secondary/middle/upper schools’. Those who are most hostile to the church school system say things like, ‘the Church of England school system has outlived its usefulness’, ‘Church of England schools should be given over to the state’, and ‘the Church of England has too many schools’. Closely associated with the individual teachers’ stand on these polarising issues are their views on the relationship between church and school and the relationship between religion and education. Those in favour of church schools tend to believe that the school system should teach about the church and encourage pupils to accept and practise the Christian faith, while those against church schools tend to believe that the task of Christian education should rest with the churches and with parents rather than with the school system and that it is inappropriate for schools to ask pupils to participate in signs of religious commitment like worship and prayer.
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Abstract: In this paper the background of the existing state of the steganographic research works have been discussed. The main categories of steganographic algorithms are covered in this survey. It encompasses all technical concepts which are used in this thesis and explains their nature along with current advancements. The scrambling techniques, like Arnold Transform and Lorenz Chaotic map - used for pre-processing the secret, have also been discussed. Along with these, Edge Detection of Image, QR Decomposition of Linear Algebra, Visual Cryptography, Cocktail Party Problem, Natural Language Processing, Parts-of- Speech (POS) Tagger and RSA Encryption Technique are also emphasized for the strong background support.
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(i) Robust and continuous in vitro propagation systems for Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, and the microsporidia. In vitro propagation is the lynchpin that will propel research of all types forward in these systems, including genetic manipulations, drug discovery efforts, and basic biological approaches. Many labs have tried unsuccessfully to develop such in vitro culture systems, and these types of individual approaches will not likely prove success- ful. Instead, a concerted effort to identify the metabolic pathways through the study of genomes, gene expression, biochemistry, and cell biology is more likely to produce tangible information that could lead to sustainable ex vivo systems and, at the very least, contribute to the overall knowledge of their basic biology. These small, specialized communities should develop strategic plans to fully take advantage of collaborative research opportunities, such as the NIH Director’s Transformative Research Award initiative, formerly known as the Transformative Research Project (TR01), which was created to support exceptionally innovative and/or un- conventional research projects that have the potential to create or overturn fundamental paradigms. Such projects tend to be inher- ently risky and often do not fare well in conventional NIH review. By using such opportunities, these fields can grow in numbers of investigators and additional areas of expertise. For example, lab- oratories without animal colonies could join those with colonies for collaborative efforts. Specialty meetings within each areas could be used to plan this process and form strategies for collab- orations, such as the host meeting (International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists) from which this commentary was born.
Thereafter, researchers engaged themselves with research in the experimental and mathematical discipline and attempted to trace linkages of DMFC with various constructs like Methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction kinetics(A.S. Arico et al., 2000; X. Ren et al., 2000; P. Argyropoulos et al., 1999; J. Nordlund et al., 2004; T. Bewer et al., 2004; J.P. Meyers et al., 2002), Gaseous carbon dioxide in anode (G.Q. Lu et al., 2004; H. Yang et al., 2005; T.S. Zhao et al., 2005; Q. Liao et al., 2007; M.D. Lundin et al., 2007), Liquid water transport in the cathode (M.M. Mench, 2003; G.Q. Lu et al., 2004; K.S. Chen et al., 2005), Methanol crossover (V. Tricoli et al., 2000; S. Hikita et al., 2001; H. Dohle et al., 2002; K. Ramya et al., 2003; R. Jiang et al., 2004 and more), Water management (G.Q. Lu et al., 2005; S.S. Sandhu et al., 2005; F. Liu et al., 2006; W. Liu et al., 2007; M.H. Shi et al., 2007 and more), Flow field design (A.S. Arico et al., 2000; H. Yang et al., 2005). However, no attempt has been made in the past to conduct a best result analysis with regards to performance in the DMFC discipline. The review of literature is fundamental to examine the nature of work published within a discipline and to identify research gaps to be addressed in the future.
