Still-Face Paradigm

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Effects of maternal depression in the Still-Face Paradigm: A meta-analysis

Effects of maternal depression in the Still-Face Paradigm: A meta-analysis

The Still-Face Paradigm (SFP) enables researchers to examine the quality of mother- infant interactions. In typical infants, a classic still-face effect (SFE) has been confirmed whereby infants demonstrate reduced positive affect (PA), reduced gaze (GA), and increased negative affect (NA). Recently, the SFP has been used to examine the effect of maternal depression upon infant behaviour. However, the nature and consistency of the behavioural responses of infants of depressed mothers during the SFP remains unclear. In the current meta-analysis, we examined whether or not infants of depressed mothers demonstrate the classic SFE, as well as whether or not these infants display the same levels of PA, NA, and GA as their counterparts with non-depressed mothers. Results revealed that infants of depressed mothers display the classic SFE like infants of their non-depressed counterparts. However, infants of depressed mothers also demonstrated significantly higher levels of PA during the still-face episode. One potential interpretation of this finding is that infants prior experience of similar, depressed interactions with their mothers, encourages them to amplify their positive attachment signals in order to engage maternal attention and response.
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Maternal reflective functioning as predictor of maternal and infant behavior during the Still-Face Paradigm

Maternal reflective functioning as predictor of maternal and infant behavior during the Still-Face Paradigm

The present study was the first to investigate the association between mothers’ ability to reflect upon the relationship with her (unborn) infant during pregnancy and maternal and infant behavior during the Still-Face Paradigm (SFP). The sample consisted of 52 mother- infant dyads, from both high (HR, N = 22)- and low (LR, N = 29) risk backgrounds, as defined by the presence/absence of unemployment, poverty or financial problems, housing problems, limited or instable social support network, being single or having changing partners, (subclinical) psychiatric problems (such as depression, anxiety, borderline, aggression), or substance abuse (smoking, alcohol, or drugs). High-risk (HR)-mothers had lower levels of reflective functioning than LR-mothers and showed less sensitive and more intrusive behavior in interaction with their infants. Infants from high risk backgrounds showed more negative affect during play and less gaze towards mother during the still-face episode of the SFP. Reflective functioning during pregnancy predicted maternal sensitive and intrusive behavior during play, but only for LR-mothers. In general, maternal reflective functioning predicted infant display of minimal positive affect during the still-face episode, an association that was not mediated by maternal behavior during the SFP. These results indicate that mothers’ reflective abilities predict later maternal sensitive and intrusive behavior, and even some infant behavior independently from maternal behavior. Future studies should further clarify the role of maternal reflective capacities in the development of children’s emotion regulation abilities, and its potential role in prenatal coaching and interventions.
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The Effects of Maternal Depression on Maternal Behavior and Infant’s Emotion Regulation during the Still-Face Paradigm

The Effects of Maternal Depression on Maternal Behavior and Infant’s Emotion Regulation during the Still-Face Paradigm

This study investigated the effect of maternal depression on mother and infant behavior during the Still Face Paradigm (SFP). It was investigated whether the SFP elicited the still- face effect. In addition, the effect of maternal depression on infant’s emotion regulation and maternal behavior during the SFP was examined. Fifty-two mother-infant dyads participated in this study. Maternal depression was measured using a positive score on either the MINI- International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus) or Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI- II) during the first or second appointment. Additionally, the cognitive development of six- month old infants was measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II). During a home-visit, the SFP was administered by trained PhD- or graduate students, and mother and infant behaviors were coded afterwards. Results indicated that the still face effect was found for negative affect, arching and/or squirming behavior, gaze toward mother, and additionally for maternal sensitivity and maternal positive affect. Infants of depressed mothers averted gaze during all episodes of the SFP compared to infants of non-depressed mothers. Combination of SFP episodes and maternal depression resulted in more arching and/or squirming behavior during the play and reunion episodes for infants of depressed mothers. Furthermore, mothers who feel depressed showed more internalizing or helpless behavior during the reunion. The findings of this study increase the knowledge of the effects of maternal depression on mother behavior and infant’s regulatory capacities during stress exposure.
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The role of maternal self-regulation on emotion regulation patterns of 6-month old infants during the Still Face Paradigm

The role of maternal self-regulation on emotion regulation patterns of 6-month old infants during the Still Face Paradigm

