A robust cascade 2-DOF fixed-structure H infinity control approach with loop shaping has been proposed and applied to regulate the response of a typical BLDC motor in terms of current and angular velocity. The approach allows for striking a good balance between control effectiveness and controllers’ simplicity safeguarding feasibility of practical implementation. It further allows for using standard genetic algorithm (GA) for searching optimal controller parameters which readily automates the optimal design process of the 4 required controllers. Simulation results pertaining to a model of a particular commercial BLDC motor derived through standard system identification demonstrated the applicability and robustness of the proposed control technique to changes to internal BLDC resistance and external BLDC torque load. It has been further shown that the proposed technique is more robust than optimal cascade 1-DOF PID control herein treated as a special case. Overall, based on the herein reported numerical results, the proposed control approach and optimal design procedure is a valid and viable solution that can be considered for controlling BLDC motors in various industrial applications.
The statespace method works better with complex time domain responses, while the transfer function method is a frequency domain model. The QTP is very well suited for demonstrating minimum phase and non-minimum phase system. The study of transfer function and statespacerepresentation of the QTP helps in attaining a clear idea of the how the zero location in multivariable control systems affects the performance and act as the limitation for the controller performance. This is ultimately due to the effects of coupling and strong interaction effect between the tanks when it if operated in non-minimum phase. The response obtained in statespacerepresentation is much better than the transfer function.
3 Modeling is one of the most important tasks in control system design (Ismail, 2005). A model that can express the dynamics of a system correctly will lead to an appropriate controller design. Mathematical models of control systems are mathematical expressions which are describe by the relationships among system inputs, outputs and other inner variables. Establishing a mathematical model in describing a control system is the foundation for analysis and design of control systems. A mathematical model should reflect the dynamics of a control system and be suitable for analysis of the system. Thus, when we construct the model, we should simplify the problem to obtain the approximate model which satisfies the requirements of accuracy.
constructed as in the text of Axiom CEB-2, but for all B that contain a lottery y such that y is strictly less preferred to all elements of A from the ex ante point of view. This is because, as mentioned earlier, a lottery which is ex ante inferior to all x 2 A could turn out ex post to be better to all elements of A and then B [ fzg A [ fzg. The weak restriction imposed in the text of the Axiom that the condition is valid for at least one pair (A; B) is su¢cient to obtain the desired representation for all sets due to the additional structure provided by the EU form of the ex post utilities. Note also that we impose that an element of B be strictly worse than all elements of A. Without this condition, it is clear that the axiom would not have any bite since we could always let B be exactly the set A.
For solving optimization problem (18), we proposed a fast gradient algorithm to solve a special case with limited input amplitude in our published paper . Here we extend that special case to more general case, which includes equality and inequality constrain conditions. To solve an optimization problem about predictive controller with equality and inequality constrain conditions, the dual decomposition is used to convert the former constrained optimization into an unconstrained optimization.
In any event, excluding the epistemological level, replacing it with ‘boundaries’ and then using Giddens’ structuration theory to mobilise it doesn’t seem to work. Organisational reproduction through ‘boundary interaction’ is nevertheless a good idea but since the framework does not, at least explicitly, introduce ‘practice’ as a variable, its operationalising remains in the reviewer’s mind slightly unclear. Perhaps if the horizontal dimensions (‘ordering’, ‘distinction’, ‘threshold’) were conceptualised as a kind of ‘doing’ instead of as constructs indicative of the ‘extent’ to which they ‘permit’ something to happen (see Table 3), and if these adjusted practice-orientated constructs were then dialectically juxtaposed as in Lefebvre’s schema, the overall framework would seem in the reviewer’s mind methodically more approachable? What is also curious is how Hernes has dedicated whole chapters to each ontological mode (chapters six, seven and eight) explaining, through terms such as ‘emergence’, ‘reproduction’, ‘history and time’ and ‘subject’ “how each type of space interacts with itself” (p.127) (emphasis mine) whilst overlooking how they might interact with each other! Admitted, Hernes does discuss spatial dynamics in Chapter nine and seems to be quite aware of the significance of the ‘socio-spatial’ dialectic but because he does not explicitly apply its principles in his theoretical framework, or in any other part of the book for that matter, the overall delivery of what Hernes is theoretically trying to pitch to the reader remains obscure. The same critique is levelled to the question whether Hernes has consciously conflated ‘ontology’ with ‘boundaries’ (form and content) or merely regressed to a mild structuralism. Either way, since he leaves the reader guessing at his intentions, the use-value of the book is further deflated. Unfortunately, to critically comment on what is already considered as critical knowledge leaves little manoeuvring space for the reviewer – hence the occasional ‘nitpicking’. Some might ask why the reviewer ignores Hernes’ explicit apologies for the ‘modest’ application and ‘fitting’ of Lefebvre to organization studies and proceeded to do a point-by-point critique? ‘Who cares if Hernes has not applied Lefebvre from word to word?’ Well, that’s not really the point is it! Ultimately, through this partial treatment Hernes is not stretching the boundaries enough to provide insight into what an organisational analysis of space could be!