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According to Augustine’s own Confessiones, the Manichaean bishop Faustus of Milevis played a significant role in his apostasy from Manichaeism. Somehow Augustine became disappointed with the intellectual explanations Faustus provided for some of Manichaeism’s fabulous doctrines and thereby with Manichaeism as a religion. That same Faustus published a work, the Capitula in which he discussed some exegetical controversies. This work has been preserved, because Augustine cited it in its entirety in his Contra Faustum Manichaeum. In the last hundred years Faustus and his work have received some significant scholarly attention. During that period our view of Manichaeism and subsequently on the Manichaean bishop, has changed. At the beginning Faustus’s exegesis was considered merely a form of Manichaean propaganda. Its Christian elements were accepted as a tactic tool in order to covert Catholic Christians to Manichaeism, which was not considered a Christian religion at all. In the course of the 20th century primary Manichaean sources have been discovered. They have enhanced our understanding of the ancient religion immensely. Comparing these texts with Faustus’s Capitula reveals that the Manichaean bishop not only defended well-known Manichaean dogmas through his exegesis of scripture, he seems to have contributed to Manichaean exegesis and even Manichaean prophetology. Furthermore, Faustus’s Christian, Pauline language can no longer be accepted as a mere tactic adaption to Catholic preferences, but seems to have been his own, genuine language. This article provides an overview of both the research and the debates on bishop Faustus and his works.
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Second, fundraisers comprise the individuals, seeking for funding. Crowdfunding provides them access to a market on one hand while raising money on the other hand (Burkett, 2011). As crowdfunding is fundamentally open, the typology of fundraisers can vary from companies (Burger-Helmchen and Penin, 2010), industries (Grier, 2011), institutions (Howe, 2006a) or non-profit organizations (Brabham, 2009). Currently, scientific research has focused primarily on companies as fundraisers (Moritz and Block, 2014). Requirements to be fulfilled by the fundraiser in order to initate a crowdfunding project are minor (Estellés-Arolas and González-Ladrón-de-Guevara, 2012) as the self-marketing of the fundraisers idea is referred to as the most important requirement (Pelzer et al., 2012).
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Because community functions were performed by adults on a self-governing basis, there was no need for special authority during the primitive community period. The complexity of social life as a result of increasing differentiation required the existence of a separate body with the power to manage and regulate the performance of many social functions. The genetic conditions of the formation of the state existed in the form of distincted clans that performed managerial functions. However, in societies where economic differentiation underlies
One experienced UX researcher, Mark Richman, wrote about this growing phenomenon of job postings that place a high priority on experience designers, with a lesser interest in capabilities for research (2018). Although Richman did find some job postings for researchers, he stated that these were the exception. He concluded that “Many of the ads I saw reserved their most specific and vivid language for the visual design end of things . . . . Are other companies just paying lip service to the current buzz by hiring visual designers and labelling them ‘UX’?” (para 9). One UX researcher who responded to the article wrote, “I have been a UX practitioner for 9 years now and it recently took me nearly a year to get a new job—I discovered the visual interface design ‘gotcha’ was the problem. . . . Companies really want a VISUAL designer and don’t understand that UX is NOT UI” (comment posted to Richman's article by YvonniaM). If the trend is for one person to have a combined role as UX and visual designer, is that person assuming the role of UX researcher by default? And if so, are they doing their own user
Use of the NCSL website has increased in the last three years. Three-quarters of headteachers, two-thirds of deputies and nearly all NPQH candidates now visit the College’s website. Usage is, however, significantly lower among middle leaders. The DfES website is also a much used resource among school leaders. Nearly all headteachers, deputies and NPQH candidates say they have visited the site in the last 12 months, which is in line with the 2001 findings. Among middle leaders usage of the DfES website has increased significantly over the last three years from just two-thirds saying they accessed the website in 2001 to nearly all doing so now. There has been a drop in the number of headteachers and NPQH candidates who use general networking practices such as ‘chat rooms’. Two-thirds of NPQH candidates say they used general networking practices in 2001, compared with just over half now. Similarly usage among headteachers has fallen from a quarter in 2001, to just a fifth now. The qualitative research indicates that for headteachers, workload and time constraints are important barriers to participation in online networking.
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Voice of Customer is the important for product development. Product development is a complex task in which a great deal of human physical resources, methods, and tools are involved. One of the well- appreciated models is Kano model for customer needs study for product development. This study is to identify a research gap from existing literature regarding Kano Model. For this reasons, a review of state-of-art is done regarding Kano Model aspect.