Objective: Poor emotion regulation in early development has been related to negative child outcomes and is expected to be influenced by interactions with primary caregivers. This study examines the relation between infant emotion regulation and maternal self-regulation. Method: The sample consisted of 132 infant-mother dyads. Maternal emotion regulation (ER) problems and executive functioning (EF) problems were assessed during pregnancy by means of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function—Adult version. At six months of age, infant’s behavioral and physiological stress responses were observed during the Still Face Paradigm (SFP). Results: In response to the still face, infants showed an increase in heart rate and negative affect, and a decrease in positive affect and gaze. Infants of mothers with more ER problems showed more reactivity on heart rate, and arching and squirming. During the still face, infant self-soothing behavior increased. In response to the reunion positive affect, gaze, self-soothing behavior and negative affect increased, while arching and squirming behavior decreased. Infants of mothers with more ER problems, but few EF problems, showed less gaze during the still face, and higher levels of negative affect in general. Conclusion: This study underlines that a mother’s capacities to self-regulate influence the infant’s stress system and the emotional development of their infant. Helping mothers to enhance their own ER capacities could possibly decrease the risk for future psychopathology for their infants.
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Effects of Maternal Behavior on Infants' Regulatory Behaviors during the Still Face Paradigm

Effects of Maternal Behavior on Infants' Regulatory Behaviors during the Still Face Paradigm

maternal sensitivity during the Still Face Paradigm (SFP). It was investigated whether the SFP elicited the still face effect. Additionally, the effect of maternal sensitivity on infants’ regulatory behaviors during the SFP was examined. Infants’ stress reactivity during the SFP was explored using skin conductance levels. Maternal risk status and infants’ temperament has been taken into account. The sample consisted of 52 mother-infant dyads (mean age infants 5.96 months). Reflective functioning was measured with an interview around 27 weeks of pregnancy. During a home-visit the SFP was administered and mothers reported about the infants’ temperament using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Infant and maternal behaviors were coded based on the SFP. Results indicated that the still face effect was found for arching and squirming, while it was not found for self-soothing behavior. Preliminary results showed an increased skin conductance level, and thus stress reactivity, over the whole SFP. Furthermore, maternal reflective functioning was found as predictor of maternal sensitivity during the SFP. Higher levels of maternal sensitivity predicted more self- soothing behaviors during the first minute of the reunion and less arching and
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Impact of prenatal stress on mother-infant dyadic behavior during the still-face paradigm

Impact of prenatal stress on mother-infant dyadic behavior during the still-face paradigm

Conway and McDonough [8] employed the still-face paradigm during mother-infant interaction, and found that maternal sensitivity, but not infants’ negative affect, pre- dicted resilience in preschool children. Further, Müller and colleagues [40] reported an association between the latency of mismatching states in the mother-infant dyad during the still-face paradigm and the infants’ salivary cortisol re- sponses. Along with further studies on mother-infant synchrony, research findings on the impairing influence of disturbed mother-infant dyads on child development [41– 43] underlined the important role of “contingent reci- procity” in mother-child interaction [44]. For example, mother-infant dyads with depressive mothers, demon- strated less maternal positivity and increased negative affect, and infants showed increased negative, depressive- like affect compared to controls [45–47]. Interestingly, a study in mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD) found that their three-month-old infants had gener- ally less positive vocalization and showed less nonauto- nomic self-regulation during the still-face paradigm compared to controls [48]. Moreover, the infants seemed especially troubled by the still-face episode resulting in de- creased infant gazing behavior. The mothers with BPD seemed to be more challenged during the reunion episode after the stressor when resuming the play, and showed less smiling and more intrusive behavior [48].
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5904.pdf

5904.pdf

Associations between Infant Behavior during the Face-to-Face Still Face Paradigm and Oppositional Defiant and Callous-Unemotional Behaviors in Early Childhood Both developmental and clinical fields of research have invested substantial resources in understanding the course, causes, and consequences of antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits. The monetary and societal costs incurred by individuals exhibiting disruptive behavior problems has prompted an increase of research on the unique etiological pathways to these outcomes, including potential origins in early oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and elevated callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors (Frick et al., 2003; Frick & Viding, 2009; Hawes, Brennan, & Dadds, 2009). There is great variability in the behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and biological functioning of children who demonstrate disruptive behavior problems and this variability has implications for later functioning and response to treatment. Although the corpus of literature highlighting environmental (see Waller, Gardner, & Hyde, 2013), biological, and behavioral correlates of ODD and CU behaviors in childhood and adolescence is growing (see Frick, Ray, Thornton, & Kahn, 2014 for review), there is a dearth of prospective longitudinal research that has investigated if specific behavioral phenotypes associated with these outcomes precede the manifestation of these disruptive outcomes in infancy.
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Book Review: TREC: Experiment and Evaluation in Information Retrieval, edited by Ellen M  Voorhees and Donna K  Harman

