Thus, equipped with sufficient and qualified human resources, Sragen govern- ment was able to develop , deploy and main- tain e-government programs in various func- tional areas in all its offices to provide fast, timely and affordable public services to both state and non-state stakeholders. Moreover, such manpower ensured network effective- ness, expanded reach and sustainability, which in turn has contributed to solidifying the role of e-government in the administra- tive services and delivery of public service services. This finding is consistent with finding by Gil-García & Pardo (2005) that availability of competent human resources is vital for organizational performance. Such competences were pivotal in the e- government development, deployment and operations of components of e-government programs such as government website and other applications that had sufficient appeal- ing features for users to interact with provid- ers wherever they are located and at any time. That way, competent manpower was instrumental in not only designing, imple- menting e-government applications that served the purpose, but also ensured that so- cial, economic and cultural contexts of the local population were put into consideration in selection of technology providers that supplied ICT architecture as well as in de- veloping interface that users find ease to in- teract with regardless of social status and geographical location.
The sixth pillar in our model is reliability as many researchers give emphasis to it as a critical issue to ensure efficient and effective delivery of integrated services at 'one stop'. One of those researchers is  who mentioned reliability without degradation or failure to express the ability of the electronicgovernment portal to consistently perform its functions and offer its services to all kinds of stakeholders when required without degradation or failure. In line with this view, the term of maintainability can be highlighted to signify the ability of the electronicgovernment portal to preserve its original state and the ability to be restored in case of a failure. Moreover, maintainability refers to characteristic of design and installation which determines the probability that a failed equipment, machine, or system can be restored to its normal operable state within a given timeframe based on a set of prescribed practices and procedures. Consequently, maintainability is our seventh pillar that has two main components: serviceability which is ease of conducting scheduled inspections and servicing, and reparability which is ease of restoring service after a failure .
Nowadays, most of the governments worldwide devel- op innovative systems and services of the electronic gov- ernment as a mean for decreased costs, enhanced service quality for citizens, business and nonprofit organizations and transformed relations at all levels of the government sector. (Andersen, 2004; Venkatesh, Chan, & Thong, 2012; West, 2005). At the same time, various categories of cus- tomers jointly strive to receive more effective means for information availability in order to make relationships with the government institutions more simplified, time-effective and comfortable. They also strive to have immediate partic- ipation in state governance and decision-making (Heeks & Bailur, 2007; Jones, Hackney & Irani, 2007; Smith, 2010).
wishes of superiors and politicians should no longer guide a public servants’ action. Being loyal is not synonymous with strict following instructions . In addition, motivation also been asserted that the motivation for public service loyalty is organizational rewards for loyal employees . Government rewards are not contractable and the sustainability of the rewards needed by repeated interaction. There should exist check and balance in implementing duties that is the civil servants can decline orders that exceed formal powers and civil servants can decline orders that exceed formal powers and civil servants do not contribute to act that undermine existing system and accountability. By being loyal to their organization, by being partial, by competing with and acting against others, government officials serve the common interest . Studies also found that civil servants have become more involved with the public than just merely executing policy [3; 9]. New Public Management (NPM) puts accountability at the forefront as the benchmark in measuring performance. Accountability involves performing a certain action that corresponds to a positive expectation of the result of that action and justifying that action when the result is not as expected . Public accountability refers to a situation where public officers are held liable or responsible for any decision or action involving public interest [11; 8]. The practice of public accountability represents the exercise of good governance . It is the relationship and a process that relates policy makers, policy implementers and the public, where government becomes subservient to and answerable to the public .
E-conferencing supports workers to meet and have real-time interactions virtually that usually consist of features such as audio and video, application sharing and chat tools . Telepresence is the latest videoconferencing technology that allows more lifelike image transferring, participants’ eye-to-eye contact and etc. . The difference between Telepresence and traditional videoconferencing is reflected by more normal human interaction . Another kind of e-conferencing that use Internet for digital transmission is called web-conferencing , . Web-conferencing technologies, is also called online conferencing, can be divided into service-based web-conferencing and server-based web conferencing . Suduc Bizoi, Filip, Academy, and Bucharest,  describe service-based web-conferencing as “more applicable to occasional users” with a lower price that is usually carried by online conferencing service suppliers; while server based web-conferencing refers to those “companies that can run by themselves on their internal network, dedicated servers, or network appliances”. Teleconferencing connotes group communication via any electronic means. Audio and full-motion video are most likely to be the most well-known kinds of teleconferencing.
