ABSTRACT: This work deals with design of self -locking startermotor with safe door locking system for a car. Monitoring system is designed and all the four doors are connected with control circuit .Before ignition all of the four relays should be closed. The control circuits monitors for door status. If the all doors are closed then the control circuit switches on dash light. We can start the car when the dash board light is on that is when all the doors are closed. Ignition key is used to start the vehicle. If the ignition key is switched on and if four doors are closed then the control circuit starts the engine through the relay circuit. The self -motor attached with the relay circuit starts the engine when the relay is turned on.
Startermotor converts electrical energy through a battery into mechanical rotating energy. These motors work under heavy load. They produce big power in a short time and in a small volume. Startermotor conveys its rotating energy with a pinion to the flywheel. For initiating internal combustion engine, the rotating moment of starter motors should be requested being greater. The startermotor must be rotating the flywheel at a minimum starting speed. It must also continue support rotation during initial combustion to maintain momentum until the engine can sustain operation. The startermotor turns for approximately 3 seconds during each starting attempt. In each attempt the startermotor gear bounces out and meshes with the flywheel attached to the engine crankshaft. During the compression cycle of each cylinder, the startermotor torque is high, resulting in higher force on the starter gear teeth. Because of the lack of over current protection, the traditional starter control through solenoid easily causes short circuit and bums out starter. So the startermotor and its components are subjected to either mechanical fault like wear, fractures of moving parts or electrical faults like short interrupted circuit and contact resistance increase etc. This paper focuses on the need of electronic control unit based starting system with some practical observations made and also state of charge of battery is also discussed.
Lab VIEW is quickly for monitoring and data acquisition. Motor are recorded and analyzed simultaneously by applying Lab VIEW. Automatic measurement and examination of DC motor with high-performance graph is developed in this paper. The input power is measurement by measuring the input voltage, current and power factor with the help of a voltage and current transformer and the output power is measured by measuring the speed and torque.
The simplest type of system to test and bypass is the “Direct Feed” system. This circuit simply interrupts the +12v signal starter wire from the ignition switch to the starter solenoid. There are 2 wires in this circuit, the “key side” wire which goes from the clutch pedal to the Ignition switch, and the “solenoid side” which goes from the clutch switch to the startermotor. When the key is turned to the start position without pressing the pedal, you will test 12v only on one of the wires at the clutch switch, this is the key side. When the pedal is pressed down, and the key is in the crank position, the other wire will also read 12 volts; this is the solenoid side wire. To confirm you have a direct feed clutch switch, hot wire the “solenoid side” wire with a fused +12 volts and the startermotor will crank. Connect the starter output from the remote starter to solenoid side wire.
The startermotor is a powerful electric motor as it is needed to spin the engine at the beginning of starting the engine. It is attached with a small gear (pinion) which will meshed with a larger gear (ring), which is attached to the engine upon activation. The startermotor then spins the engine over so that the piston can draw in a fuel/ air mixture, which is then ignited to start the engine. This is done by pushing the pistons to create a vacuum volume which will open the air intake valve and sucks the air entering the combustion chamber. After the engine is running on its own, the startermotor must be deactivated to avoid damage on its gear and components as the engine is spinning faster than the motor. However, a coupling or clutch like system is installed on the startermotor which allows the motor to detract automatically whenever the engine gear is rotating faster than the motor itself.
y It is possible to measure the current by connecting an ammeter between the battery positive terminal and the + cable position terminal, however, while the startermotor is activated, the surge current of the motor draws from the battery may damage the ammeter. Use the kick starter to start the engine.
6. If the amperage draw exceeds 100 amps and the engine RPM is less than 350, it could indicate a startermotor problem. Check the starting system, such as the battery, cables, solenoid and connections. Then proceed to check the startermotor by performing the no‑load startermotor test as indicated on page 8 or refer to the Briggs & Stratton Repair Instruction Manual, Section 7.
