Standardization of drugs used in traditional systems of medicine

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STANDARDIZATION OF A HERBAL MEDICINE- SWERTIA CHIRAYITA LINN.

STANDARDIZATION OF A HERBAL MEDICINE- SWERTIA CHIRAYITA LINN.

The basic and essential requirement for the devel- opment of Unani and other traditional systems of medicine and to match it with the International standards is the standardization of drugs used in them. Standardization is an integral part for any study, when we are exploring any biological activ- ity of any drug, we should first make drug authen- tic according to the Pharmacopoeia. It is therefore necessary to work out physicochemical standards of unani drugs. It is concluded that now a days, many of the medicinal plants available in the mar- ket have ambiguous identification along with adul- teration and contamination. The physicochemical evaluation of the powder drug reveals the standard parameters for the quality and purity of herbal drug and also gives information regarding the au- thenticity of crude drug.
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IMPORTANCE OF STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL DRUGS  AN UPDATED OVERVIEW

IMPORTANCE OF STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL DRUGS AN UPDATED OVERVIEW

2. Stability Assessment and Shelf Life: The past decade has seen a significant increase in the use of herbal medicines. As a result of WHO‟s promotion of traditional medicine, countries have been seeking the assistance of the organization in identifying safe and effective herbal medicines for use in national health care systems. Prolonged and apparently une- ventful use of a substance usually offers testimony of its safety. In a few instances, however, investiga- tion of the potential toxicity of naturally occurring substances widely used as ingredients in these prep- arations has revealed previously unsuspected poten- tial for systematic toxicity, carcinogenicity and ter- atogenicity. Regulatory authorities need to be quickly and reliably informed of these findings. They should also have the authority to respond promptly to such alerts, either by withdrawing or varying the licences of registered products contain- ing suspect substances, or by rescheduling the sub- stances to limit their use to medical prescription. Assesement of quality: All procedures should be in accordance with good manufacturing practices. Crude plant material: The botanical definition, in- cluding genus, species and authority, description,
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Herbal Drugs in India And Their Standardization

Herbal Drugs in India And Their Standardization

In India more than 70% of the population uses herbal drugs for their health. There is a vast experience-based evidence for many of these drugs. There are also a number of Institutes/Universities in India carrying our research on herbal drugs and medicinal plants. Using ‘reverse pharmacological’ approach, several Institutes carry out basic and clinical research on the potential health benefits of herbal drugs. There are many successful examples in this direction. These herbal drugs and Indian medicinal plants are also rich sources of beneficial compounds including antioxidants and components that can be used in functional foods. Newer approaches utilizing collaborative research and modern technology in combination with established traditional health principles will yield rich dividends in the near future in improving health, especially among people who do not have access to the use of costlier western systems of medicine. REFERENCES
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AUTHENTICATION METHODS FOR DRUGS USED IN AYURVEDA, SIDDHA AND UNANI SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE: AN OVERVIEW

AUTHENTICATION METHODS FOR DRUGS USED IN AYURVEDA, SIDDHA AND UNANI SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE: AN OVERVIEW

Traditional systems of medicine in India include Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani and Siddha. Among them Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems (ASU) use plants, minerals and animal products as main drugs to cure various ailments. There has been a boom in the usage of ASU drugs and export is appreciably high in the last two decades. ASU drugs may vary in composition and properties, unlike conventional pharmaceutical products, which are usually prepared from synthetic, chemically pure materials by means of reproducible manufacturing techniques and procedures. Counterfeits and drugs of poor quality degrade the clinical effects of ASU drugs. Thus authentication is a critical step for successful and reliable clinical applications and for further experimental studies on ASU drugs. The authentication methods for herbal, mineral and marine products are discussed in detail which broadly include microscopy, spectroscopy, chromatography, chemometry, immunoassays, DNA fingerprinting etc. A simple method like organoleptic characteristics may hold good to authenticate certain drugs but some may require highly sophisticated techniques too, based on the adulterants and similarity in the chemical constituents. So it is in the hands of the researchers to choose the right method suitable for the drug of interest which would match the reference standard after confirmation from the traditional vaidhyas/practitioners. This article will address about the various common and sophisticated techniques used to authenticate drugs of plant, mineral and animal origin.
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TRADITIONAL INDIAN HERBAL MEDICINE USED AS ANTIPYRETIC, ANTIULCER, ANTI-DIABETIC AND ANTICANCER: A REVIEW