In fact, intelligence in business is a systematic process to be ensured of the updated exact and related information of the competitors. An intelligent system refers to a set of programs and origins that is used by managers in order to access to the daily information marketing environment. It is clear that the full potential of information technologies hasn’t been made use of. However, exploring the hidden aspects of these emerging technologies and making them efficient is of paramount importance. We put forward a practical framework to fulfill the complete execution of e-government. By providing the required backgrounds for e-government, not only its current status can be improved, but also there will be actual impacts on the welfare of citizens and government as well. In this paper, after a broad clarification of the e-government and non-business purposes of business intelligence the needed infrastructures for its complete execution have been presented.
Prior to interviews, all interviewees, local and global were provided with a copy of the interview questions via email. For global participants a controlled variation in the interview instrument was achieved by replacing the word Victoria with the name of the comparator country or organisation. The multi-level interviews were completed over twelve months from February 2004 to February 2005. These questions were emailed to the World Bank for expert and independent comment. Extenuating circumstances caused a delay in the write-up of data and was of concern to the researcher. As a result of the unforeseeable delay the original interview data was 3 years old towards the completion of the study. In consideration of this delay a subsequent set of telephone conversations were conducted over a two week period in October 2008 to re-fresh the data and identify any significant changes in opinion or experience. With an 89% contact rate, (one interviewee had retired and the other had changed roles) the remaining interviewees confirmed that interview content was still relevant. All interviewees confirmed their responses were still current and consistent with their experiences. However the confirmatory telephone interviews did reveal subtle changes in use of medium with more services aiming for mobile platform delivery over the next three to five years. In addition to contacting the confirmatory interviews all available Victorian documentation repositories were double checked and data amended to ensure accuracy of the study.
He further observed that dollarization as a well-intended temporary policy measure has been corrupted and is corrupting the entire national elite. The truth of the matter is that the national leadership has totally lost the ubuntu/unhu as well as national ethos. The inflated executive salaries and other conditions of service recently unearthed at state organisations represent examples of leadership corruption which are hard to prosecute. The executives may have stolen public resources belonging to the people but they were authorised to do so by their immediate bosses. The Boards that approved obscene salaries should be prosecuted not the CEOs because the boards and the parent Ministry play oversight roles. These two structures slept on duty not the CEOs. The CEOs were just like the biblical Lazarus at the looting table. Political booting and patronage made sure that those in the boards remained quiet about the goings on in the parastatals. There was no political commitment to do an oversight duty on these parastatals by the line ministers, permanent secretaries and Parliament since the salaries and perks of executives were approved by the entire boards. Gross disregard for good corporate governance should be dealt with forthwith and ruthlessly. This is an opportunity for ZANU PF to walk the talk on the election promises.
Abstract: This paper introduces co-operative caching policies for reducing electronic content provisioning cost in Social Wireless Networks (SWNET). SWNET are formed by mobile devices such as laptops, modern cell phones etc. sharing common electronic contents, data and actually gathering in public places like college campus, mall etc. Electronic object caching in such SWNET are shown to be able to minimize the content provisioning cost which mainly depend on service and pricing dependencies between various stakeholders including content provider(CP),network service provider, end consumer(EC). This paper introduces practical network service and pricing model which are used for creating two object caching strategies for minimizing provisioning cost in networks which are homogeneous and heterogeneous object demand. The paper develops analytical and simulation design for analyzing the proposed caching strategies in the presence of selfish user that deviates from networks-wide cost-optimal policies.
Public sector has in the recent past appreciated the opportunities offered by the ICT through e-government in streamlining internal processes in order to serve clients better, meet the ever increasing citizen’s demands and ensuring that exceed their expectations. Organisations are currently employing technology to improve governance through engaging with citizens and improve servicedelivery to the citizens. Tapscott and Caston (1993) argued that ICT causes a “paradigm shift” introducing ‘the age of network intelligence’, reinventing businesses, governments and individuals. The traditional bureaucratic paradigm, characterized by internal productive efficiency, functional rationality, departmentalization, hierarchical control and rule-based management(Kaufman, 1977), is being replaced by competitive, knowledge based economy through e-government which emphasises on coordinated network building, customer satisfaction and speed in servicedelivery.
Indeed, if governments are not full and willing partners, citizen-led implementations of two- way e-government functions demonstrate unsatisfying rates of success. In her study of civic tech- nology tools aimed at enhancing public access to government information in Latin America, Rum- bul (2016) documents the regular obstruction of the tools’ functions through bureaucratic coun- termeasures. Similarly, Tiago Peixoto and Jonathan Fox (2016) evaluate the effectiveness of 23 civic technology tools on improving governmental responsiveness. They find that where government institutions are not actively seeking out online interaction with the public, the tools by themselves do not increase government responsiveness. Scholars documenting the effects of civic technology have described this problem as the gap between “transparency” and “accountability.” Katharina Welle, Jennifer Williams, and Joseph Pearce (2016) summed up the findings of their research on servicedelivery complaints by noting: “[P]utting the user's reporting preferences at the centre of the ICT [information and communication technology] design may be missing the point unless the wider design supports a more responsive servicedelivery model.” Even the best civic technology platform will not increase responsiveness if a government cannot or does not want to respond.