Book Review: TREC: Experiment and Evaluation in Information Retrieval, edited by Ellen M Voorhees and Donna K Harman

When TREC was first established, one of its primary motivating factors was to vali- date the test collection evaluation paradigm introduced by the Cranfield experiments of the 1960s (Cleverdon, Mills, and Keen 1966). At the core of this experimental methodology was the idea that live users could be removed from the evaluation loop, thus simplifying the evaluation and allowing researchers to run in vitro–style experiments in a laboratory with just their retrieval engine, a set of queries, a test collection, and a set of judgments (i.e., a list of relevant documents). In chapters 2 and 3, Harman, Voorhees, and Buckley trace the history of the standardization of the TREC evaluation methodology, from the development of the test collections and relevance judgments (using methods such as pooling) to the convergence of the evaluation measures to a set of precision-oriented metrics such as mean average precision. Most of this discussion is centered upon the evaluation of ad hoc retrieval systems; however, for TREC tasks that do not return a ranked list of results, the underlying paradigm is still the same, and its extension to tracks such as QA and Filtering is discussed by the respective track organizers in Part II of the book.
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Face Objects Detection in still images using Viola-Jones Algorithm through MATLAB TOOLS

Face Objects Detection in still images using Viola-Jones Algorithm through MATLAB TOOLS

the facial features [2][3], skin color [4][5]and combined multiple features [6]of the face for better accuracy and detection speed. A steady and uniformly scaled images using template matching method was employed. Predefined face templates [7] and deformable templates [8] were incorporated which was completely based on the template (a predefined structure) without using learning. Appearance based methods gives faster detection speeds, more accurate results and adaptive nature that could distinguish a face from a non-face in any environmental conditions.
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The Role of Nature and Post-Pastoral Signs in William Blake’s “Night” and “A Little Girl Lost”

The Role of Nature and Post-Pastoral Signs in William Blake’s “Night” and “A Little Girl Lost”

Abstract: This study traces the role of nature in William Blake’s “Night” and “A Little Girl Lost” through the application of three out of six crucial features of Gifford’s Post-pastoral principles. Within the framework of the Eco-critical paradigm, which is still very much a work in progress, the analysis of these poems from this perspective puts emphasis on the sense of sorrow towards the natural world, the exploitation of the planet, here the Earth, which is of the same as the oppression and exploitation of women and minorities, and the recognition of the inner world and the workings of the outer world; i.e., man’s inner nature can be understood in relation to his external nature. Moreover, from Post-pastoral perspective, this paper shows the oppressive treatments of female being and identity which is one of the consequences of the industrialism as well as the restricted norms of British Evangelical Church. Women are among those who are suppressed and deprived from the privileges of life except prostitution. Finally, this study sheds more light on Blake’s implication of Jerusalem in relation to man’s continuous desire to reach a compromise between the inner and outer natures.
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Public choice and political science: A view from Europe

Public choice and political science: A view from Europe

Those anecdotal observations can, of course, not automatically be generalized to Europe as a whole, but there are reasons to believe that the trend has been the same elsewhere. It is, for example, clear that there today are several important clusters of rational choice scholars that were not around in, say, 1985. Institutions such as Trinity College (Dublin), the London School of Economics, Nuffield College at Oxford University, King’s College in London, the universities of Mannheim, Konstanz, Essex and Aarhus today all have either significant groups of scholars applying rational choice analysis or perhaps even programs where the approach plays an integrated part. But while the number of European political scientists with an interest in rational choice has increased, that is not necessarily reflected in an equally expanding involvement in ‘capital letter’ Public Choice circles. The younger cousin of this organization (the Public Choice Society), the European Public Choice Society, has existed since 1972, and is still going very strong. However, it tends— much more so than the (US) Public Choice Society—to be dominated almost completely by economists, 6
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“We’re not in a club now”: a neo Brown and Levinson approach to analyzing courtroom data

“We’re not in a club now”: a neo Brown and Levinson approach to analyzing courtroom data

also benefit from an analysis that provides an explanation of the “detailed and specific linguistic mechanisms” (Holtgraves 2009: 194) that motivate the use of certain forms of language (in preference to others). The notion of “face” is widely recognized by politeness scholars to have such explanatory value but many also argue that Brown and Levinson’s treatment needs to be extended beyond seeing politeness only as a response to potential face threats (see Haugh 2009 for a discussion). Many prefer to talk in terms of face “work” and would do away with the notions of negative and positive face (for example, Locher and Watts 2005; Spencer-Oatey 2009). However, I would agree with O’Driscoll (2007: 486) who argues that “The positive-negative face(work) spec- trum … is a culture-neutral, empirical tool for examining interaction ‘on the ground’ with pan-cultural applicability”. Thus, a neo-Brown and Levinson ap- proach to interaction can still usefully make use of the ideas of bald-on-record speech acts, positive and negative face needs (and sometimes face threat), as well as negative and positive politeness, while recognizing that facework strate- gies may be operating within a hierarchy of roles (individual, institutional, societal etc.) and that roles are negotiated as part of a dynamic process of communication.
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Face engagement during infancy predicts later face recognition ability in younger siblings of children with autism