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In the first part of the study a literature review is conducted. In this review current strategic management literature is taken into account. The theoretical framework consists solely of strategic management articles. These articles can be found in many journals. However, given the time and size limitations of a master’s thesis, it would be nearly impossible to examine them all and some sacrifices had to be made. After careful deliberation, it would be best to research all research articles published in 2013 and 2014 in the Strategic Management Journal, which becomes the theoretical framework. This journal is highly esteemed in the academic community of strategic management literature, and its content can be described as “certified knowledge” (due to their rigorous peer review function). This journal is chosen because all articles published within are related to strategy themes and topics, which is exactly what is being researched. Secondly, studying all research articles eliminates selection bias and improves the internal validity. Since this paper is aiming to research the current state of the art, it is necessary to only select articles published in 2013 and 2014. Articles published before 2013 and other journals are excluded due to time and limit constraints of a master’s thesis.
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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the state of the art on models and methods for reliability optimization problems (ROPs) including reliability allocation, redundancy allocation and reliability-redundancy allocation. There are literally few surveys for reviewing the literature of the ROPs. Tillman et al. (1980) classified the related papers by system structure, problem type, and solution methods, separately. In another work, Tzafestas (1980) reviewed system reliability optimization models and the optimization techniques. Yearout (1986) reviewed the literature related to standby redundancy. Kuo (2000) studied the system reliability optimization based on system structure and solution methods. Kuo and Prasad (2004) overviewed system reliability optimization methods. Later, Kuo (2007) reviewed recent advances in optimal reliability allocation problems. The present study adds to the previous literature surveys and focuses mainly on papers after year 2000 but with a quick review on the previous works so that the readers become familiar with the existing approaches. This research investigates the literature from system structure, system performance, uncertainty state and solution approach standpoints, simultaneously.
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Despite clear evidence that cancer patients with higher FCR have higher psychological morbidity and may incur additional medical costs, we believe there are numerous gaps in the current literature that need addressing for the field of FCR research and intervention to progress. These include reaching consensus on 1) definitions of FCR and clinical FCR; 2) whether to and how to screen for clinical FCR; 3) which measures to use in the clinical setting; 4) which model(s) to use to guide interventions, 5) and how to manage this problem clinically. To start addressing these gaps and propose a coherent research agenda, a two-day Colloquium on FCR was held in Ottawa, Canada, on August 3 and 4 th , 2015 to bring
It can therefore be anticipated that future research will strongly concentrate on the direct regulation of phyto- sanitarian and veterinary problems and on affordable inputs into organic plant and animal production which comply with the organic standards (fertilisers, substrata, pesticides, fodder, feed additives etc.). A positive effect of this will be the replacement of problematic agents like copper. Scientists will also develop alternative therapies to antibiotics and anthelmintics for major animal diseases, both of which are very problematical from a human toxicological or ecotoxicological point of view.
State Institute of Education (SIE): Training, preparation of teaching aids and evaluation needs continuity to achieve quality education. Considering this aspect,Maharashtra state has established “State Institute of Education”(SIE). Initially, SIE looked after primary education only. Later on,its scope is widened to pre-primary, secondary and highersecondaryeducation. In 1984, it securedconstitutional status like NCERT andis renamed as “Maharashtra State Council of Education Researchand Training (MSCERT).”
In the past failure of pure Sandal plantations might have been due to lack of understanding of the dynamics of parasitism. It can profusely propagate naturally in the absence of fire and grazing. If well protected, the established Sandal plants will fruiting and regenerating naturally, the birds also may help in natural propagation. It can be concluded from the present study that inventory on the anatomy of haustorial connections with host plants and frugivours visit frequency, heartwood formation of Sandal prevailing in the study area have to be analyzed and evaluated, which will provide new information for further research.