TRADITIONAL INDIAN HERBAL MEDICINE USED AS ANTIPYRETIC, ANTIULCER, ANTI-DIABETIC AND ANTICANCER: A REVIEW

Herbal care or traditional system of medicine are used throughout the world and from centuries herbs have been the original source for most of the drugs. Medicinal plants contain so many chemical compounds which are the major source of therapeutic agents to cure human diseases. Recent discovery and advancement in medicinal and aromatic plants have lead to the enhancement of health care of mankind. Various medicinal plants like Neem, Arjuna, Aswagandha, Tulsi, etc. traditionally used for treating fever. The extract prepared from the heartwood of Acacia catechu, stem bark and leaves of Bauhinia racemosus, Cleome viscosa etc. reported to have antipyretic activity in rats.
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ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN THE PROVINCE OF SIDI KACEM, MOROCCO

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN THE PROVINCE OF SIDI KACEM, MOROCCO

In addition to these three families previously cited, two other families are added for treatment of skin infections; the Alliaceae and Lythraceae. In this case, the most species reported by all informants are spontaneous like Salvia verbenaca with a 11.36%, Marrubium vulgare with a frequency of 6.82%, Polygonum aviculare L. and Capparis spinosa 5.68%, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ammi visnaga and Nerium oleander L. same frequency 4.55%. The respondents did not specify prejudices in their use of these species, although they have a toxic effect. For example, the essential oil of C. ambrosioides used as anthelmintic, is fairly toxic, especially in children. The plant itself at high doses can cause signs of intolerance recalling symptoms of intoxication by essential oil [3]. While in respiratory infections dominant botanical families are Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Alliaceae, and Myrtaceae. In comparing this result with that obtained by the study carried out in the Moroccan central plateau [22], it reflects the same trends. The family Lamiaceae dominant with 16 species used (24.61%), and the Asteraceae family with four species (6.14%). This type of infection is treated by a large number of informants (27.06%), by a spontaneous plant easy to collect manually. This is found much in this area during the winter season known by the Fliu. The species belongs to the family of Lamiaceae is the Pennyroyal: Mentha pulegium L. Three other species have become important by the population for the treatment of respiratory diseases, we quote as Allium sativum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Nigella sativa, and they have a 5.88% for each. According to the information collected, they have an effective effect and don’t have side effects. Intoxication by Nigel is manifested by dryness of the mouth, oropharyngeal irritation, and inflammation of the tongue, palate, tonsils and nasopharynx [3]. While digestive infections are characterized by three defined dominant families Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, and Asteraceae. These diseases are
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Traditional medicine and complementary alternative medicine

Traditional medicine and complementary alternative medicine

plementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased significantly over the past few years. In this context, it is necessary to develop information to meet the needs of consumers. Inequities in availability, accessibility and affordability of health care have increased, between as well as within populations the world over. In the recent past there has been a growing interest in Traditional medicine/Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TCAM) and their veloping countries. Diversity, flexibility, easy accessibility, broad continuing acceptance in developing countries and increasing popularity in developed countries, relative low cost, low levels of technological input, relative low side effects and g economic importance are some of the positive features of traditional medicine (WHO 2002). According to WHO some of the major policy challenges include safety, efficacy, quality and rational paper will give an overview on herbal medicines, which are the most influential traditional medicine systems to improve public health
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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF EIGHT MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN INDIA

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF EIGHT MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN INDIA

Ethanolic extracts of some Indian plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zones of inhibition were observed in disc diffusion for antimicrobial investigation against Gram-positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria. The plants showed 80% of antimicrobial activity, with significant difference in activity between the different plants. The most antimicrobially active plants were Hyptis suaveolens and Cyperus rotundus, whereas, the least active plant was Couroupita guianensis. The ethanolic extracts showed activity against both Gram positive and negative bacteria.
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Scolicidal effects of some herbs used in Iraq traditional medicine on Protoscolices of Hydatid cysts

Scolicidal effects of some herbs used in Iraq traditional medicine on Protoscolices of Hydatid cysts