Face engagement during infancy predicts later face recognition ability in younger siblings of children with autism

The differences in face recognition performance between the high-risk siblings and low-risk controls seem to be mainly driven by differences in performance on the difficult items of the face recognition task in which the mouth changed between the familiarization and recog- nition phase (from a closed-mouth smile to a open- mouth smile or from neutral to closed mouth smile). Therefore if the high-risk siblings focused more on the mouth area or failed to look at invariant features such as the eyes during the familiarization phase this might have impaired their ability to recognize the face during the recognition phase. There is research that suggests that individuals with ASD indeed look less at the eyes (Dalton et al., 2005; Klin et al., 2002) and have an atypical focus on lower parts of the face (i.e. the mouth) when identifying faces (Joseph & Tanaka, 2003; Lang- dell, 1978). Additionally, individuals with ASD have been shown to fixate irrelevant features of the face such as the hairline and ears more, and core facial features such as the eyes and mouth less than typically developing controls (Pelphrey et al., 2002). We therefore investigated whether the high-risk siblings differed from the low-risk controls with respect to the scanning of internal features of the face. Other studies have shown that individuals with ASD rely more on featural relative to configural face information compared to typically developing controls (Davies et al., 1994; Falck-Ytter, 2008; Hobson et al., 1988; but also see Weigelt et al., 2012). It has been suggested that because faces are generally quite similar,
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Emotion Based Music Player Using Facial Recognition

Emotion Based Music Player Using Facial Recognition

[4]. F. Abdat, C. Maaoui and A. Pruski proposed system fully automatic facial expression and recognition system based on three step face detection, facial characteristics extraction and facial expression classification. This system proposed anthropometric model to detect the face feature point combined to shi and Thomasi method. In this metod the variation of 21 distances which describe the facial feature from neutral face and the classification base on SVM (Support Vector Machine).

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Inside commercial interaction: Audience research in interactive media.

Inside commercial interaction: Audience research in interactive media.

While in North American culture consumers respond to "situational cues" in face-to- face and computer-mediated commercial interactions according to normative beliefs, it is important to note that consumers' responses may be affected by information learned about vendors from sources other than direct interaction. Quite often consumers' knowledge of a vendor stems from: research; reputations; recommendations; and past relationships and/or experiences with them. As a consumer, it is normal to collect information on vendors, either actively or passively, from other individuals or institutions. This is true even in personal services and legal and financial services, where a level of trust and/or relationship is thought to pre-exist. Relationship building is an ongoing process of getting to know another individual or party. It seems especially important to gather information about commercial vendors that offer their services on the Internet since their legitimacy is often questionable. It is hard to know if these vendors are who they say they are, or if they even exist. Checking for advertisements in other forms of media and visiting the physical establishments of vendors are appropriate ways of conducting background research on Internet vendors.
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Potential Of Theory Of Innovative Problem Solution (Triz) In Engineering Curricula

Potential Of Theory Of Innovative Problem Solution (Triz) In Engineering Curricula

The Kenyan education system is ranked highly in comparison even to more developed countries like South Africa [32]. The Quality of Education system of Kenya is ranked 37 out of 144, which is one of its highest ratings elements for all competitiveness pillars and also the highest rating for quality of education among East African countries. Kenya has been ranked 50th in the area of innovation, with capacity for innovation at positions 46. Kenya is also considered to have comparatively high quality scientific research institutions at position 50 out of 144. However there is still a massive room for improvement for Kenya in the following areas of Higher education and innovation: Tertiary education enrolment - 130/144, Quality of Maths and Science education- 76/144, Internet access in schools - 85/144, Availability of research and training facilities-66/144, Availability of scientists and Engineers-66/144, and finally PCT patents, applications/million populations -95/144.
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Atypical modulation of face elicited saccades in autism spectrum disorder in a double step saccade paradigm