CCG-based Schemes. CCG (Steedman, 2000) is a lexicalized grammar (i.e., nearly all semantic content is encoded in the lexicon), which defines a theory of how lexical information is composed to form the meaning of phrases and sentences (see Section 6.2), and has proven effective in a vari- ety of semantic tasks (Zettlemoyer and Collins, 2005, 2007; Kwiatkowski et al., 2010; Artzi and Zettlemoyer, 2013, inter alia). Several projects have constructed logical representations by asso- ciating CCG with semantic forms (by assigning logical forms to the leaves). For example, Boxer (Bos, 2008) and GMB, which builds on Boxer, use Discourse Representation Structures (Kamp and Reyle, 1993), while Lewis and Steedman (2013) used Davidsonian-style λ -expressions, accompa- nied by lexical categorization of the predicates. These schemes encode events with their argument structures, and include an elaborate logical struc- ture, as well as lexical and discourse information. HPSG-based Schemes. Related to CCG-based schemes are SRTs based on Head-driven Phrase
Figure 2 shows the functional block diagram of PCI Bus with several modules. These modules connect with modular method for design operation. All of the read and write operations must be allocated by the CPU to control the bus for use. When used as the master device, it can apply to take the bus initiatively, and then the data is transmitted in bursts or single byte to the destination address. A burst transfer consist segment of address and several segments of data. It requires that the target device and the master device must understand the implicit addressing. The state machine module is separated into a master device and the target device. Each module is designed with VHDL by XILINX.
Abstract. This paper considers the design and performance evaluation of PID controller for an automobile cruise control system (ACCS). A linearized model of the cruise control system has been studied as per the dominant characteristics in closed loop system. The design problem is recast into an optimization problem which is solved using Ant Lion Optimization (ALO). The transient performance of proposed ACCS i.e., settling time, rise time, maximum overshot, peak time and steady state error are investigated by step input response and root locus analysis. To show the efficacy of the proposed algorithm over a statespace method, classical PID, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, a comparison study is presented by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Furthermore, the robustness of the system is evaluated by using bode analysis, sensitivity, complimentary sensitivity and controller sensitivity. The results indicate that the designed ALO based PID controller for ACCS achieves better performance than other recent methods reported in the literature.
For a well-defined relation between two such descriptions to hold, it is necessary that the two state spaces can be related to each other. 4 A sim- ple possibility is that the system assumes a par- ticular state in one description exactly if it is in any out of a certain set of states of the other de- scription; that is to say, one statespace is a coarse- graining or partition of the other statespace. Be- cause of this asymmetry between the two descrip- tions one may speak of a higher-level and a lower- level description, and refer correspondingly to ma- crostates and microstates of the system. The classic example in physics for this kind of inter-level re- lation is that between the phenomenological the- ory of thermodynamics, dealing with the macro- states of extended systems defined in terms of ob- servables such as temperature and pressure, and the theory of statistical mechanics, relating them to microstates defined in terms of the constituents of those systems. 5
An efficient method for Bayesian inference in stochastic volatility models uses a linear statespacerepresentation to define a Gibbs sampler in which the volatili- ties are jointly updated. This method involves the choice of an offset parameter and we illustrate how its choice can have an important effect on the posterior inference. A Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is developed to robustify this approach to choice of the offset parameter. The method is illustrated on simulated data with known parameters, the daily log returns of the Eurostoxx index and a Bayesian vector au- toregressive model with stochastic volatility.
The crisis, however, led to emergence of various protectionist trends. Some countries have tried to link public assistance provided by them with requirements such as maintaining production in the country of origin at the expense of reducing production in other countries. France, for instance, gives a good example of such approach. Renault, which received 4 billion euros in state aid, was forced to desist from assigning the production of a new Clio to its plant in Turkey and to maintain production in France. That decision led to losses in Turkey, Spain and Slovenia. French Economy Minister also announced that the country might increase its stake in Renault to 20% (it was previously 15%) in order to increase the impact it has on the decisions of the group. Renault's production plans, in his view, are a political issue and the last word belongs to the President of France.