According to the results of our study, the scolicidal activity of Mentha extract at a concentration of 25 mg/ml (30min) and 50 mg/ml (20 min) is comparable with scolicidal power of 95% ethyl alcohol (15 min) (Erzurumlu et al., 1998). hypertonic saline (45 min) (Caglar et al., 2008) and 0.5–1% cetrimide (10 min) (Frayha et al., 1981). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that investigates the scolicidal efficacy of Mentha extract on the protoscolices of hydatid cysts. The results of this study allowed us to suggest that Mentha is likely source of new compounds that could be used as an effective scolicidal agent, metabolites includes: flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of various polyphenols. Polyphenols also posses many biological effects and these were generally attributed to their antioxidant activities in scavenging free radicals, inhibition of peroxidation and chelating transition metals (Javidnia et al., 2004). In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the protoscoleces of hydatid cyst, Results during the present work pointed out that Zingiber officinale extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml can kill all protoscoleces after 35 min of application, although Zingiber officinale showed lower scolicidal power in comparison with Allium sativum and Mentha longifola, it is comparable with results of Moazeni and Nazer who find that concentration 25 mg/mL, 50mg/mL and 100 mg/mL concentration killed 100% of protoccoleces after 60min, 40min and 30min of application respectively (Moazeni and Nazer, 2011). Our data suggest that medicinal plants can be a promising source of potent antiprotoscolices. We recommend further research on the in vivo efficacy of Allium sativum, Mentha longifola and Zingiber officinale extract and its potential side effects, at low concentration with few time.
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Volatile components of the resin of Pistacia lentiscus "Mistica" used in Sudanese Traditional medicine

Volatile components of the resin of Pistacia lentiscus "Mistica" used in Sudanese Traditional medicine

Pistacia lentiscus L. is an aromatic member of the Anacardiaceae and native to the Mediterranean countries. The resin of P. lentiscus has traditionally been used in Sudan folk medicine to treat catarrh and as stimulant [1]. The leaves are used in the treatment of inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, antispasmodic , diuretic, in antistress agents in traditional medicine [2]. P. lentiscus oil is used in several industrial application such as perfumery , food and pharmaceutical and it has been re-evaluted recently as a flavouring in chewing gum. Several studies have been reported on the chemical composition of essential oil of P. lentiscus belonging to different regions in the world [3 – 9].
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Standardization and Quality Evaluation of Herbal Drugs

Standardization and Quality Evaluation of Herbal Drugs

The Indian medicinal industry is developing in a tremendous change. With the tremendous increase in traditional herbal treatment many companies regarding the safety, quality and efficacy of herbal drug has been observed. There are need for more advanced techniques of standardization. The advance analytical techniques will serve as a rapid and specific tool in the herbal medicine research, the manufacturers to set quality standards and specifications to find marketing approval from regulatory authorities for therapeutic efficacy, shelf- life and safety of herbal medicine. The national health organization should ensure that all herbal pharmaceutical drug product subject to their control. and conformity with quality, safety, efficacy and all premises and practices employed the manufacturing and distribution of these product are comply with GMP standards to ensure the conformity of the products with their requirements until they delivered to the end user. Quality control of herbal product have not only to establish reasonable analytical methods for analyzing the active ingredient in herbal medicines, but different factors should be affected such as pesticides residue, toxins content, the heavy metals contamination, good agricultural practice (GAP), good manufacturing practice (GMP), etc. There is the need for development of techniques which includes both traditional
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Census Ethnobotanical Study of Some Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in the City of Meknes

Census Ethnobotanical Study of Some Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in the City of Meknes

An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the city of Meknès over a period of two years, from 2009 to 2011 with 1000 people (615 women, 385 men). Through the questionnaire, schedules were established to collect information on the use of therapeutic medicinal plants by the local population. This research has focused primarily on the general population, herbalists and healers. The present investigation has enumerated 194 species distributed in 165 genera and 72 families. The most represented families are Lamiaceae (18%), the Aseraceae, (17%), the Apiaceae (14%) and the Fabaceae (10%). The results of the survey show that 54% of individuals use both herbal medicine and modern medicine, 26% of individuals use herbs and 20% use modern medicine. We are interested in the use of plants in different ages and sexes. We report that 31% of the popula- tion is aged between 51 and 60 years, 29% between 41 and 50 years, 23% between 31 and 40 years, 10% between 21 and 30 years, 3% less than 20 years and 4 % > 60 years. We note the pre- dominance of women over men. Women use up to 61% against 39% of men. The analysis of our results shows that herbal medicine takes a place in the self-medication of the population studied. However, we emphasize an important point: Ignorance of toxic plants, in fact, only 19% of the tar- get population recognizes these plants.
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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SIX MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE GROWING IN BANGLADESH

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SIX MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE GROWING IN BANGLADESH

ABSTRACT: The antibacterial activity of the hexane, methanol, and water extracts of Tamarindus indica, Azadirachta indica, Cucumis sativus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Switenia mahagoni, and Psidium guajava extensively used in traditional medicine were investigated. The disc diffusion assay method was used for the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of these extracts against 11 bacteria species. Kanamycin (30 µg /disc) was used as a standard antibacterial agent. The results indicated that all the six plant species (not all extracts) showed a moderate antibacterial activity against a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria at a concentration of 500 µg/disc. The hexane extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Switenia mahagoni revealed the moderate antibacterial activity against 10 and 6 bacteria respectively with zone of inhibition of 10-19 mm. The methanol extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Psidium guajava, and Switenia mahagoni also exhibited antibacterial activity against 6, 4 and 5 bacteria respectively with a zone of inhibition of 9-15 mm whereas the water extract of Azadirachta indica and Cucumis sativus was only active against only two bacterial strains with zone of inhibition of 9-12 mm at the concentration of 500 µg/disc. The results of this study support the traditional uses of these medicinal plants as antibacterial agents.
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A Review on Traditional Drugs