The computerization initiative was a solution towards dealing with overwhelming number of applications, to address delays in servicedelivery inherent in paper- based systems, processes duplication and issues of information not reaching the targeted audience on time and conveniently. This was further going to drastically reduce on time taken between the requests by ministries to recruit and the actual appointments to the vacant posts.
As state institutions, it should be possible to present and make use of electronicgovernment in the function of serving the community. The emphasis in information technology to avoid the digital gap in at least. The provision of better government services to residents, increase interaction with the business world and industry, through access to information for community empowerment, a more efficient government or management. The results of that is expected of a reduction in corruption, the increase in transparency, the increase in comfort, and rising income or reducing expenses. Based on the results of research. Electronicgovernment in the context of the ability to look the ability to run the function of governmentelectronic media and build partnerships with private not optimal it is marked with the need for the allocation of fund optimally and support to work jointly with private companies to more so handling equipment and support for the success of electronicgovernment could be achieved. As an effort to harmonize the acceleration of the completion of work, the licensing of the city of Samarinda must be able to implement the interests of citizens as well as problems faced by. No service to stop because of the support of funding led to the ability to reform it weakened to find appropriate formulations to stiffness in public service is not of stagnation. According to results of the review Khidasseli in Sutedi (2010) that norms behavior officers public service providers (a code of conduct for public officials), who set about norms in an administrative authority: 1) The obligation to work in accordance with the rules of law and standards of conduct of relevance to its function, 2) The obligation to put themselves in a neutral of or free from
-government may influence the way government services are delivered to citizens. E-government creates new forms of governmentservicedelivery system, such as the electronic matching of government agencies and citizens. The information systems (IS) community has given significant attention to government-citizen relationships supported by Information technology (IT) such as Internet’s web portals. Several authors have argued that these concepts can play a key role in e-governmentservicedelivery performance measurements. Financial accounting measurements are extensively used to evaluate government performance (Wright et al., 1999; Hsu, 2005), but they do not reveal adequately the benefits of investing in IT. Financial accounting measurements do inform managers of historical outcomes, but they do not indicate why those results were achieved or what managerial actions have to be performed to improve future results (Wright et al., 1999). Because the excessive reliance on financial accounting performance measurements is inadequate and can be misleading, Wright et al. (1999) suggested a Balanced Scorecard theory as a consistent performance measurement tool for the use of IT.
Abstract: Primary healthcare as a decentralized medical service at the community area in Nigeria is bedeviled with challenges. In other words, this study takes took a critical look at the challenges militating against primary health care delivery at the local levels in Nigeria with reference to Enugu East local government of Enugu state. The study examines the efforts and challenges of Enugu East local government in improving the health care service in Enugu East rural communities. In reference to the methodology of this study, it adopted a survey design with reference to primary source (structured questionnaire) as instrument of data collection, quantitative likert scale of data analysis and Easton’s political system framework for empirical analysis. This study further revealed that primary health care delivery is fraught with challenges (such as inadequate funding, drugs, quality service) which stem from the abysmal failures of Enugu East local government. This work therefore recommends measures such as improved budgetary allocation, strengthening the supply chain of drugs, enhanced clinical service as conditions imperative for improved health care service in Enugu East rural communities.
Table 6 shows that the influence of strategic management practices (strategic planning, strategic leadership, strategy implementation,) on servicedelivery was significant (t = 3.166; p < 0.05). All the parameters of strategic management practices examined in this study enhanced servicedelivery. Furthermore, it was noted that a unit increase in servicedelivery would require 3.166 increase in strategic planning, strategic leadership and strategy implementation. Lastly, government policy, economic conditions and organizational culture were found to have an intervening influence on the relationship between strategic management practices and servicedelivery in the county government of Nairobi.
