turbines could be a better choice compared to the increasing of batteries since batteries are much more expensive with a shorter lifespan compared to the life time of a PV or WT. The increased penetration of grid-connected renewable energy sources has an impact on the grid power quality in particular weak grids. Voltage fluctuation, frequency fluctuation and harmonics are major power quality issues. Furthermore, intermittent energy from solar PV and wind has a huge impact on network reliability. However, accurate forecasting and scheduling systems can minimize the impacts. Various statistical forecasting and regression analysis approaches and algorithms are used to forecast weather pattern, solar radiation and wind speed.
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