A Review on Traditional Drugs

Natural products have played an important role throughout the world in treating and preventing human diseases. Natural product medicines have come from various source materials including terrestrial plants, terrestrial microorganisms, marine organisms, and terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates and its importance in modern medicine. The value of natural products in this regard can be accessed from: (i) the rate of introduction of new chemical entities of wide structural diversity, including serving as templates for semi synthetic and total synthetic modification, (ii) the number of diseases treated or prevented by these substances, and (iii) their frequency of use in the treatment of disease. On this basis drug like chitrak, kalijiri, Shilagit, Shankhpuspi, Palash, Kantakari are reviewed
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Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

The availability status of reported medicinal plant spe- cies in the study area was analyzed using an Availability Index (AI) categories developed by [20]. Accordingly, one species was reported as ‘’Rare ‘followed by ‘’Middle” 21 (45%), ‘’ common” 15 (31%), and ‘’vey common” 12 (24%) species. In this study, about 47% of medicinal plant parts including root, leafy-stem and bark were reported to be used as a source of treatments. According to [22] ) medi- cinal plant harvests that mainly involve roots, stems and barks have serious effect on the survival of mother plants. The endangered threat status of Prunus africana through- out African counties resulted from the wide exploitation of its bark both as a source of traditional medicine and de- velopment of synthetic drug for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasis (BHP) and prostate gland hyper- trophy (PGH). The elders of the local community of the study area expressed their great fear that the previous custom of replantation of forest species is declining by current generation. Medicinal plants are directly har- vested and processed when only needs arise. Moreover, in Ethiopia the use of wild or uncultivated plants is a common custom and this has been accelerating the deterioration of useful plant population in addition to agricultural expansion accompanied by wide cutting original forest species and environmental degradation. Several studies also indicated [8,15,41] that a growing investment in agriculture became the major threat for the deterioration of the population of medicinal plants in general and herbs. Study by [15] also reported that the use for firewood and construction as well as agricul- tural expansion were the main causes for the depletion of medicinal plants in the study area.
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Screening of some plant materials used in South-West Algerian traditional medicine for their antibacterial activity

Screening of some plant materials used in South-West Algerian traditional medicine for their antibacterial activity

The disk diffusion method is used to evaluate antibacterial activity of each plant material. The plant extract residues (100 mg) were re- dissolved in 1 mL of sterilized Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO 5%), then loaded over sterile filter paper discs (6 mm in diameter). 10 mL of Mueller-Hilton agar medium was poured into sterile Petri followed with the seeded medium previously inoculated with bacterial suspension. Sterile filter paper discs loaded with 40 l of each plant extract separately were placed on the top of Mueller-Hilton agar plates. Sterile paper discs containing Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO 5%) alone was served as control. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h.
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Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda

Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda

With increasing access to ARVs in Uganda, an important consideration is the potential for interactions between TM and ARVs when they are administered concurrently. Some classes of ARVs have great potential for unwanted herbal-drug interactions. (Lee et al., 2006; Piscitelli et al., 2002) and some African medicinal plants have shown potential for unfavorable drug-herbal interactions with ARVs in laboratory studies. (Brown et al., 2008; Mills et al., 2005) Although it is recommended that clinicians collect information on TMs used by patients on ARVs (MOH, Jun 2009), patients may not know the actual medicinal plants being used or may underreport the use of TM during their ARV clinic visits. Ethnobotanical studies are therefore crucial to identify the panel of medicinal plants being used in order to facilitate pharmacologic studies to characterize the potential of these agents to affect the metabolism and activity of ARVs.
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In vitro profiling of plants used in Sudanese traditional medicine for antioxidant and anti-breast cancer activities

In vitro profiling of plants used in Sudanese traditional medicine for antioxidant and anti-breast cancer activities