We begin with formal specification testing of the Markov-switching model against linear alternatives. Hansen (1992, 1996) and Garcia (1998) propose a standardized likelihood ratio (LR) test in order to provide (asymptotically) valid inference. Hansen’s (1992) approach gives a bound on the asymptotic null-distribution of the standardized LR test. However, this test procedure is computationally demanding and infeasible in our state-space estimation framework. By contrast, in a predecessor version of Ang and Bekaert (2002), the authors suggest that the true underlying null-distribution of the conventional LR test can be approximated by a χ 2 (q) distribution, where the degree-
The EM algorithm provides a well-known framework for ap- proaching the joint state and parameter estimation problem for the general, linear state-space model. Introduced by Shumway and Stoffer  and recently revisited by Gibson and Nin- ness , it presents an alternative to subspace-based, dual filtering, and gradient descent techniques. In the context of the spatio–temporal model outlined earlier, the construction of the likelihood for the EM algorithm’s M-step presents an opportunity to include the neighborhood information into the estimation procedure, without losing the beneficial properties of the estimator as described by Gibson and Ninness. This section describes the inclusion of the canonical form and spatio–temporal neighborhood based parameterization into the estimator and presents an algorithm to estimate the states and parameters of the spatio–temporal model described earlier. A. The Likelihood Function
(A) The statements of Prop. 3.4 carry over to curved spacetime, upon making the following modifications: N is a globally hyperbolic spacetime such that the S-J state is defined for the quantized linear scalar field on N (e.g. if N is isometrically embedded into a larger spacetime, see ), and M is globally hyperbolic sub-spacetime of N having a sufficiently regular spacelike boundary, and whose closure is properly contained in N . A class of sub-spacetimes M having the required properties is e.g. given by those of the form M = int(D(B)) where D(B) denotes the domain of dependence of B, and B is a coordinate ball of any Cauchy surface Σ of N (with Σ \ B having a non-void open interior). This is based on the following facts: (i) Proposition 3.2 generalizes to curved spacetimes by ,[7, Theorem 16.2.18] (also in purely operator-algebraic setting, see ), (ii) Hadamard states of the quantized linear scalar field have regular scaling limits also in curved spacetime  and (iii) the local von Neumann algebras in their GNS representations are factors for spacetime regions M of the said form .
to this Commission. Subsequent reports will be provided prior to the PPV contract award, once the initial agencies have been implemented and tested, and periodically thereafter as required. The status reports will contain information related to each agency implementation to include usage of General/Highway Fund for fee payment and convenience fee utilization. An issue that will be discussed further on March 21, 2000 relates to the current legislative language. G.S. 146-86.22 as amended by Senate Bill 222 requires each state agency to consult with the Joint Legislative Commission on Government Operations before implementing any program to accept payment under the policies pursuant to this subsection. In order to expedite the statewide implementation of credit/debit card acceptance, the OSC, OST and ITS suggest the Commission consider accepting the periodic status reports in lieu of this requirement. The results of this discussion will be forwarded to you as soon as possible.
understanding spatial economy, and suggested that a ‘truth of space’ would necessitate a reversal of ‘the dominant trend towards fragmentation’ (Lefebvre: 1991: 9). However, whilst echoing Lefebvre’s caution, Edward Soja (1996), notes that Lefebvre’s model necessitates a complex approach to written analyses - which often leads to a lack of clarity in the exegesis of spatial practices. Instead, Soja proposes that spatial experiences might be considered in isolation, and only understood once the fragments are overlaid so that the complexity of social space can begin to be unpacked. Drawing on Soja’s argument, this paper attempts to ‘fragment’ spatial experience in such a way. The proposed method is to analyse Lefebvre’s categories (in the context of the council estate performance) of representation and practice in isolation and draw them together through an analysis of performance practice, which here provides a ‘representational space’ (the coming together of the practiced and the represented to create new possibilities). It is intended that the deliberate ‘fragmentation’ of various types of spatial activity will lead to a discussion which more completely represents the holistic experience of spatial economy. This is necessary in order to move towards an analysis which can more clearly approximate the way that performance might function within the production of space.
By this example  it will be shown, in an illustrative way, how documents are projected by CI method into the two-dimensional concept space. The collection of 19 documents (titles of books) will be used where 15 documents will form collection of starting documents and 4 documents will form the collection of added documents. The documents are categorized in three categories: documents from the field of data mining (DM documents), documents from the field of linear algebra (LA documents) and documents which combine these two fields (application of linear algebra on data mining). The documents with their categorization are listed in Table 1. A list of terms is formed from words contained in at least two documents of starting collection, after which words on the stop list are ejected and variations of words are mapped on the same characteristic form (e.g. the terms matrix and matrices are mapped on the term matrix, or applications and applied are mapped on application). As a result, a list of 16 terms is obtained which we have divided in three parts: 8 terms from the field of data mining (text, mining, clustering, classification, retrieval, information, document, data), 5 terms from the field of linear algebra (linear, algebra, matrix, vector, space) and 3 neutral terms (analysis, application, algorithm). Then we have created a term- document matrix from starting collection of documents and normalized the columns of it to be of the unit norm. This is a term-document matrix of starting documents in the space of starting terms A 1 . Then we have applied