The method applied in this study include the stages involved in knowledge discovery which data mining is part of it. The Data Minng techniques used in this study is CRISP-DM (Cross industry stand and process for data mining). And SPSS (StatisticalPackage for SocialScience) is used for development of model in modeling stage. The detail discussions of CRISP-DM process are given below:
The area chosen for this study was district Bannu of Dera Ismail Khan Division Khyber Pukhtunkhawa. Patient’s data was collected through a printed Questionnaire. The questions included in the questionnaire were age of the patient, gender, marital status, occupation, address, and diagnostic procedure of cancer, age of diagnosis, types of cancer, site affected and treatment. The data was collected from the files or computerized hospital cancer registry of every patient that was present in Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM) Peshawar, Shukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center (SKMCH&RC) Lahore and Nuclear Medicine Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute (NORI) Islamabad. The records files were searched in hospitals during June-July 2010 for the prevalence of cancer of District Dir from January 2004 to December 2009. Data were analyzed by using StatisticalPackage for SocialScience (SPSS) and arranged according to the parameters; year wise cancer prevalence rate, year wise cancer prevalence, gender wise, year wise male and female, age wise, marital status wise affected site wise, types wise, addiction wise, performed tests wise prevalence. The year wise prevalence rate was determined by using the following formula;
L’analisi statistica è stata effettuata tramite il software StatisticalPackageSocialScience (SPSS) versione 13.0. Sono stati utilizzati: 1) il t test per dati indipendenti e il chi quadro per verificare che non vi fossero differenze significative fra le caratteristiche socio-demografiche dei due gruppi (trattamento e controllo); 2) il t test per dati appaiati per verificare la presenza di miglioramenti delle abilità di linguaggio e delle capacità assertive all’interno dei gruppi; 3) il t test per dati indipendenti per verificare l’eventuale cambiamento relativamente alle abilità di lin- guaggio e alle abilità assertive fra il gruppo trattamento e il gruppo controllo; 4) le differenze fra i coefficienti ango- lari delle rette di regressione di Pearson per verificare se il miglioramento della capacità assertive fosse da impu- tare al miglioramento delle abilità di linguaggio (variabili dipendenti = capacità assertive all’ingresso e all’uscita; variabili indipendenti = abilità linguistiche, semantiche e fonetiche, all’ingresso e all’uscita).
Means of triplicate readings (mg/l) obtained from this study were subjected to t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using statisticalpackage for socialscience (SPSS version 20) computer software to see if there was a significant difference in the mean levels of the physicochemical properties of the effluents between rainy and dry season and also to ascertain whether the mean concentrations of the physicochemical parameters of the effluents differed among the various effluent samples monitored. Significance was accepted at the P<0.05 level.
The aim of this study was to examine the perception and attitude of Nigerian rural dwellers as a gauge for determining whether there is (or not) perceived beneficial use of mobile technologies among rural inhabitants. It also tries to find out the factors that determine mobile phone usage in rural areas. Two factors that determine technology acceptance and use were identified: Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEU). A cross sectional research design was employed for this study using questionnaire as a data collection technique. Using the StatisticalPackage for the SocialScience (SPSS) V15, the findings showed that socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, status, level of education, occupation, income, and social influence are the major determinants of mobile phone ownership and usage in rural areas. It also showed that age and gender affect the perceived benefit and satisfaction of mobile phone in rural communities. It is believed that policy makers will find it helpful if they understood rural inhabitants‟ perception and attitude toward mobile phone.
Gunduz et al. (2017) used different standard statistical methods to evaluate their research outcomes on reasons why projects lagged in Qatar. The main objective of the study was to determine main causes of delays in construction projects. Literature review was used to identify eighty-three causes of delays whereas expert opinions and recommendations reduced the causes by forty-one causes leaving forty-two causes whose outcomes were analysis using standard statistical methods. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was used to measure internal inconsistencies of the outcomes whereas the Relative Importance Index (RII) and the Frequency Index (FI) applied on the assessment of different project delay factors. This is corroborated to the Gebrehiwet and Luo (2017) statement that, “timely project completion ranks highly as a project success metric alongside adherence to budget, satisfaction of quality standards, and conformance with benchmarks for safety.” Even though these factors appear standalone, numerous studies across diverse disciplines and industrial fields have reported relationships between these variables (Karami and Olatunji, 2017).
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) reviewed publications investigating the attitudes and behavior related to PES use. They found that the vast majority of attitudinal research was descriptive and used cross- sectional designs, which is not appropriate for planning educational and preventive programs to prevent doping in sport . As a result, WADA proposed the SocialScience Research Package, a research package aimed to facilitate National Anti-Doping Committees and agen- cies in investigating their athletes’ beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of doping using a standard questionnaire. It is derived from the Sport Drug Control Model (SDCM) where the overall objective is to provide evidence of the influences on athletes’ doping related attitudes and behaviors to develop policy and practice in the real world. SDCM is an Australian model prepared by Dono- van et al., providing a valuable tool to assess factors influ- encing PES use. PES use in this model is influenced by six major inputs: (1) threat appraisal (deterrence factor) (2) benefit appraisal, (3) reference group opinions, (4) per- sonal morality, (5) perceived legitimacy of doping laws, and (6) personality factors .
The analysis of variance of two-way mixed design from the StatisticalPackage for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 23 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp) was employed to determine the effect of sex (between-subjects effect: male and female) and arousal intensity (within-subjects effect: low, moderate and high arousal) on the electropsychological process of emotional arousal, indexed by the amplitude and latency of the ERP components (P300, N200).