Traditionally, medicinal plants have inhabited an important position in the socio-cultural, spiritual and medicinal domain of rural and tribal lives in Sudan. In the recent years, there is an ever-increasing curiosity in elucidating the role of free radicals in biology, because of their involvement in a diverse range of diseases. Therefore, medicinal plants with antioxidant activity appear to be an intriguing area for research. Hence, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity together with anti-breast cancer activity for 14 selected medicinal plants used in Sudanese folk loric medicine. The phytoconstituents of ethanolic extr acts were assessed using standa rd phytoch emical screening method. The extracts were then subjected to assess the quantitative antioxidant activity u sing DPPH radical scavenging and iron chelating assays. MCF7 cell line was used to evaluate the antibreast cancer activity for the most powerful antioxidant extracts. Plant extracts of different concentrations; 5, 12.5, 25, 50 µg/ml were used for the calculation of IC 50 values using GRAPH PAD PRISM 5 SOFTWARE . Doxorubicin was used as the standard. All plants u nder study showed positive results for alk aloids, flavonoids, ster ols and carbohydra te. L. inermis, L. camara, H. abyssinica, G. villosa, and R. communis, showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with % RSA values of 93 ± 0.01, 92 ± 0.01, 74 ± 0.14, 61 ± 0.04, and 45 ± 0.02, respectively. On the other han d, ethanolic extracts of T. foenum-graecum, C. decidua, B. oralceae, A. bracteolata, and R. communis were found to be the top most extracts in terms of iron chelating ability with percentage iron chelating ability values of 68 ± 0.03, 50 ± 0.01, 46 ± 0.10, 44 ± 0.01 and 38 ± 0.02, respectively. All extracts of the selected plants showed marked cytotoxicity against MCF7 cells compared with reference control drug (Doxorubicin). However, among the top highest extracts showing antioxidant activity, Lawsonia inermis and Aristolochia bracteolata extracts reported the most potent cytotoxic activity with IC 50 of 19.1 µg/ml.
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Antioxidant activity and acute toxicity of a recipe used in traditional medicine for the treatment of high blood pressure

Antioxidant activity and acute toxicity of a recipe used in traditional medicine for the treatment of high blood pressure

In the second part of our study, we investigated the toxicological effect of aqueous extract of „Tanopati‰. Acute toxicity study of the aqueous extract showed that with doses up to 2000 mg/kg body weight, no cases of deaths were observed. According to the globally harmonized system of classification (GHS) (OECD 243, 2001), our extract is classified into Category 5 (unclassified) corresponding to LD50 greater than or equal to 5000 mg/kg. According to Delongeaset al. [32], any product whose LD50 is greater than 5 g/kg is considered non-toxic. Thus, the safety margin of the aqueous extract of „Tanopati‰ is very wide. The daily dose used in traditional medicine (17 mg/kg, unpublished data) is well below this margin. Moreover during the study, we noticed a significant increase of the weight of mice in the control group while in the groups of handled mice, we did not observe significant difference of the variation of the middle weight. Our extract does not have significant effects on the weight gain. According to West et al. [33], the weight gainis associated withfat accumulationin adipose tissue. The polyphenols whichare the main constituentsof"Tanopati" are powerful antioxidantsthat can reduce the sizeof adipocytes[34], which would result in adecrease infat accumulation. Moreover, theactiveoxygen species(AOS) of
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HERBAL MEDICINE USED IN TRADITIONAL CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE-A REVIEWM. Harish Reddy1,* K. Sambasivarao2DOWNLOAD/VIEW

HERBAL MEDICINE USED IN TRADITIONAL CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE-A REVIEWM. Harish Reddy1,* K. Sambasivarao2DOWNLOAD/VIEW

The cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have been the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries over the last several decades, and developing countries are rapidly catching up with this epidemic. The underlying pathology is athermanous vascular disease, resulting in coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease, and the subsequent development of heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. The major risk factors for these disorders were recognized over many years, and they include high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, psychosocial factors, insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables, excess consumption of alcohol, and lack of regular physical activity. There has been continued research to help define more precisely the cardiovascular risk of an individual with respect to genetic factors, more complex lipid traits, and inflammatory markers, but it was reconfirmed in the INTERHEART study that the conventional risk factors accounted for over 90% of the population attributable risk for myocardial infarction There is extensive evidence to show that drug treatment of conventional risk factors is effective in reducing cardiovascular events. Many large clinical trials with the HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have showed that lowering of LDL cholesterol with these agents decreases coronary and cerebrovascular events and that the target for LDL cholesterol becomes lower with each new set of guidelines and the availability of more potent drugs Likewise, more effective treatment of hypertension with various classes of antihypertensive drugs has been associated with greater benefits but some recent studies suggest we may be reaching the optimal level of treated blood pressure in some patient groups. Apart from the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors with pharmacological agents and the use of antithrombotic drugs, there is growing awareness of the role of dietary factors and herbal medicines in the prevention of CVD and the possibility of their use in treatment.
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