Atypical modulation of face elicited saccades in autism spectrum disorder in a double step saccade paradigm

fMRI is an ideal tool to assess the functioning of subcortical route in adults, but for practical reasons it is difficult to apply the same method to young children and infants. Thus, researchers in developmental cognitive neuroscience have often used neuropsychological “marker tasks”, which assess behavioural markers associated with a particular cortical or subcortical circuits. The double-step saccade paradigm is one of the neuropsychological marker tasks which assesses the involvement of the cortical and subcortical route on saccade generation. In a typical double-step saccade task, two identical visual target stimuli are briefly presented in two different spatial locations, one after another, before a participant has time to start their initial saccade. Two features characterize the recruitment of the subcortical route on saccade generation (Figure 1B). Firstly, the subcortical route generates a saccade to the direction of vector summation of two target positions because the summation of retinal position vectors is a hallmark of the SC, a core component of subcortical route (Johnson, Gilmore, Tucker, & Minister, 1996; Mays & Sparks, 1980; Robinson, 1972). Secondly, the subcortical route generates the second saccade to the second target based on the retinotopic representation of its location, because the SC represents space retinotopically (Gilmore & Johnson, 1997a, 1997b; Robinson, 1972). By contrast, cortical parietal circuits generate saccades based on head- or body-centred representations of the location of the second target (Figure 1B). For example, a series of studies has demonstrated that both the vector sum saccades and retinotopic representation become less frequent during the course of
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Are the facial gender and facial age variants of the composite face illusion products of a common mechanism?

Are the facial gender and facial age variants of the composite face illusion products of a common mechanism?

In both variants, participants’ responses were used to con- struct psychometric functions that modeled the relationship between response probability and the strength of the signal present in the target region (% female or % adult). Under our psychophysical approach, observers’ susceptibility to the illusion is inferred from the extent to which their psychometric functions diverge in different distractor conditions, inferred from the difference in PSE. To date, it has proved extremely difficult to measure individuals’ susceptibility to the compos- ite face illusion in a reliable way (Richler & Gauthier, 2014). Importantly, however, estimates of test–retest reliability ob- tained using our psychophysical paradigm range from r = .602 to r = .775 (see Supplementary Material).
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The Development of Science Concept in Turkey and Effects of Constructivism on 2004 Primary Science Curriculum

The Development of Science Concept in Turkey and Effects of Constructivism on 2004 Primary Science Curriculum

This study was based on document analysis approach. The documents used in this study were selected to represent specific historical sections and descriptive analysis of data obtained from this approach, based on historical documentation were examined. During the descriptive analysis process, the programs of the course topics, learning outcomes (gains) and epistemelogic language and propositions used in expressions such as objectives were discussed through an analytical approach. Almost all of these documents that are subject to the review are school programs. The criteria in the selection of the document are the education programs used in the historical periods that form the framework of the study. This is because primary education, science programs in 1913, 1924, 1926 and 1930 the understanding of scientific knowledge was framed by positivism. Positivism remained the framework until 2004. There is no deviation from the basic paradigm regarding scientific understanding. However, the 2004 program reflects a fundamental break from the traditional approach in that positivism was replaced by constructivism as the national curriculum framework. The comparison of the selected science programs with the dates mentioned above (the last quarter-century of the Ottoman Empire and the Republic period, dated 2004) forms one of two fundemental sections aims of this study.
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Reconstructing the concept of face in cultural sociology: in Goffman’s footsteps, following the Chinese case

Reconstructing the concept of face in cultural sociology: in Goffman’s footsteps, following the Chinese case

There is now a large academic literature on China’s internal labor migration, and a significant discussion within that literature concerns the remittances sent home by mi- grant workers. My fieldwork indicates that a significant portion of the money remitted by rural migrant workers is spent on face-oriented etiquette. Ling ’ s husband became a migrant worker in Shenzhen, a major destination of rural workers, in 2003. At that time, he earned approximately CNY600 per month and remitted CNY500 per month to his wife and children in the village, leaving very little money for himself. When asked how the money was spent, Ling said, “ zaijia you shenme chijiu yao songyi a! ” , meaning “ It is a custom to attend banquets and give gifts in the village ” . Ling reported to me that over 80% of her husband’s remittance was spent on village banquets and gifts and that the remainder was put aside for the educational needs of their two sons. This pattern of expenditure required Ling to often borrow money to satisfy daily needs. An- other respondent, Pei, similarly remarked that it was not unusual for her family to not be able to afford meat, but at the same time it was unthinkable to avoid gift-giving in the village and returning renqing. It may not be an exaggeration, therefore, to claim as Zhang and Baker (2008, p. 22) do, that to Chinese people mianzi (face) is “more important than life itself ” and that “ often mianzi is ranked before their health or wellbeing ” .
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