According result research junior high school science teachers as the city of Manado, the acquisition performance score 55% only 20 teachers (11.9%) and 65% just seven teachers (4.2%) of 168 teachers participating in the test UKG, 2015.Under a different test analysis, we concluded that gender and employee status, the results revealed no difference. Analysis of different test stating that there is only a difference of factors educational qualifications. This statement has meaning that the level of educational qualification effect on the level of achievement UKG 2015 test scores for junior high school science teachers as the city of Manado. Special correlation between scores social competence and professional competence obtained by the analysis results that the correlation coefficient of 0.35 means that only a relationship between the two competencies are not strong enough. According the data, science teacher competence should be have ability in education suitable their educational background in order that the teaching competence could be applied to students.
The number of factors to retain was determined using parallel analysis and eigenvalue-greater-than-one deci- sion rule . Following the principal axis FA, a CFA was performed to validate the resulting constructs from the EFA. The use of CFA to investigate the construct validity of hypothesis-based testing instruments adds a level of statistical precision. Maximum Likelihood Esti- mation was used to fit the CFA model. A full dataset was used with no missing value. Our sample size of 284 met the criteria of Myers et al. that includes as follows: N ≥ 200, ratio of N to the number of variables in a model (p), N/p ≥ 10 .
Statistical analysis: All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. In our study, the major dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis after classification of the 98 food items in the FFQ into 25 food groups . The food grouping was based on the similarity of nutrient profiles and was somewhat sim- ilar to that used in previous studies  . A varimax rotation was used, fac- tor loads under 0.2 were excluded . For determining the number of factors, we considered eigenvalues > 1, the scree plot, and the interpretability of the fac- tors. The adequacy of data was evaluated based on the value of Kais- er-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's test. In the present study, the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin coefficient, was calculated and the obtained value was 0.719. Then, the obtained dietary patterns scores are expressed as tertiles. The chi-square test was used to determine the significant differences between different categorical variable. The differences between mean were tested by independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. Finally, the odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) for the depression scale across tertiles categories of dietary pattern scores were tested by binary logistic regression. P value less than 0.05 was considered as sta- tistically significant.
Jurang pencapaian pelajar dalam bidang Sains dan Matematik masih berada pada tahap yang rendah. Perkara ini jelas terkandung dalam ucapan Chairman of National STEM Movement (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics), Professor Datuk Dr. Noraini Idris sempena program Saintis Kanak-kanak di Universiti Malaysia Sabah pada tahun 2018, “hanya 19% daripada 447,000 pelajar yang mengambil mata pelajaran STEM selepas tingkatan tiga”. Beliau menegaskan bahawa zaman kanak-kanak merupakan masa yang terbaik untuk memperkenalkan STEM.
presented as if in an attempt to resolve a popular controversy (McIntyre 1976). As a piece of quantitative research, the criticism of its use of statistical techniques was wide-ranging, although probably the most telling was for its use of analysis of covariance rather than, for instance, multiple regression, a technique which, by comparison, leads to more ambiguous results. The riposte from Bennett (Bennett and Entwistle 1977) was that at the time of the research there was no consensus concerning the most appropriate statistical analysis, and that they had received conflicting advice from statisticians. Bennett’s later reanalysis (Aitken, Bennett and Hesketh 1981), which appeared in a scholarly journal without the publicity that surrounded the original publication, was prompted by the ‘rapid developments in the statistical methods available for the analysis of complex data’. As Shipman (1997:31) remarks, the most significant findings of the re-analysis were ‘the recognition of the difficulties in defining teaching styles and establishing how they were linked to pupil progress’.
One of the most popular statistical packages which can perform highly complex data manipulation and analysis with simple instructions is StatisticalPackage for Social Sciences (SPSS . SPSS is capable of handling large amounts of data and can perform all of the above analyses covered in the text and much more. In this study descriptive statistics (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum value of variables,etc.),data testing (Normality test,Data adequacy,Reliability and Validity)and final analysis(Internal consistency,factor analysis, multiple regression analysis ,analysis of variance and hypothesis testing)are carried out by SPSS software version 20.0.
Abstrak : Kajian ini bertujuan meninjau pendapat guru di tiga buah sekolah rendah daerah Johor Bahru terhadap gaya komunikasi guru besar dan hubungannya dengan kepuasan bekerja mereka. Selain itu, kajian turut memberi fokus kepada sama ada terdapat perbezaan pendapat guru terhadap gaya komunikasi guru besar mengikut latar belakang mereka, dan adakah terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara gaya komunikasi guru besar dengan kepuasan bekerja mereka. Soal selidik telah digunakan sebagai instrumen kajian dan melibatkan sebanyak 178 orang guru sebagai responden. Data kajian diproses dengan menggunakan perisian StatisticalPackage for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows versi 15.0. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan guru besar kerap mengamalkan enam dari tujuh gaya komunikasi, iaitu ekspresi positif, ekspresi negatif, arahan kerja, penglibatan, rasional kerja dan penerangan kerja. Kajian ini juga mendapati tidak terdapat perbezaan pendapat guru mengikut umur dan pengalaman mengajar terhadap gaya komunikasi guru besar. Sebaliknya, terdapat perbezaan pendapat guru terhadap gaya komunikasi guru besar mengikut jantina, etnik dan jenis sekolah. Selanjutnya, kajian ini mendapati terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara gaya komunikasi guru besar dengan kepuasan bekerja guru, terutamanya gaya komunikasi ekspresi positif dan ekspresi negatif. Beberapa implikasi dan cadangan turut dikemukakan dalam kertas kerja ini.