Today, customers are more informed than ever before. In essence, the internet has provided a global infrastructure that allows for a more direct interaction between customers and services. Customer interaction with government services is related to citizen perception of online service convenience (transaction), reliability of information (transparency), and engaged electronic communication (interactivity) (Welch et al., 2004). According to Moon (2002), the rapid development has enabled the government of different regions of the world to direct their attention towards ICT as a result of the opportunities it assumes to bring to their community. As a result, it propels the government to spend huge amount of money on ICT project. The government perceived the benefit it will bring to the citizen and country at large in the long run. In order to make this more effective government invest largely on e- service applications. Some local government authority has also invested on e- government project but has not been progressing and having favourable outcome due to the fact that it is just recent (Moon, 2002; 2008). Due to this fact, it is necessary for government both at local and national level to create awareness of e-service value-in-use. Make the concept clear to the public in order to facilitate their understanding of the value-in-use of government e-service application. The government need to know how public perceive e-government project (such as e- service applications) value. However, Liu et al., (2008) pointed out that assessing government e-service from co-creation of value is one of the greatest challenges facing both researcher and the government and there is no collective design and system that will cater for the challenge.
The electronicdelivery note serves, among others, for the notification of goods delivered to MSH by the supplier. Transfer of the electronicdelivery note from the supplier to the EDI service provider of Media-Saturn should be carried out after consignment / at the time of consignment of goods and should be completed on the day of delivery until 5:00 o´clock in the morning at the latest. The aim is to be able to provide in time planning of the upcoming goods receipts for the store in order to exclude denial of acceptance.
es Salaam the first municipality in Tanganyika. This was a breakthrough in the history of administrative decentralisation and the development of urban authorities in Tanzania. The newly created municipal council was composed of appointed members based on racial representation and some Africans were appointed to represent the municipality’s African population. In terms of the Ordinance municipalities were given some discretionary power to make by-laws and impose property rates and business fees (URT, 2004). They were also entitled to receive government subventions for financing the services and administrative functions decentralised to them, including primary education for Africans, health, roads, abattoirs, and firefighting (JMT, 2011; URT, 2004). It is worth noting that both the township authorities and the municipalities (by then it was only Dar es Salaam) largely served the interests of colonial government officials, foreign traders and expatriates. Africans were generally unwelcome in urban areas, although the government was obliged to address some of their interests, but even then, not before those of the European and Asian communities had been taken care of (Coulson 1982; JMT, 2011). In assessing the delivery of public services during the colonial era, the Tanzanian government’s ‘Fifty years independence report 1961–2011’ acknowledges that, to some extent, the British did expand the provision of social services in the country, but these were provided on a racially discriminatory basis. (JMT, 2011). The colonial government and missionaries built new primary schools and secondary schools in addition to those left by Germans. In urban areas there were designated schools for Europeans, Asians and Africans but the quality of infrastructure and education provided in the schools varied significantly, with White children studying in the best schools while African children were assigned to the worst (JMT, 2011, p.15). Generally, the majority of indigenous people were denied access to education during the colonial rule. At the primary level, for instance, it is estimated that only 25% of children of school age had the opportunity to attend school under British colonial rule (JMT, 2011, p.15). Limited access to education resulted in high levels of illiteracy in Tanganyika and it is estimated that only 10% of the country’s people could read and write during this time (JMT, 2011, p.15).
The study investigates how the local government reforms shaped health servicedelivery in Kasulu District council. Firstly, the study intended to find out how reforms assisted management of quality and capacity to offer health services in Kasulu. Secondly, the study examined the challenges to offer adequate and quality health services in Kasulu District. The other objective was to assess how health service reform attracted community involvement in planning and implementation of health services in Kasulu. The expo-facto descriptive design used to explore changes after the health service reforms in Kasulu. Whereby, the interest was to know both challenge and improvement encountered through the reforms undertaken. The study involved ( ) respondents as a sample to represent the whole population in the study area. A structured questionnaire was administered to health service officers and heads of household in order to fill in questions. The questionnaire analyzed through frequencies and mean which were presented in percentages, charts as well as figures. The percentage distribution formed a basis for conclusions. It was revealed that there were inadequate health facilities and staffs; this led into poor service provision. For instance, still there is good number of people trust traditional healers than doctors. This is due to poor services offered such as unsuccessful treatment, long waiting and inadequate expertise. The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) was formulated and implemented by the Tanzania Government with an intention of addressing problems which constrained the performance of the local government authorities such as the human resource capacity and management being weak and this seriously constrained performance by Local Government Authorities, weak leadership and poor management of the councils, shortage of properly qualified, disciplined and committed personnel, shortage of revenue due to narrow tax base, over-employment within the Councils and lack of transparency and accountability in the conduct of Councils' business. The study concludes that effectiveness of health servicedelivery is mainly determined by both local government system and the community involvement. That is local government policy reforms, critical resources management and full engaged community. From which the community can play their role to promote a dynamic health delivery environment.