Folate the salt of folic acid is vital component of the human diet and involve in the biosynthesis of nucleotides and co-factors in many metabolic reactions. As mammalian cells cannot synthesize folate, the folate synthesizing LAB can be used to ugment the folate content in fermented dairy products. Milk contains 20-50 microgram per liter folate and fermented milk contains higher amounts up to 150 µg per liter in yoghurt. Some starter cultures have been shown to synthesize folate and secreate into the medium during fermentation. These are Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. Vitamin B12 is an important cofactor for the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. This vitamin is synthesized by propionibacteria. Vitamin K, an essential co-factor, is involved in the post- translational modification of glutamic acid residues in certain proteins, such as blood clotting proteins and proteins involve in tissue calcification. Genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus synthesize the vitamin K. Such strains may be useful as dairy
WPC with added annatto contained higher concentrations of decanal, p-xylene, 2- butanone, and pentanal than their uncolored counterparts (p>0.05) (Figure 1). Previously, p- xylene has been documented as a volatile from annatto (Galindo-Cuspinera et al., 2002). No study to our knowledge has been conducted to document annatto-related volatiles in a food matrix and it is likely that decanal, 2-butanone, and pentanal, while lipid oxidation products, are present at higher concentrations in products with annatto due to the influence of annatto on the lipid oxidation process in WPC. WPC from starter culture whey with added annatto had lower concentrations (p<0.05) of lipid oxidation products than the WPC from starter culture whey without added annatto suggesting possible antioxidant activity from the annatto (Figure 1). Antioxidant effects of carotenoids are thought to be mainly from their ability to scavenge free radicals and efficiently quench singlet oxygen. Studies conducted on the antioxidant activity of annatto have been primarily conducted on bixin, with only one paper exploring norbixin (Kiokias and Gordon, 2003). Norbixin has been previously documented to retard oxidative deterioration of lipids in oil-in-water emulsions (Kiokias and Gordon, 2003).
This 48V system with the help of buck converter charges the 12V battery which is used to power low voltage loads in HEV. The PMSM performs as motor when the speed of the IC engine is below the prescribed minimum cranking speed . Below this speed an IC engine would be in off condition and battery would supply power to engine so as to achieve a minimum torque. The power electronic converter present helps to convert AC to DC and vice versa with the help of bidirectional converter. Controller is used so as to operate ISA in generator as-well as motoring mode by sensing the IC engine speed. The control technique used for controlling of the system is Field oriented control to control the speed and torque of the motor with the help of stator current.
Abstract — A significant amount of Cheddar cheese manufactured world-wide relies on bulk starter cultures instead of direct vat set (DVS) cultures. While the inclusion of S. thermophilus is some- times used to counteract failure due to lactococcal phage in the latter system, it is considered difficult to implement in bulk starter systems and is normally avoided. This stems from the problem in con- trolling the ratio of S. thermophilus to lactococci during the bulk starter preparation such that suitable acidification rates can be achieved. The current study demonstrates how S. thermophilus numbers can be controlled during growth in the bulk starter medium prior to inoculation of a culture, based on three lactococcal strains and S. thermophilus DPC1842, into the cheese vat. The concentration of inor- ganic phosphate necessary to inhibit the growth of strain DPC1842 in a whey-based bulk starter medium was found to be 0.18 mol.L –1 . Since higher levels of phosphate exist in different commer-
Shaded pole motor is a self-starting single phase induction motor that designed with only a main winding in the stator. It has salient poles stator that divided into 2 part the shaded part and unshaded part and the shaded part of each pole is surrounded by a copper ring or short circuited coil named as shading coil. The stator is constructed in a special way to produce a moving magnetic field as the magnetic field varies. As the moving magnetic field sweep across the surface of the rotor a smell net torque is produced and the motor will start to rotate. The magnetic field will varies from the unshaded part to shaded part. Figure 2.9 indicate the schematics diagram of shaded pole motor
and voltage respectively. A surface mounted PMM is attached to a two level Active Front-End (AFE) converter. In starter mode, the PMM drives a load using electrical power from the DC bus. On the other hand, in generator mode, the load motor drives the PMM that acts as a generator to provide electrical power to the main DC link bus. It is assumed that the load motor is controlled externally, and behaves as an ideal speed source for the PMM. The S/G system was designed based on torque- speed characteristics for a typical business jet engine that can be seen in Fig. 2. It shows the torque requirements at different operating temperatures and speeds (maximum speed of 32krpm). The torque demand at -40°C is the highest for this given characteristic and the PMM was designed to meet this requirement as illustrated by the solid black line in the figure. While the engine torque characteristics can be considered, the maximum possible torque is sufficient to test the feasibility of the hybrid control scheme.
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