Cancer radiation therapy with charged particle beams, called particle therapy, is a new therapeutic treatment presenting major advantages when compared to conventional radiotherapy. Because ions have specific ballistic properties and a higher biological effectiveness, they are superior to x-rays. Numerous medical centres are starting in the world using mostly protons but also carbon ions as medical beams. Several investiga- tions are attempting to reduce the cost/benefit ratio and enlarge the range of thera- peutic indications. A major limitation of particle therapy is the presence of low but significant damage induced in healthy tissues located at the entrance of the ion track prior to reaching the tumour. It is thus a major challenge to improve the targeting of the tumours, concentrating radiation effects in the malignance. A novel strategy, based on the addition of nanoparticles targeting the tumour, was suggested over a decade ago to improve the performance of conventional photon therapy. Recently, similar developments have emerged for particle therapy and the amount of research is now exploding. In this paper, we review the experimental results, as well as theoretical and simulation studies that shed light in the promising outcomes of this strategy and in the underpinning mechanisms. Several experiments provide consistent evidence of sig- nificant enhancement of ion radiation effects in the presence of nanoparticles. In view of implementing this strategy for cancer treatment, simulation studies have begun to establish the rationale and the specificity of this effect. In addition, these studies will help to outline a list of possible mechanisms and to predict the impact of ion beams and nanoparticle characteristics. Many questions remain unsolved, but the findings of these first studies are encouraging and open new challenges. After summarizing the main results in the field, we propose a roadmap to pursue future research with the aim to strengthen the potential interplay between particle therapy and nanomedicine. Keywords: Particle therapy, Proton therapy, Carbon therapy, Radiosensitization, Radio- enhancement, Radioresistance, Nanomedicine, Theranostic, Nanoparticles
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Second, to the extent the integration of core state powers involves European capacity building it raises the question of who pays and who benefits. Since issues of resource allocation are decided intergovernmentally, EU citizens tend to conceive this question in national terms. The ‘net contributor’ perspective has structured public debates over the EU budget ever since Margaret Thatcher claimed ‘my money back’ in 1984. The most divisive conflicts during the Euro‐crisis concerned the distribution of adjustment bur‐ dens between creditor and debtor countries. While, for instance, majorities of citizens supported financial aid to other member states, they insisted on strict aid conditionality (Risse 2014: 1210): a majority of Germans was prepared to help Greece – but only on German terms to be enforced on Greece. Likewise, public debate on the ESM, the Single Bank Resolution Fund, and some of the ECB’s unconventional monetary policy instru‐ ments (e.g. quantitative easing or OMT) focused on the distribution of the risk burden. Public opinion in debtor countries tends to favor joint liability but in creditor countries several liability. The result is an increasingly complex mix of elements of joint and several liability in all three institutions.
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Reducing business risks and maintenance expenses: By outsourcing the service infrastructure to the clouds, a service provider shifts its business risks (such as hardware failures) to infrastructure providers, who often have better expertise and are better equipped for managing these risks. In addition, a service provider can cut down the hardware maintenance and the staff training costs. However, although cloud computing has shown considerable opportunities to the IT industry, it also brings many unique challenges that need to be carefully addressed. In this paper, we present a survey of cloud computing, highlighting its key concepts, architectural principles, state-of-the-art implementations as well as research challenges. Our aim is to provide a better understanding of the design challenges of cloud computing and identify important research directions in this fascinating topic.
Data security is another important research topic in cloud computing. Since service providers typically do not have ac- cess to the physical security system of data centers, they must rely on the infrastructure provider to achieve full data security. Even for a virtual private cloud, the service provider can only specify the security setting remotely, with- out knowing whether it is fully implemented. The infrastruc- ture provider, in this context, must achieve the following objectives: (1) confidentiality, for secure data access and transfer, and (2) auditability, for attesting whether secu- rity setting of applications has been tampered or not. Con- fidentiality is usually achieved using cryptographic proto- cols, whereas auditability can be achieved using remote at- testation techniques. Remote attestation typically requires a trusted platform module (TPM) to generate non-forgeable system summary (i.e. system state encrypted using TPM’s private key) as the proof of system security. However, in a virtualized environment like the clouds, VMs can dynami- cally migrate from one location to another, hence directly using remote attestation is not sufficient. In this case, it is critical to build trust mechanisms at every architectural layer of the cloud. Firstly, the hardware layer must be trusted using hardware TPM. Secondly, the virtualization platform must be trusted using secure virtual machine monitors . VM migration should only be allowed if both source and destination servers are trusted. Recent work has been de- voted to designing efficient protocols for trust establishment and management [31, 43].
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